Paspalum scrobiculatum L.
Mant. Pl. 1: 29 (1767).

GRAMINEAE

2n = 20, 40, 60

synonyms|— var. auriculatum: Paspalum auriculatum Presl (1830), Paspalum zollingeri Steudel (1853);|— var. bispicatum: Paspalum commersonii Lamk (1791), Paspalum cartilagineum Presl (1830);|— var. horneri: Paspalum horneri Henrard (1935);|— var. lanceolatum: Paspalum lamprocaryon K. Schum. (1895).

Vernacular names|— var. scrobiculatum: kodo or kodra millet (En). Indonesia: rebu bawang, rumput kinangan (Java), suket krisik (Madura).|— var. bispicatum: koda grass, scrobic (En). Indonesia: jaringan, rumput ketih belalang (Indonesian), kumpai batu (Kalimantan). Malaysia: pala belang, rumput tulo santadok. Philippines: sabung-sabungan (Tagalog), bias-biasin (Visaya), tat-awwa (Bontok). Cambodia: smau 'βnnchien. Thailand: ya-sakhorbik (central). Vietnam: co' san tru'[n]g, co' tru'[n]g.

Origin and geographic distribution Paspalum scrobiculatum occurs throughout the Old World tropics and is occasionally cultivated elsewhere. In India it is often also cultivated. In South-East Asia it is a common grass.

Uses Paspalum scrobiculatum provides useful forage but is also regarded as a weed of annual and plantation crops. Occasionally it is used as compost or mulch. In India it is cultivated for the grain.

Properties Nitrogen concentrations of 1—5% during the growing season and below 0.5% in standover seed have been measured. It is a very palatable grass except when it is frosted. The cultivars grown for grain in India are said to contain compounds in the grain which are toxic to man and to animals. The fungi Sorosporium paspali and Uredo paspali-scrobiculari are almost invariably present in the outer husks of the grain and are thought to be responsible for its toxicity. In Australia it has not been toxic to grazing animals. There are 300—600 seeds/g.

Ecology In Indonesia and Malaysia, Paspalum scrobiculatum is found mostly in open, wet cultivated areas, up to 1200 m altitude, and in upland and tidal rice fields. It is commonly found on disturbed sites and is a weed in cropping land. It is well adapted to waterlogged soils and can tolerate flooding, but has only limited drought tolerance. The optimum temperature for growth is 25—27°C. It is a sun-loving plant although it can tolerate and flourish with only 30—50% sunlight, as found in young rubber and oil palm plantations or black pepper farms. It is not as salt tolerant as the closely related Paspalum vaginatum Swartz. It can tolerate poor soil fertility if there is little competition, but prefers very fertile soils and responds well to fertilizer application.

Prospects The present opportunistic use of Paspalum scrobiculatum will continue. Studies on the variability within this species and on its agronomic requirements are necessary to determine its potential as a forage species. Australian experience suggests it may be more suited for use as a short-term forage rather than as a long-lived grass in permanent pastures.

Literature:
  • de Koning, R. & Sosef, M.S.M., 1985. The Malesian species of Paspalum (Gramineae). Blumea 30: 279-318.
  • Devendra, C., 1979. Malaysian feedingstuffs. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Selangor, Malaysia. 145 pp.
  • Kitamura, M. & Nada, Y., 1986. Preliminary evaluation of 24 grasses introduced into sub-tropical Japan. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science 32: 278-80.
  • Oram, R.N., 1990. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. CSIRO, Australia. p. 44.
  • Paltridge, T.B., 1955. Studies on sown pastures for southeastern Queensland. Bulletin No 274. CSIRO, Australia. pp. 15-51.
  • Skerman, P.J. & Riveros, F., 1990. Tropical grasses. FAO, Rome. pp. 585-589.
  • 't Mannetje, L., 1961. Key on vegetative characters of Paspalum species. CSIRO, Australia, Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Technical Paper No 1. pp. 6-7.


Author: B.B. Baki & I.B. Ipor

Source of This Article:
Baki, B.B. & Ipor, I.B., 1992. Paspalum scrobiculatum L.In: Mannetje, L.'t and Jones, R.M. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 4: Forages. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 185-187

Recommended Citation:
Baki, B.B. & Ipor, I.B., 1992. Paspalum scrobiculatum L.[Internet] Record from Proseabase. Mannetje, L.'t and Jones, R.M. (Editors).
PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. http://www.proseanet.org.
Accessed from Internet: 16-Oct-2019

PREPHASE