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NO. 296

The potential of several species of Leguminosae as fuel plants
Potensi beberapa jenis suku Leguminosae sebagai kayu bakar

Roemantyo
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya [Botanical Gardens of Indonesia Bulletin] 5 (6): 149-152 (1982)

Abstract:
With 690 genera and 18,000 species, the legume family is one of the largest family among the angiosperms. Many of them are known to have economic potential which can be exploited for various purposes, such as food, timber, feed and firewoods. The potential of 8 species of legumes belonging to 6 genera (Acacia, Albizia, Cajanus, Calliandra, Gliricidia and Leucaena) as sources of energy was explained.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 14705

Salt tolerant plants
Phut din khem

Thamthawon, S
Faculty of Science; Khon Kaen University; Khon Kaen 40002; Thailand

Warasan Witthayasat Mo Kho [The Journal of Science Khon Kaen University] 14 (1): 11-16 (1986)

Abstract:
Study on salt tolerant plants was carried out in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand in 1984. Thirteen dicotyledons and 15 monocotyledons were found in the salt affected areas.

Availability :
Library; Kasetsart University; 50 Phahon Yothin Road; Chatuchak, Bangkok; Thailand; phone: (66) (2) 579 0840, 579 0113; fax: (66) (2) 942 8127, 942 8491




NO. 14913

Germination test of some medicinal plants


Hanchanlert, OA; Babpraserth, C; Paisooksantivatana, Y
Pakchong Research Station; Inseechandrustitya Institute of Crops Research and Development; Kasetsart University; Pakchong; Nakhon Ratchasima 30310; Thailand

The 34th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 30 January-1 Febuary 1996, Bangkok, Thailand; p 47

Abstract:
Seeds of 18 species of medicinal plants were germinated, from June 5 to July 5, 1955 in germinating media composed of 1 part of cocopeat and 1 part of sand by volume. Only the seeds of Abrus percatorius and Afzelia xylocarpa were scarified by clipping before sowing. All seeds were sown directly without soaking in water. The species that gave 100% germination in 30 days included Zollingeria dongnaiensis and Sterculia foetida. The species that gave 60-90% germination were Buchanania siamensis, Amorphophallus campanulatatus, Wrightia tomentosa, Abrus precatorius and Arfeuillea arborescens. Forty to fifty-five percentages of germination were obtained from Acacia catechu, Lophopetalum wallichii, Basella alba, Oroxylum indicum, Telosma minor, Feroniella lucida and Cassia surattensis. Seeds of Afzelia xylocarpa and Strychnos krabiensis were all decayed. Information on number of seeds per 100 gram, number of days and germination percentage at first observation and colour of seeds, seedlings and plant habit were also provided.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre; TISTR; 196 Phahonyothin Road; Bangkok; Thailand; phone: (66) (2) 579 112 130; fax: (66) (2) 561 4771




NO. 102663

The prospects of local multipurpose tree species development in supporting local agroforestry in Timor (East Nusa Tenggara)
Prospek pengembangan jenis pohon serbaguna lokal dalam mendukung agroforestry lokal di Timor (Nusa Tenggara Timur)

Rachmawati, I
Kupang Research Institute for Forestry; Kupang; Timor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian dan Pengembangan Jenis-Jenis Pohon Serbaguna [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Research and Development of Multipurpose Tree Species]; Bogor, 12-13 Mei 1993; Mile, MY et al (Eds); Bogor, Badan Litbang Kehutanan; Vol. 3, p 234-248

Abstract:
Local multipurpose tree species have significant roles in the life of rural people of Timor for many years. Some products were harvested from cultivated trees, but many others were gathered from natural stocks. In general, the trees were cultivated using traditional systems, depending on people's ability and knowledge. Furthermore, the local agroforestry system in Timor was one of the benefit system to increase soil and water conservations. Many local tree species proved to be highly adaptable and well known to the farmers of Timor. Therefore cultivation in local agroforestry system should consider several factors, such as climate, cropping techniques, socio-economic problems, and benefit. Other constraint in developing local multipurpose tree species in local agroforestry system is a limited knowledge of the local people. Therefore several alternative ways are necessary to develope.

Availability :
Library; Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Centre (FRDC); Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5; Bogor 16001; West Java; Indonesia; P.O. Box 165; phone: (62) (251) 315 234, 315 567; fax: (62) (251) 325 111
Email: slitbang@indo.net.id >




NO. 50055

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 3. Dye and tannin producing plants


Lemmens, RHMJ (ed); Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N (ed)
Department of Plant Taxonomy; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1992; 196 p

Abstract:
This volume covers the plants in South-East Asia that yield dyes and tannins. The former, current and potential future roles in local industries and cultures is discussed. Interest in using vegetable dyes and tannin instead of synthetic materials is growing because of concern for the environment and human health. About 63 species are given full treatment, and 48 are treated as minor species The plants described include annatto, henna, indigo, myrobalans, black wattle, gambier, bakau, soga, logwood, flame-of-the-forest, dye-yam, gamboge tree and night jasmine. Dye and tannin-producing plants with other primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of dye and tannin-producing plants. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 50279

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers


Lemmens, RHMJ (ed); Soerianegara, I (ed); Wong, WC (ed)
PROSEA Publication Office; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1995; 655 p

Abstract:
The South-East Asian timbers of minor commercial importance are in shorter supply and/or have less outstanding properties than the major commercial timbers. Many are currently used as core veneer and as the raw material for wood-based panels. The market for such products is expanding, so the use of these timbers is expected to increase. For example this has already happened with rubberwood and Acacia mangium. Increasing utilization of minor commercial timbers should be compatible with the concept of sustainable use of tropical forest. The up-to-date information on all aspects of these timbers has been compiled in this volume, which complements PROSEA 5(1): Timber trees: Major commercial timbers, published in 1993. Over 800 species from 62 genera are covered in detail, and the prospects for certain species as plantation trees or for enrichment planting in natural forest are also indicated. The timbers dealt with include amberoi, dao, durian, ebony, jelutong, kedondong, kelat, medang, mempening, penaga, podocarp, rengas, rubberwood, simpoh, surian, tembesu and wattle. Wood properties of selected species are presented in a table. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 24530

Enzymatic hydrolysis of some Malaysian woods


Tomimura, Y; Khoo, KC; Putri Faridatul, A
Stood Chemistry Department; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; P.O.Box 16; Tsukuba; Kenkyu Danchi-Nai; lbaraki; 305 Japan.

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1 (3): 255 - 262 (1988)

Abstract:
Steamed wood fibres from some Malaysian woods were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. The yield of reducing sugar from fibres of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and fast-growing trees such as Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea was under 20% of total fibre weight. On the other hand, fibres from oil palm stems showed a high yield of about 50% of the total fibre weight. Extraction of hemicellulose fraction with dilute alkaline solution improved the accessibility of enzyme for rubberwood but not for oil palm. Extraction by hot water increased slightly the saccharification of rubberwood and oil palm. With simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of oil palm fibres, the glucose produced was rapidly consumed by yeast and converted to ethanol. The concentration of the ethanol reached a maximum of about 1% of the solution after three days reaction time and then decreased gradually.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531




NO. 24102

Planting of some indigenous timber and rattan species: Sime Darby's experience


Lim, KH; George, ST
Ebor Research; Sime Darby Plantations; Shah Alam; Selangor; Malaysia

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research, 3-4 October 1995; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor; 1995

Abstract:
The paper describes the early growth performance of three indigenous timber species, namely pulai, jelutong and sentang and four rotan species, i.e. manau, sega, irit and palasan. Pulai (Alstonia angustiloba) was planted at 3 m x 3 m spacing on flat terrain of Rengam soil series at Merlimau, Malacca. The species was affected by a leaf-eating caterpillar during the early phase, but subsequently recovered and is growing well. Jelutong (Dyera costulata) was tested on both flat and steep terrains and found to be growing satisfactorily on both sites. In the early stage, there were some cases of wind damage and blown-over trees. Three provenances of sentang (Azadirachta excelsa) were tested, namely from Perak/Kedah, Kepong/FRIM and Southern Thailand. The species was planted on a flat and steep sites at a spacing of 4 m x 3 m. All the three provenances attained almost 100% survival in the field and are relatively free from pest and disease problems during the early growth phase. Rotan manau (Calamus manan), rotan sega (Calamus caesius), rotan irit (Calamus trachycoleus) and rotan palasan (Calamus merillii) were tested under Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and rubber. Growth in the first two years was slow but subsequently increased significantly. The main research focus of planting rotan manau under rubber is on position of planting and training of the rattan onto the supporting trees.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 24200

Compensatory forest plantations: the Malaysian experience


Thai, SK; Mahdan, B
Forest Plantation Unit; Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia

The Planter 72: 601-613 (1996)

Abstract:
The history of forest plantation development in Malaysia is briefly described. To date, almost 55,000 ha of Compensatory Forest Plantations with the planting of the fast-growing hardwood species, mainly Acacia mangium, have been established in seven states in Peninsular Malaysia. In Sabah and Sarawak, about 90,000 ha and 10,000 ha, respectively have been established. Other than exotic species, a wide range of potential indigenous species of dipterocarps and non-dipterocarps are suggested for plantations. There are large potential areas available for future forest plantation development throughout the country, which include more than 700,000 ha in Peninsular Malaysia. With the present investment incentives provided by the goverment there are vast opportunities for the private sectors' involvement in the forest plantation projects.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 50285

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants


Faridah Hanum, I (ed); van der Maesen, LJG (ed)
Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Serdang; Malaysia

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1997; 389 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with the auxiliary plants in agriculture and forestry of South-East Asia, including fuelwoods and water-clearing plants. Auxiliary plants have service functions in cropping systems and help increase or sustain the yield of the main crops. Auxiliary plants include shade and nurse trees, cover crops, green manures, mulch, fallow crops, live fences, wind-breaks and shelter-belts, live supports and stakes, erosion-controlling plants and land reclamation species. Interest in these crops waned after the 1930s, but has grown rapidly since the 1970s as a result of increased attention for sustainable and low-input agriculture. Fuelwoods are treated here, as many of the trees and shrubs used for fuel, such as Leucaena leucocephala, Casuarina spp. and Acacia spp., have auxiliary roles too. Fuel also plays an auxiliary role in many production processes, contributing to but not forming part of the end product. Water-clearing plants are not used in South-East Asia as commonly as in Africa or Europe, where ponds and canals bordered with Phragmites spp. contribute significantly to the clearing of effuents. Most of the 78 important crops treated in this volume are grown in South-East Asia, but several crops widely grown elsewhere and potentially useful in parts of South-East Asia have been included as well. A further 107 genera and species of minor importance are treated briefly, while over 150 species which play an auxiliary role or provide fuelwood but have another primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of auxiliary plants. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 50293

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 19. Essential-oil plants


Oyen, LPA (ed); Nguyen Xuan Dung (ed)
PROSEA Publication Office; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1999; 277 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with the plants of South-East Asia that produce essential oil, particularly the ones producing oils used as fragrance material. It complements the PROSEA volumes on edible fruits and nuts, medicinal and poisonous plants, spices, and plants producing exudates, which deal with plants that produce essential oils as important by-products. Fragrance materials play a much more important and varied role in life than is often realized. Incense is burnt in religious ceremonies all over the world. In luxury perfumery, fragrance is used to subtly please the senses of the user and those nearby. Some body care products are equally important as perfumery products (aftershaves, antiperspirants); others have essential oils added to make their use more pleasant (creams, soaps, shampoos, deodorants). Functional perfumery covers a very wide range of products, from soaps and detergents to domestic cleaning products. Although the fragrance materials used in many cosmetic and household products are now largely synthetic, natural essential oils still play a central role in food and luxury perfumery, as the richness of their odour is unrivalled by synthetics and because the use of synthetics in food is subject to stricter government regulations. Most of the 38 important crops covered in this volume are grown in South-East Asia, but several crops widely grown elsewhere and potentially useful in parts of South-East Asia have been included as well. A further 31 species of minor importance are treated briefly, while 400 species producing essential oils but having another primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of essential-oil plants. A table on standard physical properties of some essential oils is included. A glossary is also included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 66514

Effect of weeding on the growth and yield of some fuel wood- producing trees
Pengaruh penyiangan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil kayu dari beberapa jenis pohon penghasil kayu bakar

Rachmawati, I
Forestry Research Institute; Kupang; NTT; Indonesia

Santalum (14): 13-22 (1993)

Abstract:
The experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of weeding on growth and yield of Acacia villosa, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia oraria, Acacia leucophloea, Acacia catechu, Gliricidia sepium, planted at 1m x 1m spacing on lithosol of the rised coral formation lying at 3000 m altitude and 800 mm annual rainfall. Each species was planted in two plots of 25 trees, one plot was weeded once per year during the dry season, while the other was not weeded throughout the period of the experiment. Cutting for measurement of fuelwood yield was conducted at 100 cm from the soil surface. The regrowth capacity and the effect of weeding were evaluated further in the third year. The experiment showed that both Gliricidia sepium and Acacia villosa were the best tree species; they grew better until the third year than the others. Weeding gave good effect on growth of the species until the second year. Gliricidia sepium and Acacia villosa gave higher yield of fuelwood than Acacia oraria and Acacia auriculiformis.

Availability :
Library; Gadjah Mada University; Bulaksumur; PO Box 16; Yogyakarta 55281; Indonesia; phone: (62) (274) 89466, 902 642; fax: (62) (274) 3163




NO. 71209

The host plants used to rear red winged ants in North Vietnam
Cay chu tha canh kien do

Vu Duc Minh
Scientific Publishing House, Hanoi, 1966; 142 p

Abstract:
Economic value of red ant flies, properties and role of host plants used to rear red winged ant in North Vietnam, groups of host plants and their morphologies were discussed.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14962

Tree leaves as a feed resource in northeast Thailand


Meulen, UT; Fischer, W; Vearasilp, T
Institute for Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Georg-August University, 37077 Goettingen, Germany

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 29 (1): 11-21 (1996)

Abstract:
This literature review described some tree and shrub species which were adapted to the climatic conditions in northeast Thailand and which could more or less be utilized as fodder trees for ruminants. The individual species were briefly discussed from a nutritional aspect, some examples were given and total rations of leaves and supplemental rations were described. It was emphasized that leaves in general were not suitable as production feed but rather they could be utilized as feeds to bridge nutritional gaps. Other species listed (other than those in TA field) were Melia azedarach, Bauhinia variegata, Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa arundinacea, Syzygium cumini, Ficus bengalensis, Milletia auriculata, Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa, Mallotus philippensis, Ziziphus mauritiana.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14646

Consideration on some wood species for shiitake mushroom cultivation
Phanmai thi na sonchai phua kan pho hethom

Kosakul, T; Boonsermsuk, S; Triratana, S
Department of Botany, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Kan prachum thang wichakan khong maha witthayalai Kasetsart khrang thi 26 kamnot kan sanoe phon-ngan lae botkhatyo [The 26th Kasetsart Annual Conference], 3-5 February 1988; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; p 66

Abstract:
Suitable wood species for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) are recognized in the family of Fagaceae which consists of 3 genera, viz. Castanopsis, Quercus and Lithocarpus. These woody plants are distributed only in hill evergreen forest and they grow very slowly. Since the demand of log wood for the mushroom cultivation is increasing, it is essential to find some other trees as substitutes. In these report were suggesting 28 species of trees which migh be suitable for this purpose. These trees are distributed in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Indo-China, India and the Philippines. They are found mainly in the temperate evergreen forests at elevation higher than 800 m. Among these 28 species, four had been introduced and planted by the Thai Royal's project in cooperation with the Taiwan Forestry, in order to improve the environment and watershed areas in the northern part of Thailand. These wood species are Acacia confusa, Liquidambar formosana, Paulownia taiwaniana and Zelkova sp.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 69640

Effect of organic mulches on growth and yield of maize in upland Jratun - seluna watershed
Pengaruh mulsa organik terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung di lahan kering daerah aliran sungai (DAS) Jrantunseluna

Soelaeman, Y
Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops (BORIF), Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Balittan Bogor, Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Pangan, Bogor, 29 February and 2 March 1992; Hardjosumadi, S et al (eds); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Bogor; Vol 2; 1992; p 423-430

Abstract:
There are many problems dealing with mulch utilization in the upland watershed, among others is type of mulch in crop plantings. To solve this problem, an experiment was carried out using eight mulches, i.e. rice straw, maize straw, banana leaf, calliandra, sonosiso, gliricidia, flemingia and casia in a maize cropping. The experiment was designed according to a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The research was carried out at the field of Laboratory of 'P3HTA', Ungaran, in the dry season of 1989. The results indicated that the use of calliandra, rice straw and sonosiso affected grain yield with ranges from 4.16-4.30 t/ha. The high grain yields were due to the better soil water contents, growth components and less weed infestations. The available dry matter was sufficient only for one cow and 16 goats or sheeps.

Availability :
Research Institute for Food Crop Biotechnology, Library
Email: borif@indo.net.id




NO. 69707

The effect of annual crops and soil fertility in intercropping system at Wanagama I on teak (Tectona grandis L.) growth
Pengaruh tanaman semusim terhadap pertumbuhan jati (Tectona grandis L.) serta kesuburan tanah pada sistem tanaman tumpangsari di Wanagama I.

Sabarnurdin, MS
Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Buletin Fakultas Kehutanan-UGM [Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University] (21): 35-51 (1992)

Abstract:
To investigate the ecology of mix farming system in Java, teak (Tectona grandis) was grown in 1986 at Compartment 17, Wanagama 1, Yogyakarta, along with rice (Oryza sativa), corn (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), in plots with and without legume (Acacia glauca). Observation during this period showed that the effect of acacia was not significant, similar to that when teak was 4 and 16 months old. The N-total content of the soil increased, but statistically was not significant. The type of crop significantly affected the performance of teak, although the difference between teak grown with rice and peanut was not significant. The order of positive companionship of crops on teak were rice, peanut, and corn.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library
Email: perpubb@indo.net.id




NO. 101033

Utilization of cogon grrass land for timber estate
Pemanfaatan lahan alang-alang untuk hutan tanaman industri

Gintings, AN; Purwanto, Ign
Forest Research and Development Centre (FRDC), Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding seminar lahan alang-alang [Proceedings of a Seminar on cogon grrass Land], Bogor, September 1992; Sukmana, S et al. (eds.); Bogor, Pusat Penelitian Tanah dan Agroklimat, 1993; p 137-147

Abstract:
Total area of critical lands in Indonesia is about 13.2 million ha, of which about 5.9 millions ha are in the forest area and 7.3 million ha outside forest area. The widespread of critical lands are mainly caused by shifting cultivation activities and forest fires. These activities usually made the lands become more critical, indicated by the domination of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) vegetation. The establishment of timber estate (HTI) programmes by the government of Indonesia was expected to reduce the widespread of critical lands. This assumption was based on the rule that the lands to be used for timber estate are critical lands inside the unproductive production forest areas which are usually found as cogon grass land, bush fallow lands, and sparsely stand forests. Forest tree species that are feasible to be grown on cogon grass lands are: Paraserianthes falcataria, Gmelina arborea, Cassia siamea, Fagraea fragrans, Macadamia sp., Acacia mangium, Peronema canescens, Pinus merkusii, Schima bancana, and Swietenia macrophylla. Basically, implementation of the timber estate activities considers 3 aspects, namely: usefulness, sustainability of land resources and business. Therefore, the success of timber estate programmes would have positive impacts on: water regime of adjacent areas, improvement of micro-climates, soil fertility maintenance, soil erosion and flood control. Besides, the most important roles of timber estate in the future are: the use of lands that are currently often less useful for agriculture, provide new employments, create flexible natural resource development, and serve as a development agent for isolated areas.

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research, Library
Email: csar@bogor.wasantara.net.id




NO. 103713

Suitability of tree species to the field condition in Sentani, Irian Jaya
Kesesuaian jenis pohon dengan kondisi lapang di Sentani, Irian Jaya

Hendromono; Wilaida, T; Mutiara, T; Sutisna, U
Paratropika 2 (2): 26-39 (1994)

Abstract:
Sentani hill area and the surroundings in Irian Jaya is one of barren areas in Indonesia due to erosion in wet seasons and fires in dry seasons. Reforestation and afforestation are alternatives to improve the ecosystem in this area. A research was conducted to select suitable species for this area and to recommend the next silvicultural actions. A fieldwork was conducted by ground survey and collecting secondary data. The primary data needed were physical and chemical properties of soil, slope, altitude, flora, pests and diseases. The secondary data needed were annual rainfall, number of wet and dry months, relative humidity, ambient temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures. The results showed that the most parts of the area were lacking of nutrients in varying degrees. The promising species for reforestation in the area were Acacia mangium, Anthocephalus chinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus, Cassia siamea, Gliricidia sepium, Intsia bijuga, Octomeles sumatrana, Paraserianthes falcataria, Pterocarpus indicus and Samanea saman. The species recommended for afforestation were Aleurites moluccana, Anacardium occidentale, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Gnetum gnemon, Parkia speciosa and Pometia pinnata. Planting stocks for reforestation and afforestation should be of high quality and they should be planted at the beginning of the wet season. Plant protection from fire, pests and diseases should be done intensively.

Availability :
Library; Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Centre (FRDC); Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5; Bogor 16001; West Java; Indonesia; P.O. Box 165; phone: (62) (251) 315 234, 315 567; fax: (62) (251) 325 111




NO. 101954

Traditional utilization of plants by Oemasi society living in unirrigated field of savanna in Timor
Pemanfaatan tanaman secara tradisional oleh masyarakat peladang Oemasi penghuni savana Timor

Widiyono, W; Waluyo, EB
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB), Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 2; p 363-371

Abstract:
The main profession of Oemasi people are farmers. There are two types of agriculture in their village: shifting and permanent cultivation. Farmers living in Timor savanna utilized plants traditionally for food, clothes, shelters, houses, fodder, fences and even in cultural events.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 105716

A study on the conservation and economic aspects of medicinal plants as undergrowth in people's forest in Madura
Kajian aspek konservasi dan ekonomi tanaman empon-empon sebagai tanaman bawah pada hutan rakyat di Madura

Subandrio, B; Lastiantoro, Y; Kusnadi S, D
Jurnal Pengelolaan DAS [Watershed Management Journal] 2 (1): 19-24 (1995)

Abstract:
Development of people's forest needs attention to increase landuse capability and it is also beneficial in terms of soil erosion control as well as economic value. An experiment was conducted by planting Zingiber officinale, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Kaempferia galanga under Acacia auriculiformis trees of 8 years old. Parameters observed were soil erosion, run off coefficient, CP value, production and economic value. Result of research revealed that galangale (Kaempferia galanga) is the best for soil erosion control (reducing erosion as much as 19.22% compared to control) and from the economic point of view this plant gave an income of Rp. 12,532,800,-.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Centre




NO. 94531

Biophysical assessment of existing tree species in the urban centers of Cebu


Sumabon, JM; Tura, CM
Ecosystems Research Digest 8 (1): 1-20 (1998)

Abstract:
Assessment of existing species in the metropolis was conducted to monitor their survival, growth tolerance in the area and their capacity to abate dust pollution and modify urban climate. Three areas were selected based on species diversity and proximity to polluted industrial centers or heavy traffic areas, namely: Cebu Plaza Independencia, Fuente Osmeña Rotonda and Pier area. A total of 22 tree species were identified and selected for the study. Cebu Plaza has 15,while Fuente Osmeña rotonda and Pier Area have 12 and 9 species, respectively, of the 22 species six are common in all sites. It was found out that temperature under experimental trees in all sites differs by a few degrees slightly lower than in open areas. Bigger denser crown and trees with broader leaves are more efficient in ameliorating the microclimate. The capability to remove particulate pollutants from the air also differs from species to species depending on its morphology.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 66411

Effects of annual crops on teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) growth and soil fertilities in the multiple cropping system at Wanagama I
Pengaruh tanaman semusim terhadap pertumbuhan jati (Tectona grandis L.f.) serta kesuburan tanah pada sistem tanaman tumpangsari di Wanagama I

Sabarnurdin, S
Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Buletin Kehutanan [Forestry Bulletin]; Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; (21): 35-51 (1992)

Abstract:
To investigate the ecology of tumpangsari system practised in Java, teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) was grown in 1986 at Compartment 17, Wanagama I, Yogyakarta, along with rice (Oryza sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) in plots with and without legume (Acacia glauca L.). Observation during this period showed that the effect of acacia was not significant similar to that when teak was 4 and 16 month old. The N-total content of the soil increased, but statistically was not significant. The type of crop significantly influenced the performance of teak, although the difference between teak grown with rice and peanut was not significant. The order of positive companionship of crops on teak was rice, peanut, corn.

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 69687

The influence of fire on the productivity and quality of Bekol Savanna in the Baluran National Park, East Java
Pengaruh pembakaran terhadap kualitas dan kuantitas savana Bekol di Taman Nasional Baluran, Jawa Timur

Harnios, A
Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

Media Konservasi [Conservation Media] 4 (1): 23-30 (1992)

Abstract:
The Bekol Savanna is very important to support the life of big herbivorous mammals in the Baluran National Park. Many studies have shown that nowadays the quality and productivity of the savanna have decreased caused by many factors, for example, overgrazing and invasion by Acacia nilotica. The decrease of quality is also caused by the occurrence of fire (either natural or artificial), which can be useful for vegetation renovation process. Since many studies have shown that fire gives a good influence on grazing fields, it is also important to study the use of fire treatment in the Bekol Savanna. Before doing this fire treatment, it is necessary to do research to know the influence of fire on vegetation productivity, vegetation succession and nutritional value of several kinds of grass in the Bekol Savanna.

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 109153

The effectiveness of some regreening trees in reducing pollutants
Efektivitas beberapa pohon penghijauan dalam mengurangi polutan

Basuki, TM; Suparta, IGKO; Amperawati, T; Rahmayanti, S
Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan [Forestry Research Bulletin] 13 (2): 159-171 (1997)

Abstract:
The development of industrial sector has improved the country (Indonesia) income, but it also created environmental pollution. Beside man, plants may reduce environmental pollution by natural ways. To get data about effective plants that can reduce pollutants, a study was conducted in Medan Industrial Area. In this study the effectiveness of plants in reducing pollutants was determined by analyzing plant's leaves. The leaf samples were differentiated into young leaves and old leaves. The young leaves were defined as the first to the fourth leaves from the top of branch. While, the old leaves were the eight leaves from the top of the branch. The collection of leaf samples were done by three replications from different trees. The result showed that the highest lead (Pb) content in the old leaves was found in Artocarpus heterophyllus, followed by Nephelium lappaceum, Swietenia mahagoni, Acacia mangium, Mimusops elengi, Eucalyptus urophylla; the mean Pb value for these leaves were 2.12, 1.81, 1.09, 1.09, 0.89, 0.42 and 0.41 ppm, respectively. The highest Copper (Cu) (10.03 ppm) content in the old leaves were found in Artocarpus heterophyllus, while the lowest Cu (3.43 ppm) was found in Mimusops elengi. The young leaves of Mimusops elengi also had the lowest content of Cu (1.00 ppm). It seemed that in each species, heavy metals in the old leaves always higher than that in the young leaves. In this study, there was no certain trend about sulfur (S) content. The old leaves of Mimusops elengi had the highest sulfur content (351 ppm), but the highest sulfur content in the young leaves was found in Eucalyptus urophylla (346 ppm).

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 288

Leucaena leucocephala as a green manure
Lamtoro sebagai pupuk hijau

Wawo, AH
Bogor Botanical Gardens, Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya [Botanical Gardens of Indonesia Bulletin] 5 (2): 33-36 (1981)

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala known locally as 'lamtoro' or 'kemlandingan', belongs to the family Leguminosae. It produces leaves abundantly the year round. This plant is often used as green manure, animal feed, shades and others. Leucaena as an organic fertilizer has been known by either agriculturists (botanists) or Government authorities. Therefore it has been a suggested as source of green manure and also as an intercrop. The utilization of this plant as green manure and its cultivation are discussed. The 3 types of Leucaena known as Hawaiian, Salvador, and Peru, are also discussed.

Availability :
Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences




NO. 66899

Plants in the traditional life of Dawam tribe in Timor
Tumbuhan dalam kehidupan masyarakat Dawam di Timor

Waluyo, EB
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biologi; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 Februari 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 216-224

Abstract:
The traditional life of Dawam tribe residing Insana district of Timor Island entirely depends on their surrounding natural resources. In this review the local knowledge on plants resources was discussed based on ethnobotanical data. Report on the utilization, conservation and management of the resources were also presented

Availability :
Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 68789

Potency and characteristics of several fuel plant species in the forest areas of the Musi Hutan Persada Co. Ltd. in Subanjeriji, South Sumatra
Potensi dan sifat karakteristik beberapa jenis bahan bakar di areal hutan PT. Musi Hutan Persada Subanjeriji, Sumatera Selatan

Suharti, M; Subarjo, BH
Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (558): 27-38 (1994)

Abstract:
Tropical forest is a potential natural resource for human life, such as for increasing foreign exchange earning, recreation, knowledge and as genetic resource. Therefore the existence of sustainable forests should be kept through forest protection activities. One of the important causes of forest destruction is forest fire. Not less then 25,000 ha per year forest fire is happening. Besides, the extended wild fire in forest lands in 1982-1983 and 1987 caused air polution problems. Usually fires are caused by rural people using fire in their activities during the dry season. On the other hand, conditions of fuel and climate can be very dangerous in supporting burning. To prevent forest fires in Indonesia, three factors should be considered, i.e. characteristics of fuel in the field, behaviour of rural people close to the forest, and climatic conditions. A study was conducted with the aim to study the potency of fuel type and its character through a chemical analysis. The result showed that in the Musi Hutan Persada Co. Ltd. forest areas there were three species which were burning easily in dry conditions, i.e. alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) which has calor value of 4165.25 kcal, gelagah (Andropogon holopensis) 4206.69 kcal and litters of Acacia mangium 4490 kcal. These values close to calor value of some wood industry which was varied from 4285 to 4994 kcal. Besides the three species had burning points closer to paper, i.e. 220-230 °C for alang-alang, 195 °C for gelagah, 220-225 °C for Acacia mangium, and 215 °C for paper.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 109295

Indonesia indigenous plants and local knowledge on them in West Java
Tumbuhan asli Indonesia dan pengetahuan lokalnya di Jawa Barat

Sumiasri, N
Research and Development Centre for Biotechnology, Cibinong, Bogor

Widya Gama 5 (3): 232-238 (1997)

Abstract:
According to their origin, plant genetic resources of Indonesia can be divided into indigenous and introduced plants. Both groups have been developed to meet some needs namely food, fodder, building and industrial material, medicinal and ornamental plants. Generally, the indigenous plants are not intensively cultivated and their technological processing is not yet developed. It was noted that there were some indigenous plants in West Java. Several problems such as genetic erosion, land degradation, lack of communities attention and that the indigenous plants cannot compete with new cultivars, worsened the fate of their existence.

Availability :
Nurul Sumiasri; Research and Development Centre for Biotechnology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 93871

Fire behavior, fire effects and survival response of trees


Florece, LM; Methven, IR
Sylvatrop 4(2): 41-63(1944)

Abstract:
Stands for Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis, Acacia auriculiformis, Piliostigma malabaricum var. acidum, and Antidesma ghaesembilla with understory grasses were subjected to three levels of fire intensity treatments (low, 56-183 kwm; intermediate, 262-654 kwm; and high, 701-3730 kwm). Fire behavior was characterized and predictive equations were developed for the rate of fire spread based on wind speed and for fire intensity based on rate of spread, flame height, and flame depth. Tree responses and fire effects in terms of crown scorching, resprouting and tree mortality were related to fire intensity. Among the species, Acacia auriculiformis had the highest mortality rate at all intensities, while the four other species survived all level of fire intensities. The sensitivity of Acacia auriculiformis to fire was ascribed to low bark moisture content, thin bark, and poor coppicing ability. It is concluded that survival responses and damage to tree seedlings and saplings by fire were influenced by fire intensity, tree species and diameter size. The success of reforestation on fire-prone grasslands can be facilitated by the use of prescribed fire and the selection of appropriate tree species.

Availability :
Library; Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 105758

Effication test of Polaris 240 AS herbicide on sedge grass (Imperata cylindrica Beauv) under Acacia mangium plantation
Uji efikasi herbisida Polaris 240 AS terhadap alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica Beauv) di bawah tegakan Acacia mangium

Nazif, M; Suharti, M
Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (588): 1-27 (1995)

Abstract:
Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is a harmful weed because it is a competitor to plants and it spreads easily either by seed, sprout or rhizome and is a potential fuel for fire. One brand name of herbicide listed to control the weed is Polaris 240 AS, but in forestry, a Standard Operation Programme (SOP) of the herbicide has not been firmly established. In relation to this matter, an experiment to test Polaris 240 AS was carried out in an Acacia mangium plantation. The objective of the experiment was to obtain a Standard Operation Programme by using the herbicide. The result showed that active ingredients of Polaris 240 AS did not show any impacts on the main plantation crop and soil. The herbicide dosage of 6 liters/hectare was the best to control the weed and produce better growth of the Acacia mangium plantation.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Centre




NO. 103299

Species selection for the reforestation of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) land; Results of experiments and experiences from South Kalimantan
Pemilihan jenis untuk reboisasi lahan alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica); Hasil percobaan dan pengalaman dari Kalimantan Selatan

Hadi, TS; Vuokko, R; Atsamo, A
Institute for Reforestration Technology; Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Rimba Indonesia [Indonesian Jungle] 30 (1-2): 2-8 (1995)

Abstract:
The reforestation and tropical forest management project (ATA-267) has worked on the problems of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) lands in the afforestation Riam Kiwa area, South Kalimantan since 1986. So far more than 100 species have been included into species trials. Acacia species have performed well in the difficult afforestation conditions, and particularly Acacia mangium has proved to be a reliable and well-growing afforestation species. Acacia crassicarpa has also performed very well, and is now under detailed testing. Two other acacias, Acacia aulacocarpa and Acacia auriculiformis, may also be useful species. Gmelina arborea has grown very well on fertile soils. Fire resistant, ability to suppress grasses and good wood properties make the species an interesting alternative. Paraserianthes (Albizia) falcataria has grown well on fertile sites only. Furthermore, it is not effective in suppression of the grass because of the thin canopy. Eucalypts have performed poorly in the field trials. The survival of most species has been low, and growth rate as well as shading properties poor. The poor survival and growth of Pinus species during the first years after planting needs further studies. The tested local pioneer species have mostly failed or been too slow-growing for grass suppression. Peronema canescens, a local substitute to teak, has been the most promising local species and can be easy propagated vegetatively. Growing shade tolerant species (Shorea sp., Dipterocarpus sp.) has proved to be difficult on grassland. Even under the shade of fast growing species mortality has been high during the long dry seasons. Several species can be successfully used in the afforestation of grassland. The final selection depends on the soil variation and the objectives of the activity. For various reasons use of more than one species is recommended. In the beginning of any new reforestation/afforestation project, the applicability of the results of Riam Kiwa should be tested with small field trials.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 105765

Efficacy test of Eagle 480 AS herbicide on cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica Beauv.) in an open area and under Acacia mangium stands
Uji efikasi herbisida Eagle 480 AS terhadap alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica Beauv.) pada lahan terbuka dan di bawah tegakan Acacia mangium

Nazif, M; Suharti, M
Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (591): 11-36 (1995)

Abstract:
Maintenance of Timber Estates from weed disturbance can be carried out by using several methods, such as manual, mechanical or chemical. If the area is too large and the number of workers are limited, the use of a chemical method is more appropriate. One of the herbicides listed to control cogon grass is Eagle 480 AS which has been applied in grass land, especially for preparing land for Timber Estates, and under Acacia mangium plantation for maintenance purposes. The experiment was done in Depok, West Java using a Randomized Block Design with five treatments and three replicatio0ns. The result indicated that the use of 7 litres per ha of Eagle 480 AS to control cogon grass for land preparation was effective without negative effects. Besides that the dosage of 5 litres per ha is significantly effective for plant cultivation under Acacia mangium plantation.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Centre




NO. 95834

Mycorrhizal from selected tree species in Mt. Pangasugan, Leyte, Philippines and their effect on tree


Gapasin, RM; Lim, JL; Ranchez, CV
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiversity Protection and Economic Progress, Palo Leyte, 3-6 March 1997; Leyte, Visayas State College of Agriculture & Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Applied Tropical Ecology Program, 1997; p 238-243

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine and identify indigenous mycorrhizae associated with selected tree species growing in Mt. Pangasugan, evaluate grass as trap crop for their culture and mass production, test their efficacy for tree growth improvement and evaluate the most efficient delivery system for the mycorrhizae. There were 14 tree species sampled and based on root sample assay seven (7) were found positive for mycorrhizal association. These were kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), antoso-an (Cassia javanica), paguringon (Cratoxylum celebicum), fire tree (Delonix regia), yemane (Gmelina arborea), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) and narra (Pterocarpus indicus). However, all the soil samples collected from these 14 tree species contained various vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) spores with paguringon having the highest spore count of 359 spores while the soil sample from dao had the lowest count of 65 spores. Four major genera of VAM fungi were identified associated with the tree species namely: Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora and Sclerocystis. All the three grasses evaluated as trap crops supported the build up of mycorrhizal fungi with napier grass producing the heaviest roots (21.57 g) and containing the highest mycorrhizal spores (476). In terms of inoculum produced in the soil there was an increase of 61.6%, 48.1% and 39.8% for paragrass, napier grass and Guinea grass, respectively after 3 months. Mycorrhizal roots and soil containing mycorrhizae as inoculum increased both the height (cm) and stem diameter of tree seedlings tested in the greenhouse and field. The general observation was that the soil with mycorrhizae had greater effect on seedling growth.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 68681

Low-input and sustainable agriculture to cope with critical land problems in Sumatra
Pertanian berteknologi masukan rendah dan berkelanjutan untuk menanggulangi masalah lahan kritis di Sumatera

Suryanto
Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

BIOTROP Special Publication 46: 209-243 (1992)

Abstract:
Based on soil types, agricultural development in Sumatra causing high risks forward environmental damage. In fact was in 1989 critical land in Sumatra had reached about 3.7 million ha, consisting of 1.4 million ha forest lands and 2.3 million ha outside the forest. In 1989 the implementation of reforestation and regreening was about 11,542 ha and 9,600 ha, respectively. It took a long time to rehabilitate critical land in Sumatra. Therefore reforestation and regreening programme should be implemented intensively. Low-input and sustainable agriculture by optimizing the use of available natural resources especially organic matter was very important in this system. There are a large number of cattles in Sumatra that produce dung to be used as fertilizer, while the peat soil served as soil conditioner, transplanting media for perennial crops seedlings, and organic fertilizer. Some plants known as green manure could also be developed to support the programme. This paper discussed various alternative efforts to decrease and prevent the formation of critical lands in Sumatra.

Availability :
Clearing House of Information, SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Email: info@biotrop.org




NO. 67955

Small notes on the nodules-bearing legumes nodulation in the Bogor Botanic Gardens
Catatan kecil mengenai Leguminosa berbintil di Kebun Raya Bogor

Abdulkadir, S
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB), Bogor, Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya Indonesia [Indonesian Botanic Garden Bulletin] 7 (4): 105-112 (1993)

Abstract:
Nodulation in the root systems of 230 species of Legumes were examined in the Bogor Botanical Gardens. Fifteen species were measured for their nitrogen fixation activities by using acetylene reduction method. The results showed that 127 species of them have nodules, 56 species of them have not been reported to produce nodules. There are 18 species have been reported by Lim (1992) and Allen & Allen (1981) to have nodules but observation to same species in the garden showed that they did not produced any nodules. The ability of genus Erythrina in nitrogen fixation is higher than that of the others, while genus Calliandra is the lowest. Most of the legumes grown in Bogor Botanical Garden produced nodules, although in acid condition.

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens, Library
Email: inetpc@indo.net.id




NO. 103705

The growth of eight species of industrial crops in PT. INHUTANI area I, Gowa, Maros, South Sulawesi
Pertumbuhan 8 (delapan) jenis tanaman industri di lokasi HTI PT.INHUTANI I Gowa-Maros, Sulawesi Selatan

Halidah; Sumardjito, Z
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan [Forestry Research Journal] 7 (1): 27-33 (1993)

Abstract:
Some species for forest plantations, namely Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus deglupta, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea, and alternative species i.e. Pterocarpus indicus, Alstonia scholaris, Anthocephalus cadamba and Melia azedarach were tested in PT. Inhutani I area, Gowa district, South Sulawesi. Measurements on the height and diameter growth after 18 months planting showed that the best height growth were achieved by Melia azedarach (3.84 m), Paraserianthes falcataria (3.39 m) and Gmelina arborea (3.10 m), while the best diameter growth was shown by Gmelina arborea (64 mm). Observation will continue to study suitable species based on economic and environmental considerations for the specific site of PT. Inhutani area.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 93909

Production and utilization of local tanbark extracts for leather tanning


Manas, AE
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 20 (1&2): 1-9 (1991)

Abstract:
Pilot scale production of tannins from barks of four tree species was conducted using a four-stage counter current method at 60 + 3 °C and 1:3 bark to water ratio. The extract yields based on the total solids present in the bark were 36.68% from bakauan (Rhizophora sp.), 53.86% from native ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), 62.53% from kamachile (Pithecellobium dulce) and 57.45% from tangal (Ceriops tangal). The tannin powder yields from spraydrying were 19.33% from bakauan, 31.38% from native ipil-ipil, 45.25% from kamachile and 33.11% from tangal. Tannin contents of the spray-dried extracts of kamachile and tangal (64% and 79%, respectively) were comparable with that of imported mimosa (Acacia mollissima) tannin. The tannin to non-tannin ratio of kamachile and tangal were 2.13 and 3.92, respectively compared with 2.6 of mimosa. Spray-dried tannin extracts from kamachile, ipil-ipil, tangal, and bakauan were applied as tanning agents in the manufacture of upper, tooling and sole leather using snakeskin, goatskin and cowhide, respectively as raw materials. Mimosa powdered extract was used as control. With regard to colour, penetration of tannins and physical appearance of the leathers, spray-dried kamachile extract appeared to be an ideal substitute for mimosa as tanning agent. Tannin extracts from native ipil-ipil, tangal, kamachile and bakauan barks cost P20.00/kg, which is cheaper than imported mimosa extract which sells for P45.00/kg (1987 base year).

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 51415

Forestry entomology in reference to plantation forestry in the Asia-Pacific region – an overview


Tho, YP
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 2-8.

Abstract:
The meaning of forest plantations and forest entomology are discussed and the stages of development of a pest management programme described. The state of forest entomology in the Asia-Pacific Region is reviewed and the key pests of the region listed according to tree species attacked. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51418

Insect pests in plantation forests of Indonesia


Natawiria, D
Forest Research and Development Centre; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 56-61.

Abstract:
The paper reviews Indonesian plantation pests classified into root and collar feeders, stem and trunk borers, shoot borers, leaf feeders, fruit and seed feeders and sap suckers. It also bemoans the lack of entomologists in Indonesia and the lack of importance given to entomology. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51419

Forest insect pests in Thailand


Hutacharern, C
Division of Silviculture, Royal Forest Department; Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 75-80.

Abstract:
Due to the forest degradation at an alarming and accelerating pace, Thailand is now deeply involved in a reforestation programme. One of the enemies that could hinder the establishment of forest plantations is insects. This paper describes briefly important insect pests that have impacts on forest plantations of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Pinus spp., bamboo, mangrove, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia auriculiformis, Swietenia and Cedrela spp. Due to serious pest disturbance problems, Gmelina arborea, Swietenia and Cedrela spp. are no longer established in the plantation in Thailand. Special emphasis is given to the insects of Tectona grandis. Insect pests of other species seem to be discovered over time especially on the introduced plant species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51420

Diseases of forest plantation species in Peninsular Malaysia


Zakaria, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 94-99.

Abstract:
Forest plantations are being established in Peninsular Malaysia to supplement the projected shortfall of timber from natural forests in the 1990's. Three exotic tree species have been chosen, namely Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria, and they are planted as monoculture. This paper briefly reviews the current state of knowledge with regard to the diseases of each species. The diseases are noted as important, potentially important or of no economic importance. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51421

Introduction to forest pathology in Thailand


Chalermpongse, A
Royal Forest Department; Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 107-113.

Abstract:
Forest pathology research in Thailand was initiated by the Forest Pest Control Branch, Division of Silviculture, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand in 1977. At present, very few researchers are working in this specialized field. Their objectives are to carry out research in forest pathology and microbiology in different ecosystems of Thailand. This paper summarizes current potentially dangerous forest tree diseases identified and reported in Thailand. Some control measures are also recommended on the basis of laboratory and field practices. Future research should focus on the biology and ecology of serious diseases to provide data for control management in the field. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51435

Pathogenicity of two entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, on the termite Coptotermes curvignathus


Ahmad S. Sajap; Phang T. Jan
Department of Forest Management, Universiti Pertanian; Malaysia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 266-271.

Abstract:
The pathogenecity of two entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, was determined against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus. Conidia suspension of varying concentrations was typically applied on the termite using a microsyringe. Mortality rate recorded. LT50 and LD50 on day 7 and 10 after treatment were computed for both fungi. The results showed that the LT50 values between dosages of 1.82 x 107 and 1.82 x 103 conidia/ml ranged between 5-10 and 10-19 days for Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, respectively. LD50 values calculated on day 7 and 10 for Metarhizium anisopliae were 3,46 x 104 and 5.87 x 103 conidia/ml, respectively and for Beauveria bassiana were 1.6 x 10 11 and 9.04 x 108 conidia/ml, respectively. This study showed that both fungi could cause mycoses to the termites. However, the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is evidently more pathogenic than Beauveria bassiana. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 21974

Management of Acacia mangium stands: tending issues


Weinland, G; Ahmad Zuhaidi Yahya
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Malaysian Forestry and Forest Products Research; Proceedings of the Conference, October 3-4, 1990; Appanah, S et al. (Eds); Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 1991; p 41-53

Abstract:
In this paper, the timing of thinning and pruning regime for Acacia mangium stands is discussed with reference to the recently revised guideline for plantations of fast-growing species in Malaysia. An initial stand density of 1400 stems/ ha, an early reduction to 900 stems/ ha at a stand height of about 5 m and a second thinning to 500 stems/ ha at a stand height of 10-12 m are proposed. A low pruning to 2.5 m goes with the first thinning and high pruning to 6 m at the time of the second thinning, and a third thinning down to 300 stems/ ha when stands reach a height of about 20 m is recommended. The importance of long crowns of maximum diameter growth is discussed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51386

The incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium Willd. plantations: a preliminary observation


Hashim Md Noor; Maziah Zakaria; Sheikh Ali Abod
Agriculture University of Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Malaysian Forestry and Forest Products Research; Proceedings of the Conference, October 3-4, 1990; Appanah, S et al. (Eds); Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 1991; p 54-59

Abstract:
The results of a preliminary study on the incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium showed that the overall percentage of infection ranged between 11.7 and 29.3%. The proportion of heartrotted trees was greater in higher diameter classes. Decay is possibly caused by an unknown white rot fungus of Polyporaceae family. The implication of the results of this preliminary study on the management of Acacia mangium plantations in Malaysia is discussed. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 21970

Trial planting of selected timber species on different soil types in Peninsular Malaysia


Lim, KH; Wood, BJ; Pillai, KR; Lam, KS; Chuah, JH
Ebor Research, Sime Darby Plantations; Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Malaysian Forestry and Forest Products Research; Proceedings of the Conference, October 3-4, 1990; Appanah, S et al. (Eds); Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 1991; p 87-95

Abstract:
Since 1985, Sime Darby Plantations has initiated a trial planting programme to evaluate the growth performance of selected fast-growing timber species on several locations and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The species tested are Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Gmelina arborea, Araucaria hunsteinii, Leucaena leucocephala, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Paraserianthes falcataria (synonym Albizia falcataria). They were planted at various initial spacings, ranging from 1 m x 1 m to 3 m x 3 m. The effects of spacing and subsequent selective thinning on the growth of the species over the first five-year period are reported. The effects of soil types, terrain and rainfall conditions on the performance of the various timber species are discussed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 21971

Acacia mangium for manufacture of panel products and adhesives


Chew, LT; Khoo, KC; Abdul Razak Mohd Ali; Rahim Sudin
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Malaysian Forestry and Forest Products Research; Proceedings of the Conference, October 3-4, 1990; Appanah, S et al. (Eds); Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 1991; p160-166

Abstract:
Acacia mangium is the major species planted under the Compensatory Forest Plantation Project. In the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Acacia mangium has been used, with promising results, for the following panel products, namely particle board, medium density fibreboard (MDF), cement bonded particleboard (CBP), plywood and decorative panel.|Thinning of 2 to 5-y-old Acacia mangium can be used for particleboard, MDF and CBP manufacture. Urea particleboard of 2-y-old thinning satisfies the requirements of Standard Board, as stipulated in the British Standard. MDF from Acacia mangium, produced with urea or isocyanate resin shows good strength and dimensional properties. CBP produced at a wood-cement ratio of 1:2.5 with 2% aluminum sulphate or magnesium chloride passes the Malaysian standard for CBP.|The barks of Acacia mangium have also been used for the extraction of tannin as an adhesive in plywood manufacture. Tannin extract of barks of 4-y-old Acacia mangium trees shows high reactivity towards formaldehyde, which means that it has good adhesive properties. Plywood manufactured using the bark extracts shows excellent bonding properties with failing loads more than twice the minimum failing load for Boiling Resistant type of adhesive, stipulated in the British Standard. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 80003

Agroforestry trials on forest land: experiences and options


Bekkering, TD
Working paper No. 20, Kali Konto Project; 1988, 23 p

Abstract:
Two agroforestry systems, the strip rotation system and the fuelwood plantation system are discussed. Transfer of authority of these trials from the project to the State Forest Authority is proposed and necessary adjustments suggested.

Availability :
Library; International Agricultural Centre (IAC); Lawickse Allee 11, P. O. Box 88, 6700 AB Wageningen, the Netherlands; phone: (31) (0) 317 495 495; fax: (31) (0) 317 495 395
Email: iac@iac.agro.nl




NO. 80015

Agroforestry on forest land - Experiences in the Konto River Watershed


Bekkering, TD
Konto River Project; Malang, Indonesia

Social Forestry in Indonesia; Workshop report. Field Document No. 25, Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia; Bangkok, FAO, 1990; p 111-122

Abstract:
The design, species and issues of a strip rotation system, a fuelwood system and an intercropping system are described and compared.

Availability :
Library; International Agricultural Centre (IAC); Lawickse Allee 11, P. O. Box 88, 6700 AB Wageningen, the Netherlands; phone: (31) (0) 317 495 495; fax: (31) (0) 317 495 395
Email: iac@iac.agro.nl




NO. 111632

Seed exploration of Acacia species and Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. in Merauke, Irian Jaya
Eksplorasi jenis-jenis benih Acacia dan Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. di Merauke, Irian Jaya

Leksono, B
Balai Teknologi Reboisasi Palembang [Palembang Reforestation Technology Institute]; Palembang, Indonesia

Beccariana 1(2): 12-17 (1998)

Abstract:
Seed exploration of Acacia species (Acacia mangium, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia aulacocarpa and Acacia mearnsii) and Eucalyptus pellita were conducted in their natural distribution in Merauke, Irian Jaya. The seed collections were made as the basis for a breeding programme aiming at improving better growth and broadening the genetic base of the species. Other species found in the area were: Acacia leptocarpa, Eucalyptus papuana, Eucalyptus polycarpa, Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus confertiflora, Melaleuca viridiflora, Melaleuca leucadendron, Melaleuca brassiana and Melaleuca cajuputi ssp. platyphylla in association with other species. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 95832

Indigenous forestation species trial on lahar-laden area in the province of Tarlac


Macaballug, HT
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiversity Protection and Economic Progress, Palo Leyte, 3-6 March 1997; Leyte, Visayas State College of Agriculture & Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Applied Tropical Ecology Program, 1997; p 233-237

Abstract:
A two-year study was conducted to test the adaptability of indigenous forestation species in lahar-laden area in the province of Tarlac. Sixteen species were tested in the area with an approximate depth of lahar materials/deposits of 2.0 m above the original ground. Results showed that of the sixteen species tested, Bagras, Bani, Bangkal and Bitaog showed an excellent performance for establishment under harsh conditions on lahar-laden area. The above results were attributed to the characteristics of the species, and their adaptability and suitability to adverse acidic sites like lahar-laden area.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 101977

Ethnobotany of Acacia decurrens Willd. in Ngargoyoso and Tawangmangu, Central Java
Ethnobotani Acacia decurrens Willd. di Ngargoyoso dan Tawangmangu, Jawa Tengah

Sutjipto; Widiyatuti, Y; Djumidi
Research Institute for Medicinal Crops, Tawangmangu, Solo, Central Java, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Buku 2; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; p 489-492

Abstract:
Acacia mearnsii (synonym: Acacia deccurens) is native to the Southeastern part of Australia eventhough it has been introduced throughout the tropical countries as well as Indonesia. The first trial of its planting in Indonesia was at the end of the 18th century. The plant grows well at high altitude. At mount Lawu area, i.e. Ngargoyoso, Tawangmangu, Ngawi and Magetan, Acacia decurrens was planted for reforestation purposes and has been utilized by local people for a very long time. Ethnobotanical aspects of this species at Ngargoyoso and Tawangmangu is discussed in this paper.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 69738

Biological and environmental pest and disease control strategy in PICOP


Anino, EO
Forest Research and Technical Assistance Services, Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP); Tabon, Bislig, Surigao del Sur, Philippines

BIOTROP Special Publication 53: 83-84 (1994)

Abstract:
Non-use poisonous and costly pesticides in PICOP has compelled its researchers to explore ways and means of utilizing natural enemies as biological agents and harnessing the force of nature to control pest and disease organisms or factors that threatened, in one way or another, its extensive plantations. Varicose borer (Agrilus sexsignatus), the most important insect pest of Eucalyptus deglupta (bagras), has been attacked by an unidentified species of egg parasite. Since they cannot be cultured in the laboratory using other hosts, multiplication of this natural enemy in the field was enhanced by providing them varicose borer eggs by flaking the barks of susceptible bagras trees to encourage the varicose borer to aviposit on flaked points. The fungus Corticium salmonicolor, causing cancer disease in Paraserianthes falcataria (falcata), and Acacia mangium were observed to have been parasitized by Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp. reduces or stops the development of cancer lesions. Experimental release was conducted in plantation sites sparsely populated with the hyperparasite to augment its population. Combined effects of hyperparasitism and other environmental factors could have brought down cancer incidence and severity to insignificant level. Trichoderma sp. has also been proved in an experiment to have reduced the incidence of root rot disease in Pinus caribaea seedlings caused by Fusarium solani. The devastating effects of needle blight caused by Cercospora pini-densiflorae on Pinus caribaea were minimized by enhancing the vigour of the seedlings through the application of mycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma sp. Non-mycorrhizal pines failed to resist the disease and died out. Grubs of June beetle (Leucopholis irrorata) fed and killed the roots of falcata in some parts of the plantations. The insect pest was controlled by introducing cultures of the antagonistic fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae onto the rhizosphere of falcata plantings. Rust disease, caused by Uromycladium tepperianum, which severely hit the falcata plantations of PICOP has been put under control by augmenting the population of fungal hyperparasite Penicilium italicum in addition to Acremonium recefei and the suspected Tuberculina sp. Moreover, the rust fungus does not multiply fast in sites with high temperature but thrives well in sites with low temperature, thus falcata has no longer been planted at elevations over 250 m above sea level where climatic conditions favour the fingus. Combined effects of these biological and environmental control methods have reduced the effects of rust disease to insignificant level. Uoko vine (Mikania scandens) was the most problematic weed species in PICOP's plantation. Weeding operation of free young stands from the strangling Uoko vines constitutes large part of maintenance cost. Recently, the growth of the weed has been stunted by the combined effects of suspected viral little leaf disease associated with aphid feeding and by a hemipterous sap-sucking insect which kills the young leaves and breaks the tender vines. The disease vector and the insect pest are currently dispersed into the plantations. Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus hybrids are affected by leaf blight caused by extreme heat during dry days and wilt temperature fluctuations during winter months of December, January and Forest Pest and Disease Management. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 92029

Direct seeding trials of forest species


Yao, CE
Greenfields 23 (8): 38-40 (1995)

Abstract:
Raising seedlings of forest trees in nursery is costly. To cut the cost, direct seeding can be an alternative. This planting technique which is effective in rice and corn may also be useful in tree farming.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library; Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 66515

Research progress on sandalwood nursery and planting in East Nusa Tenggara
Perkembangan penelitian pembibitan dan penanaman cendana di Nusa Tenggara Timur

Surata, IK
Forestry Research Institute; Kupang, NTT, Indonesia

Savana (7): 21-36 (1992)

Abstract:
Natural stock of sandalwood (Santalum album) in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, has been extracted for many years. It is believed that the first trade of sandalwood took place in the third century from Timor and Sumba Islands. This fact shows that the species has a good capability to grow naturally, but increasing demand for the wood as well as increasing shifting cultivation and free grazing suppressed the population of sandalwood at an alarming state. Revitalization of the species through the establishment of plantation terminated unsuccessfully due to the lack of inputs of appropriate silvicultural treatments. Crash programme designed by the Kupang Forestry Research Institute (BPK Kupang) improved the silvicultural requirements for the best sandalwood plantation. It involved nursery treatments, primary and secondary host species, and tending of young plantation. The primary host species such as Alternanthera sp., Desmanthus virgatus, Crotalaria juncea, and the secondary host (Acacia glauca, synonym: Acacia villosa) are recommended as the best hosts in relation to the growth and the need for shade of sandalwood. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 103073

Effect of host plants on the growth of sandalwood (Santalum album) seedlings
Pengaruh jenis inang terhadap pertumbuhan semai cendana (Santalum album)

Surata, IK
Santalum (9): 1-9 (1992)

Abstract:
An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the performance of sandalwood seedlings under the influence of Desmanthes virgatus, Alternanthera sp., Crotalaria juncea, Sesbania grandiflora, Cajanus cajan, Capsicum frutescens, Breynia cerna, Lycopersicon esculentum, Acacia oraria, Duranta repens, Erigeron linifolius, Acacia holocericea, Acacia auriculiformis, Elephantopus scaber, Desmodium trifolium and Andropogon subtilis as the host plants of the seedlings. Each seedling of sandalwood and the host plant were grown in a polybag filled with soil and sand (3:1) for seven months. The experiment was laid out following a Completely Randomized Design with 50 replications (each treatment consisted of 50 pots). Measurements were taken monthly for stem height, stem diameter, and dry weight. The result showed that the seedling growth of Santalum album was considerably enhanced with host. The best host in terms of dry weight, height, stem diameter of seedling was Althernanthera sp., Desmanthes virgatus and Crotalaria juncea. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
Institute for Information Resources, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 66509

Effect of seedling height on the growth of sandalwood (Santalum album L.) in the fields
Pengaruh tinggi semai terhadap pertumbuhan cendana (Santalum album L.) di lapangan

Surata, IK
Forest Research Institute, Kupang, NTT, Indonesia

Santalum (13): 1-10 (1993)

Abstract:
Some research findings emphasize the need for sandalwood (Santalum album) seedlings to have a high quality in order to survive under an extreme physical environment. An experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of seedling height on the growth of sandalwood in the field (planting site). The experiment was laid out following a Randomized Completely Block Design, consisting of 8 seedling height treatments (in cm), i.e. 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, and 45-50 with three replications. The seedlings were raised with their primary hosts (Desmanthus virgatus) in plastic bags of 15 cm x 25 cm filled with a mixture of grumusol and sand (3:1). At the age of seven months in the nursery the seedlings were grouped into height classes and then planted in the field. The seedlings were planted as intercrop under 7-year old stands of Acacia auriculiformis (light intensity 50 k lux). There were 25 seedlings per plot at 3 m x 3 m spacing. The responses measured were stem height increment, stem diameter increment, and survival. The result showed that the seedling of 20-40 cm in height with brownish stem is the best seedling for the best growth and survival in the field. Its root-top ratio and diameter- height ratio were ranging from 0.4135-0.4197 and 0.14-0.10, respectively. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 102919

Possibility of improving planting materials of some tropical forest species through micropropagation


Umboh, MIJ; Situmorang, J; Yani, SA
Tropical Forest Biology Programme, SEAMEO BIOTROP; Bogor, Indonesia

BIOTROP Special Publication 49: 43-44 (1992)

Abstract:
To help meet the problems of producing voluminous good quality planting materials of forest tree species, vegetative propagation is one of the important alternatives. Success in in-vitro vegetative propagation of some forest estate species (Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus urophylla, Tectona grandis and Santalum album) have been achieved at SEAMEO BIOTROP Plant Tissue Culture laboratory. Except for the last species, all have been planted in the field. From the 9-month study on the 5 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla originating from in-vitro multiplication and transplanted in the field, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference in the average increment of height and diameter of the trees of each clone. After 9 months in the field, the average height of trees fom each clone was 145 cm and the average diameter of trees of each clone was 1.6 cm. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 105215

Study on the utilization of BaCl2 contrast solution in the seed viability test using an X-ray
Studi penggunaan larutan kontras BaCl2 dalam uji viabilitas benih dengan sinar X

Sandriani, M
Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Thesis; Yogyakarta, Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, 1995; 93p

Abstract:
A research was conducted to get an effective combination of BaCl2 contrast solution concentration and soaking duration. This research was laid out factorially following a Completely Randomized Design. The factors were concentration of BaCl2 contrast solution and soaking duration, each of which consisted of 5 variations, and 4 replications for each seed being tested. The seeds tested were of Pinus merkusii (pine), Agathis dammara (damar), Santalum album (sandalwood), Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon) and Acacia auriculiformis (akor). The effective concentration and soaking duration were 20% and 13 minutes for pine seeds, 10% and 30 minutes for damar seeds, 15% and 90 minutes for sandalwood seeds, 5% and 120 minutes for sengon seeds, and 15% and 30 minutes for akor seeds. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 91751

Aroma


Florido, HB; Lanting, MV
Research Information Series on Ecosystems 6 (3): 7-12 (1994)

Abstract:
Aroma (cassie flower) is grown extensively for the fragrant oil obtained from its flowers. The perfume processed from the oil has a fine odor resembling that of violets which are used in preparing handkerchief bouquets and hair pomade.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 108349

The alkaloid and tannin contents and the nutritional values of several forages fed to livestock in Timor island
Kandungan senyawa alkaloida, tanin serta nilai nutrisi beberapa jenis hijauan yang diberikan pada ternak di Pulau Timor

Jamal, Y; Semiadi, G
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor, Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 4 (1): 9-14 (1997)

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the alkaloid and tannin contents and the nutritional values of six forages fed to fattening cattle in Timor island. The forages were gmelina (Gmelina arborea), pates/lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala), daun kupu-kupu (Bauhinia malabarica), gala-gala/turi (Sesbania grandiflora), gamal (Gliricidia sepium) and kabesak (Acacia leucophloea). The forages were collected during the wet and dry seasons. Results showed that the total number of alkaloid compounds varied from 14 to 30. There was an increase in concentration for alkaloid and tannin from the wet to dry season, however, the concentrations were low (< 196%). The increase in concentrations between seasons ranged from 20 to 320%. Nutritional values of the forages during the wet season were considered high, however, there is a need to evaluate the nutritional values of the forages during the dry season as well. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 90719

Manurial effects of leguminous crops on lowland rice


Acuna, MS
PCARRD-ILARRC Integrated Regional Research Review and Development Planning Workshop: Proceedings; Batac, Ilocos Norte, Mariano Marcos State University, 1987; p 50

Abstract:
The effects of leguminous crops as green manure materials for transplanted rice were compared with rice straw plus complete NPK fertilizer (28-28-28) during the 1985 wet season. Preliminary results indicated that the yields obtained from plots applied with green manure as well as those with the combination of inorganic fertilizer and rice straw were stastistically higher than the control. Yields obtained from treatments of 6 t/ha each of acacia, madre de cacao, ipil-ipil and bean were 3.79, 3.61, 3.38 and 3.42 t/ha, respectively.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University
Email: ilarrdec@laoag.amanet.net




NO. 90727

Influence of tree legume leaves utilized as green manure on the yield of IR-50


Lacuesta, TR; Laranang, CC
TCA (Tarlac College of Agriculture) Research Journal 6 (1): 1-5 (1983)

Abstract:
The height of IR-50 rice plants and the length of panicles were not significantly affected by the application of tree legume leaves. However, plants applied with ipil-ipil, acacia and madre de cacao leaves produced greater number of productive tillers than those applied with tamarind leaves and the control plants. Similar result was also observed with regards to the weight of 1,000 grains. Moreover, plants fertilized with tree legume leaves produced higher yield than the control plants. The highest return per peso invested was obtained from plants fertilized with ipil-ipil.

Availability :
Library, Tarlac College of Agriculture; Camiling; Tarlac; Philippines; phone: (63) (45) 9340 216; fax: (63) (45) 9340 216
Email: tca@mozcom.com




NO. 92902

Insect floral visitors of four reforestation trees species in Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines


Escobin, RP; Cervancia, CR
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (3): 169-180 (1998)

Abstract:
Observations were conducted on the insect pollinators of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Laguna Province, Southern Luzon, Philippines, namely: Acacia auriculiformis (auri), Vitex parviflora (molave), Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil, El Salvador Strain) and Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Washings were made from captured specimens of insect floral visitors of each reforestation species and pollen grains were extracted and counted. Importance of floral visitors was based on the values of the percentage pollen extracted on the total pollen count including the total number of insect visits per hour. Floral morphology of each of the reforestation species and insect foraging behaviour were described. Acacia auriculiformis exhibits an 'open' flower, suggesting general mellitophily. Megachile sp. appears to be an important visitor based on the pollen load and number of visits per spike per hour. The flower of Pterocarpus indicus is specialized, requiring some tripping mechanism before the nectar and pollen can be extracted. The pollinators are medium to large-sized bees, notably Xylocopa sp. Vitex parviflora is likewise a bee flower, being visited by several species of medium to large-sized bees. Leucaena leucocephala is also visited by Xylocopa sp. and species of Vespidae. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 95432

Insect floral visitors of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines


Escobia, RP; Cervancia, CR
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (3): 169-180 (1998)

Abstract:
Observations were conducted on the insect pollinators of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Laguna Province, Southern Luzon, Philippines, namely: Acacia auriculiformis (auri), Vitex parviflora (molave), Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil, El Salvador Strain) and Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Washings were made from captured specimens of insect floral visitors of each reforestation species and pollen grains were extracted and counted. Importance of floral visitors was based on the values of the percentage pollen extracted on the total pollen count including the total number of insect visits per hour. Floral morphology of each of the reforestation species and insect foraging behaviour were described. Acacia auriculiformis exhibits an "open" flower, suggesting general mellitophily. Megachili sp. appears to be an important visitor based on the pollen load and number of visits per spike per hour. The flower of Pterocarpus indicus is specialized, requiring some tripping mechanism before the nectar and pollen can be extracted. The pollinators are medium to large-sized bees, notably Xylocopa sp. Vitex parviflora is likewise a bee flower, being visited by several species of medium to large sized bees. Leucaena leucocephala is also visited by Xylocopa sp. and species of Vespidae.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93867

Height growth and herbage production of seven MPTS used as hedgerows in an alley cropping system, an on farm experiment


Lasco, RD; Malinao, EC
Sylvatrop 3 (1): 97-107 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the main objective to determine the height growth and herbage production of selected MPTS as hedgegrows in an on-farm setting. Seven MPTS were tested, viz: Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia villosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena diversifolia, Flemingia macrophylla (synonym: Fleminga congesta) and Gliricidia sepium. The study was conducted in a farmer's field in Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Height growth and herbage production of the MPTS were measured regularly. Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Flemingia congesta had the best overall performance among the MPTS, while Acacia villosa and Acacia auriculiformis had the poorest performance. Leucaena diversifolia and Acacia mangium did not survive.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 20812

Physical effects of soil compaction and initial growth of Acacia pycnantha (Leguminosae) in a clay-loam soil


Foong, TW; Wells, N
Botanic Gardens, Parks & Recreation Department, Singapore

The Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore 37 (1): 81-91 (1984)

Abstract:
An ornamental plant, golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha) was grown in a clay loam subsoil supplemented with adequate amounts of inorganic fertilizer and then compacted by four methods, namely light finger pressure, rubber hammer, steel bar and machine pressure. Dry matter accumulation and rooting behaviour after four months growth in pots under glasshouse conditions were studied in relation to the degree of soil compaction. Influences of compaction on such physical properties as dry bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity, oxygen diffusion rate and moisture content were also investigated. Plant growth and soil penetration resistance were significantly related to the level of compaction. Amelioration by addition of a medium-size grade of sand on a 50% volume basis before applying compaction reduced the soil strength substantially and allowed the plant to grow normally.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 4637

The effects of clearing and continuous cultivation on the physical properties of upland forest soils


Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Nik Muhamad Majid
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings Regional Workshop on Impact of Man's Activities on Tropical Upland Forest Ecosystems, 3-6 February 1986, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Yusuf Hadi et al (eds); Serdang, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 1987; p 217 - 237

Abstract:
The impact of large-scale forest clearing on soil physical properties for planting of fast-growing timber species at Kemasul Forest Reserve was investigated by collecting 7.6 cm diameter soil core samples to a depth of 10 cm in plots established in secondary forest, cleared area (with completely no vegetation) and Acacia mangium plantations of 4 and 6-year old. It was found that clearing secondary forest significantly (p = 0.05) increased bulk density, soil temperature and decreased soil moisture content, total porosity, aeration porosity, water retention and available water holding capacity (AWC) in all sampled areas. Almost 75% of the entire study area was still heavily compacted (bulk density 1.20 g / cubic cm) after four to six years or more after initial clearing. Recovery from compaction has only occurred in the cleared area when abandoned for secondary succession. This information can be used to assist forest managers in selecting sites suitable for planting of fast-growing timber species and appropriate site management techniques after forest clearing. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5657

Resistance of leucaena and some other tree legumes to Heteropsylla cubana in West Timor, Indonesia


Mella, P; Zaingo, M; Janing, M
Dinas Peternakan dan Pertanian Nusa Tenggara Timur; Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 56-61

Abstract:
Three trials were carried out in West Timor to measure the adaptation and psyllid-resistance of several varieties of leucaena and other tree legumes. All varieties of Leucaena leucocephala were severely damaged by the psyllid. Leucaena pallida K376 and Leucaena diversifolia K784 were well-adapted and psyllid-resistant. Other selections of Leucaena pallida, Leucaena diversifolia and Leucaena collinsii are promising. Other tree legumes not attacked by leucaena psyllids were Acacia agustissima, Acacia villosa, Sesbania grandiflora, Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus. More work is needed on their productivity, seed production, palatability and effect on animal production, so that these alternative species can be developed for use in farming systems of Nusa Tenggara Timur. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51472

The "bionics" model for the use of the restoration of the destroyed natural primary dipterocarp forest in the Ben Dinh underground, Cu Chi District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


Thai Van Trung; Nguyen Thanh Phong
Department of Forest Ecology, Ho Chi Minh Branch, CNRS - Vietnam

BIOTROP Special Publication: 40: 213-220 (1991)

Abstract:
The land surface of Ben Dinh Underground, Cu Chi District, was a corner of the "Iron Triangle" of the American chemical warfare in 1961-1970. After liberation in 1975, the land was invaded by a secondary savannah which was burnt during the dry season. It has been afforested successfully in pure stand with a drought-resistant and fast-growing pioneer legume, Acacia auriculiformis. However, the eroded and bare soil was not improved, the productivity in timber and fuelwood was low, the landscape was monotonous and not attractive for tourists. It was therefore decided to restore the natural primary dipterocarp forest with the native species Dipterocarpus alatus, Dipterocarpus dyeri, Dipterocarpus intricatus, Dipterocarpus condorensis, Hopea odorata, Shorea guiso, Anisoptera costata which constitute the emergent trees and the canopy layer mixed with the deciduous hardwood legumes (Sindora, Afzelia, Dalbergia, Peltophorum) and other species such as Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Wrightia annamensis, Phyllanthus sapida, Strychnos nux-vomica, Aquilaria crassna, Ochna integerrima in the arborescent and frutescent understorey layer. The multistories architecture, the multi-dimensional and multi-aged structure, the diversified floristic composition and the multiple use management of this "bionic model" of lowland semi evergreen tropical rain forest were designed after many surveys had been carried out in the relict primary formations of the surroundings for the establishment of profile diagrammes. This theoretical model, approved by an acceptance committee is presently executed on 2 ha as a trial for restoration of the natural primary forest of the mixed dipterocarp ecosystem until 1991. Afterwards it will be developed on 200 ha on the Ben Dinh, Ben Duoc Underground, Cu Chi District and on 800 ha on the Regional Park of Nature Protection at Thu Duc District for the establishment of the Zoological Park of the City. With a slightly simplified composition, this model will be the future pattern for regeneration and management of dipterocarp forest in Southern Vietnam. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51464

Rehabilitation of degraded forest land in Malaysia


Nik Mohd. Majid; Mohd. Zaki Hamzah
Faculty of Forestry, universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Forestry and forest products research; Proceedings of the Third Conference, 3-4 October 1995; Vol. 2; Abdul Rashid Ab. Malik et al. (eds); Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 1996; p 68-77

Abstract:
The degradation of tropical rain forests has been a major issue over recent years. In Malaysia, forest degradation is primarily caused by over-exploitation of the forests through harvesting, degazettement of forest areas and human encroachment. One of the serious negative environmental impacts of harvesting is land degradation which is reflected by increased soil compaction and erosion, decrease in soil fertility and biological degradation of the soil. In response to these environmental phenomena, the relevant government agencies have taken steps such as replanting, rehabilitation and reclamation programmes. The achievements to date are commendable but efforts need to be intensified. Priority should also focus on providing the technical and scientific back-up required for successful replanting programmes. This paper presents some findings on rehabilitation measures carried out by the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51437

Sustainable Acacia plantations: A case of short-rotation plantation at PT. Musi Hutan Persada, South Sumatra, Indonesia


Arisman, H
PT. Musi Hutan Persada; Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 9-13.

Abstract:
Acacia plantation forests have increasingly played an important role in Indonesia and other South East Asian countries to supply wood material for pulp and paper industries. PT. Musi Hutan Persada located in South Sumatra, Indonesia began to establish its Acacia plantations in 1990 on unproductive sites formerly dominated by alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grasslands. A total of approximately 200,000 ha have been planted mainly with Acacia mangium. The species is selected due to its characteristics; it is adapted to and grows well on inherently acid and poor soils dominating the company's plantation sites. Its wood is excellent for pulp and paper as well as furniture. While the importance of using genetically improved seed has been highly recognized by the company, during the first four years plantations were established using unimproved local seed source due to unavailability of the large amount of improved seed during this period. The better quality seeds have subsequently become available from the tree improvement programme set up by the company. The combined use of improved seed with proper silvicultural practices has been employed with the objective of having high plantation productivity.|The first rotation plantation began to be harvested in 1999; the productivity of this plantation is around 190 m3 of commercial wood (diameter > 8 cm) at 8 years of age. Due to the concern of long-term sustainability of plantation, an organized felling system has been adopted with one of the objectives of minimizing soil disturbance. In this system felling and stem-wood processing are done manually using chainsaw, while wood extraction is carried out using forwarders, which skid on top of the pile of harvest residues. For the second rotation plantation proper silvicultural practices have been adopted, including the use of improved seeds, minimum soil disturbance, conservation of organic matter during harvesting and site preparation, nutrient management, and weed control. It is recognized that the long-term sustainability of plantation is also dependent upon the socio-economic conditions of people living surrounding the plantation. In addition to providing working opportunities for local people, the company has adopted partnership scheme with local communities to grow acacia plantation with mutual benefit for the communities and the company.|Acacia plantation is quite recent in Indonesia, and controversial issues regarding this matter are often times raised, including allelopathy, biodiversity, nutrient drain and growth decline. While some of these issues are worth serious attention, various efforts to maintain sustained productivity of plantation should be addressed. The acacia plantation at PT. Musi Hutan Persada has shown to be able to improve degraded land, have reasonable productivity, generate job and economic opportunities for local communities. In this regard acacia plantations could provide a good model for the rehabilitation of many unproductive lands and degraded forest in many parts of Indonesia. The capital generated from acacia plantations may then be used to establish plantations of desired species. (Author's abstract).

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51438

Cooperative work on tree improvement to support plantation establishment


Hashimoto, K; Kurinobu, S
JICA Forest Tree Improvement Project; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 15-19

Abstract:
A large-scale plantation forest of fast-growing tree species has been implemented in Kalimantan and Sumatra since late 1980s. Most forestry companies related to the industrial forest plantations are now conducting tree improvement to improve productivity and quality of plantations. A bilateral technical cooperation (Japan-Indonesia) project for forest tree improvement commenced in 1992. Up to date the project has established the trials of 75 seed sources of 1st and 2nd generation of Acacia mangium, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia auriculiformis, Eucalyptus pellita, Eucalyptus urophylla and Paraserianthes falcataria in 7 provinces by collaborative research activities with six private forestry sectors in Sumatra and Kalimantan as a major role in technical cooperation. A collaborative work between the project and the private forestry companies was integrated as the Indonesian Tree Improvement Network in 2002. On the occasion of the termination of the project at the end of November 2002, this paper describes the ongoing and future collaborative research activities on forest tree improvement for plantation forests and the self-sustainability of the Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51439

Potential of Acacia mangium plantations for carbon sequestration


Heriyanto, NM; Heriansyah, I; Siregar, CA; Kiyoshi, M
Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Center; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 21-25

Abstract:
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), first codified in the Kyoto Protocol, can be a stimulus to development of plantation forestry because afforestation and reforestation activities were recognized as one of the CDM activities. This can be an opportunity to attract investment in forestry sectors and enhance sustainable development in developing countries. A project entitled "Demonstration study on carbon fixing forest management in Indonesia" had started in 2001 under collaboration between JICA and Forestry Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Forestry to provide useful information and data for potential investors in forestry sector.|This project had measured Acacia mangium plantations established by PT. Perhutani in Bogor District, West Java province. Data of carbon stock not only in above-ground biomass, but also in root biomass were collected. Allometric equations were formulated, and total biomass and carbon stock were estimated and compared with those from previous studies. This paper also suggested the possibility to formulate a single allometric equation to estimate total biomass of Acacia mangium in different sites. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51440

Increasing yield and quality improvement through clonal forestry and breeding program; Case study in PT. Korintiga Hutani


Tridasa, AM; Kim Hoon; Kim Young Cheol
PT Hutanea; Jakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 27-31

Abstract:
Korindo's management believe that an efficient tree improvement programme together with their clonal forestry project will help them in increasing wood productivity in their concession land. Short-term, mid-term and long-term breeding strategy has been decided. Nucleus breeding strategy with sublining mainline breeding population will be used. Some short-term activities such as clonal testing, plus trees selection, rooted cutting studies and modern nursery establishment have been carried out. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51441

Realized genetic gain observed in second-generation seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan, Indonesia


Leksono, B; Nirsatmanto, A; Kurinobu, S
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 39-41

Abstract:
Realized genetic gains were calculated for growth (height, dbh) and form (stem form, multi-stem) traits using data from second generation seedling seed orchard of Acacia mangium. A total of 83 open pollinated families of plus trees from the three sub-lines in the first generation were used for the establishment of second-generation seedling seed orchard. About 23-39 unimproved families were added to each sub-line as infusion. Gains were calculated as percentage increase of plus tree families (improved) to infused families (unimproved). Average of the realized genetic gain across the three sub-lines at one year after planting were 3.12 %, 5.24 %, 4.25 % and 0.50 % for height, dbh, stem form and multi-stem, respectively. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51444

Verification of full-sib relationship of seeds within a pod of Acacia mangium using parentage analysis by microsatellite markers


Isoda, K; Yuskianti, V; Rimbawanto, A
JICA Forest Tree Improvement Project; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 67-69

Abstract:
In order to verify the full-sib relationship among seeds within a pod of Acacia mangium, microsatellite analysis was carried out. Fifty-six pods containing 366 seeds collected from 5 mother trees in a seedling seed orchard in South Kalimantan were genotyped using 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Assuming that the seeds within a pod are full-sib, i.e. derived from the same male parent, possible genotype of pollen donor was manually estimated. For each pod, at least one mutual genotype was successfully estimated. This result indicates that the seeds within a pod can derive from the same male parent. The mutual genotypes were then searched in the genotype database of all candidate parents, and 42 were found to match with one tree and 2 with two trees. Remaining 11 mutual genotypes were, however, not found in the database. This could indicate that there is a single pollen donor outside the seed orchard, or uncollected samples. Parentage analysis of each seed was also conducted using CERVUS 2.0. The results indicate that most pods contain full-sib seeds, while 4 pods showed to have 2 different parents. Eventhough a few did not show full-sib relationship in parentage analysis of each seed, they still showed possibility to be the full-sibs by manual analysis of each pod. Consequently, the pollen donor of each seed is possibly the same tree for most of the examined pods, and thus the pod of Acacia mangium contains almost certainly the full-sib seeds. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51456

Preliminary research on natural hybrid of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis in Wonogiri, Central Java. A case study on morphological aspect of seed and seedling performance at nursery level


Susilawati, S; Setiadi, D
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 153-156

Abstract:
Hybrid orchard of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis which was established in March 1999 flowered and produced seeds for the first time in 2001. A study on seed morphological aspect was carried out on the natural hybrid of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in Wonogiri. It was conducted on the first seed collection from August to October 2001. Criteria used for seed morphology grouping were seed size, follicle form and colour. Parameter measured were number of pod per flower, number of seed per pod, seed weight, follicle form and colour. Parameter measured in seedling performance were percentage of germination and survival rate. Criteria used in seedling grouping were stem form and colour, leaf size and shape, number of vein in leaf and its form. Based on the seed criteria, 662 seeds were selected for morphological test and direct sowing in sand media, than planting in polybag. It gave germination percentage of 52.42% and survival rate of 37.61%. Seedling performance was measured based on 249 seedlings which survived in nursery. It gave indication that some of the seedlings still had the same performance as their mother trees and 24 seedlings showed intermediate between Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51450

Pests and diseases in Indonesian plantation forests


Teguh Hardi TW
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 117-121

Abstract:
Wood demand for construction, pulp or paper and energy industries is expected to increase to 150 million m3/ year by the year 2010. The present production of the natural and production forests vary from 23.9 to 61.6 million m3/ year (Saleh et al 1990). To meet the projected demand, the Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Forestry has increased the establishment of plantation forests (HTI). The species established in the plantation forests include local and exotic species such as Tectona grandis, Pinus merkusii, Acacia spp., Eucalyptus spp., Dalbergia latifolia, Paraserianthes falcataria, Swietenia macrophylla, and Shorea spp. Most of the plantation forests has been established as monocultures or single species and the consequence is that some pests and diseases appeared thus needing attention for early prevention.|A survey was made on plantation forests in several big islands of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java. Observations were made on the presence of pests and diseases. Reference specimens were collected and microscopically examined in the laboratory. Insect pests were identified by Textbook of Insect Identification and fungi were cultured, identified and detailed photographic records compiled. Field observations were made from 1996 to 2002 in nurseries, young and mature plantations. There are 6 families of Lepidoptera, 1 Hymenoptera, 3 Isoptera, 4 Coleoptera, 1 Orthoptera, 2 Homoptera, and 4 families of Hemiptera that were found as plantation forest pests belonging to sap-sucking insects, branch or stem borers, leaf skeletonizing insects, root collar and lower part of stem insects, leaf eating insects, and 16 species of fungi that were found as the agents of plantation forest diseases (damping-off, wilt diseases, root-rot diseases, mildew, stem cankers, etc). Forest pests and diseases usually attack fruits/ seeds, leaves, stems, and roots are listed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 3014

Interaction between community socio-economic condition and forest planting systems at Paguyangan, West Pekalongan Forest District
Interaksi kondisi sosial ekonomi masyarakat dengan sistem penanaman hutan di wilayah BKPH Paguyangan, KPH Pekalongan Barat

Harbagung; Hardjanto
Forest Research Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Laporan Balai Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Institute Report] (377): 1-53(1981)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4201

Effects of tannin from Acacia decurrens and amylum from Manihot utilissima on hardboard properties
Pengaruh tannin Acacia decurrens dan amylum Manihot utilissima terhadap sifat-sifat hardboard

Zihismail
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1969; 51p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia




NO. 6626

Energy farming
Pertanian energi

Simamora, R
Science Education Centre; Bandung; Indonesia

Majalah Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam [Natural Science Education Journal] 6(62): 31-36(1983)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Indonesia




NO. 9697

Some models of agroforestry
Beberapa model agroforestry

Winarto, B
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Banjarbaru [Banjarbaru Agricultural Information Bulletin] (1): 1-2(1982/1983)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 12657

Agro-forestry system
Kan chat kan rupbaep rabop wanakaset phua prasan prayot rawang kan kaset lae kan pa mai nai wela dieo kan sam thi doem yang to nuang

Phetmak, P; Bunyun, S
[Technical paper, Silviculture Division, Royal Forest Department] No.8; 1988; 14p

Availability :
Technical Library; Silviculture Division; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 12806

Plants in the Buddha history
Phanmai nai phuttha prawat

Phengkhlai, C
Phanmai nai phutthaprawat; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; [nd]; 17p

Availability :
Technical Library; Silviculture Division; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 13804

Growing fast-growing trees in agroforestry system for rural development
Kan pluk mai toriu doi rabop wanakaset phua kan phatthana chonnabot

Ekkasan kan songsoem kan pluk paekkachon [Private Reforestation Extension Report]; Office of Private Reforestation Extension; 1986; 72p

Availability :
Library; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 33550

Some medicinal plants and their known medical uses in Tubao, La Union: an explanatory study


Barros, CT
DMMMSU Research Journal 4(3-4): 65-67(1983)

Availability :
Library; Rural Development Research and Training Center; Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University; Bacnotan; La Union; Philippines




NO. 61898

Development patterns of Acacia mangium Willd. in West Java
Pola pengembangan Acacia mangium Willd. di Jawa Barat

Sumiasri, N.; Sukiman, HI.; Karsono, H.
Proceedings of the National Seminar on Research and Development of Multipurpose Tree Species; Bogor; 1990; p171-176

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69031

Study on nectar and pollen grain qualities of several fruit trees in Bogor district
Studi kualitas nektar dan tepung sari beberapa pohon buah-buahan di Kabupaten Bogor

Saharjo, Bambang H.; Hanida, Noo F.
Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Technical Notes 5(1): 47-52(1993)

Abstract:
The objectives of this research was to get information about fruit species as bee forage and the quality of nectar and pollen grains. According to this information, it could be helpfull to manage bee colonies, especially in Bogor, and how to make fruits more productive. The result of this research showed that fruit species in Bogor have good potential as bee forage. These species were watery rose apple (S. aqueum), durian (D. zibethinus), 'matoa' (P. pinnata), 'rambutan' (N. lappaceum), corn (Z. mays), coconut (C. nucifera) and aren palm (A. pinnata). Other species were calliandra (C. callothyrsus), acacia (A. auriculiformis), callophyllum (C. inophyllum), 'puspa' (S. wallichii ssp. noronhae) and rubber (H. brasiliensis).

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 101064

Study on the feed supply pattern for goat bred in Jeneponto district
Studi pola penyediaan pakan untuk ternak kambing di kabupaten Jeneponto

Ella, A.; Paat, P.C.; Salam, R.
Gowa Research Station for Livestock; Ujung Pandang; South Sulawesi; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie, B(ed); Haryanto, B (ed); Wina, E (ed); Kompiang, I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto, K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 475-483

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 101901

Effects of applying 'red lamtoro' (Acacia villosa), 'putak' (Corypha gebanga) and its combination on the growth of grazed local goats
Pengaruh pemberian lamtoro merah (Acacia villosa), putak (Corypha gebanga) dan kombinasinya terhadap pertumbuhan ternak kambing lokal yang digembalakan

Ratnawaty, Sophia
Lili Research Station for Livestock; Kupang; East Nusa Tenggara; Indonesia

Publikasi Wilayah Kering [Publication on Drylands] 1 (2): 91-96 (1994)

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research (CSAR); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 8901

Effects of urea and TSP fertilizers application on the growth of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings on medium of a mixture of soil and husks
Pengaruh pemberian pupuk urea dan TSP terhadap pertumbuhan semai Acacia mangium Willd. pada medium campuran tanah dan sekam

Djalanidi, K
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; 1986; 73p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 80001

The agroforestry trials in the Konto river project: experiences and issues


Nibbering, W
Project Communication No. 1, Kali Konto Project; 1987; 135p

Abstract:
The report discusses agroforestry trial in the highlands of East Java. These experiments are a forest-grassland trial (Agathis and elephant grass), a strip rotation trial, a goat schere, no tillage and minimum tillage trials and fuelwood trials.

Availability :
International Agrarian Centre (IAC); Lawickse Allee 11, 6701 AN Wageningen; the Netherlands




NO. 101881

Effect of supplement feeding of urea, kabesak (Acacia leucocephala) leaves and putak with different urea levels on Bali cattle consumed rice straw as the basal diet
Pengaruh pemberian suplemen urea, daun kabesak (Acacia leucocephala) dan putak dengan level urea yang berbeda pada sapi Bali yang mengkonsumsi jerami padi sebagai pakan dasar

Bamualim, A; TaEk, J.Kali; Tiro, B; Manu, J; Hartati, E
'P3NT'; Kupang; East Nusa Tenggara; Indonesia

Publikasi Wilayah Kering [Publication on Dryland] 1 (1): 17-21 (1993)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement feeding of urea, kabesak leaf (Acacia leucophloea) and putak (inner part of Corypha gebanga's trunk) or C. gebanga's pit at different levels of urea mixture, on growth rate and feed intake of Bali cattle which consumed rice straw as the basal diet. Twenty five Bali cattle were used in this experiment with 5 treatments using a Randomized Block Design for 3 months period. Cattle given rice straw only and rice straw plus urea experienced body weight lost of-130 and -70 gr/head/day respectively, whereas cattle received kabesak leaf and putak mixed with urea gained weight. The body weight gains were 160, 150 and 80 gr/head/day for cattle received putak + 3% urea, kabesak leaf and putak + 1.5% urea supplements respectively. The supplement feeding treatments also improved the total feed intake, although the intakes of rice straw were reduced.

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research (CSAR); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69030

Production, decomposition rate and allelopathic effect of pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese) and mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.) litters
Produksi, laju dekomposisi dan pengaruh alelopatik serasah tusam (Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese) dan mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.)

Hilwan, Iwan
Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Technical Notes 5 (1): 33-46 (1993)

Abstract:
To support a successful establishment of the Industrial Forest Plantation, studies on the characteristics of the litters under the pine and mangium stands, especially the production, decomposition rate, nutrient content and their alleopathic effects had been conducted at the 'Hutan Tridharma Gunung Walat', Sukabumi from December 1991 to May 1992. The litter production for A. mangium was 16.86 g/m/wk or 8.77 ton/ha/year while P. merkusii was 11.17 g/m/w or 5.81 ton/ha/year. Out of the litters, 71.17% and 60.88% were the leaf component of A. mangium and the P. merkusii studied showed a mean decomposition rate of 7.20% and 4.53% respectively per two weeks. After 22 weeks incubation period A. mangium lost 47.19% of its litters weight, while P. merkusii 38.68%. Litter decomposition rate was highly influenced by the stand species and observation period. It was believed that some organic compounds released by the A. mangium and the P. merkusii litters tend to inhibit the growth of the tested corn crop while other organic compound enhance the growth of peanut. (Revised author's abstract)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 2457

The prospects of Leucaena leucocephala, Gmelina arborea and Schizolobium sp. as sources of wood for pulp
Prospek pengembangan Leucaena leucocephala (var.K28,K8), Gmelina arborea dan Schizolobium sp. sebagai sumber kayu pulp

Alrasjid, H
Forest Research Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Selulosa [Cellulose News] 17 (1): 1-6 (1981)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2815

The effect of phenol-formaldehyde binder on the properties of hardboard from mixed wood based on specific gravity grouping
Pengaruh penambahan fenol formaldehida terhadap sifat hardboard kayu campuran berdasarkan pengelompokan berat jenis

Siagian, RM
Forest Products Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia

Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan [Forest Products Research Journal] 4 (2): 10-15 (1987)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4868

Observation on the implementation of regreening in Babakan Madang, Karang Tengah and Bojong Koneng villages, Citeureup Subdistrict, Citeureup Subwatershed, Bekasi Watershed
Tinjauan pelaksanaan penghijauan di desa Babakan Madang, Desa Karang Tengah dan Desa Bojong, Kecamatan Citeureup, Sub DAS Citeureup, Daerah Aliran Sungai Bekasi

Polem, T.Y
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1984; 85p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 9774

Getting to know some plants for regreening
Mengenal beberapa jenis tanaman penghijauan

Anonymous
West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service; 1983; 36p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62519

Determination of seed quality of important forestry plants in Indonesia by using X-ray method
Penentuan kualitas biji-biji tanaman kehutanan terpenting di Indonesia dengan menggunakan sinar-X

Dridjosoemarto, S
Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Laporan Penelitian Proyek PPPT-UGM [Research Report of "PPPT-UGM" Project] (39): 1-27 (1977/1978)

Availability :
Library of Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 61839

Several factors affecting farmer's decision in selecting forest plant species to cultivate: A case study in Tapos village, Parung Panjang, Bogor
Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi petani dalam menentukan jenis tanaman hutan untuk dibudidayakan; studi kasus di Tapos village, Parung Panjang, Bogor

Suharti, S
Technical Notes; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; 2 (4-5): 41-46 (1988)

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 9070

Mechanical properties of 'mangium' (Acacia mangium) and 'salam' (Eugenia polyantha) timbers
Sifat-sifat mekanika kayu mangium (Acacia mangium) dan kayu salam (Eugenia polyantha)

Prayitno, T.A; Sutopo, Y.G
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; 1990; 30p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 4224

Reforestation in the watershed areas of Wair Klau,Wair Pelit and Iligetang,Flores,Nusa Tenggara Timur
Reboisasi hutan di daerah aliran sungai-sungai Wair Klau,Wair Pelit dan Iligetang,Flores,Nusa Tenggara Timur

Husaeni,EA
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1970; 66p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 5080

Forest planning in Indonesia
Perencanaan hutan di Indonesia

Sedijoprapto,EI
Library of Manggala Wanabakti; Jakarta; Indonesia

Manggala Wanabakti 2(5):1-4(1986)

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 34830

Agroforestry in the lowlands


Tacio, H.D
PCARRD Monitor 10 (2): 6-9 (1990)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Ba¤os; Laguna




NO. 2872

A comparison between expectation values of soils under pure stands of Acacia mangium and a mixture of Acacia mangium and pepper (Piper nigrum)
Perbandingan antara nilai harapan tanah tegakan murni Acacia mangium dan tegakan campuran Acacia mangium dengan lada (Piper nigrum)

Hadi, S; Hidayat, R; Udinsyah
Forest Research Institute; Samarinda; East Kalimantan; Indonesia

Prosiding Agroforestry untuk Pengembangan Daerah Pedesaan di Kalimantan Timur [Proceedings of Agroforestry for the Development of Rural Areas in East Kalimantan]; Lahjie, AM (ed); Siebert, M (ed); Samarinda; Faculty of Forestry; Mulawarman University; 1989; p207-221

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2920

Country report on in-vitro studies in Malaysia


Noor, N.M
Department of Botany; National University Malaysia (UKM)

BIOTROP Special Publication (35): 51-53 (1988)

Availability :
SEAMEO-BIOTROP Library




NO. 62415

Utilization of drylands
Pemanfaatan lahan kering

Anonymous
Agricultural Information Leaflet/East Java Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Jawa Timur (20); 1987

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 63582

Allelopaty properties of several tree species
Sifat alelopati pada beberapa jenis pohon

Pratiwi
Sylva Tropika 3 (2): 22-25 (1988)

Availability :
Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 10557

Some medicinal plants in Thailand
Samunphrai bang chanit nai Prathetthai

Amatayakun,T
Division of Medical Research; Department of Medical Science; Bangkok; Thailand

Warasarn khnong krom witthayasart karnphaet (The Bulletin of the Department of Medical Sciences) 7(2-3):84-91(1965)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre;Bangkok;Thailand




NO. 30509

Anatomy supports taxonomy: a comparative anatomical study of ten leguminous trees


Rasa,EA
Philippine Journal of Science 109(1-2):23-32(1980)

Availability :
Library;University of the Philippines at Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 32973

Aroma trees: the greening of a resort


Dichoso,MO;Vergara,MK
Habitat Philippines 4(2):36-37(1983)

Availability :
Library;Department of Environment and Natural Resources; Diliman;Quezon City;Philippines




NO. 62101

Pod peel anatomy of various Leguminous species
Anatomi kulit buah beberapa spesies dari familia Leguminosae

Lestari, S.
S1 Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; Indonesia; 1983; 37p

Availability :
Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 63491

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.

Duke, A.; Reed, C.F.; Weeder, J.K.P.
Legumes ; Duke, A.(ed); 5-7(1981)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68286

Acacia fernesiana (L.) Willd. in Indonesia
Acacia fernesiana (L.) Willd. di Indonesia

Rahayu,Mulyati; Sumiarsi,Nurul
Puslitbang Biologi & Bioteknologi-LIPI, Bogor

Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan; Balai penelitian Kehutanan Pematang Siantar 9(1):15-24(1993)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 103923

Study on quality of 'embung' Boentuka and Biloto forest, South Timor Tengah, Timor, East Nusa Tenggara as based on effort to conservation of water catching area
Studi kualitas hutan embung Boentuka dan Biloto, Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS), Timor, NTT sebagai dasar untuk upaya konservasi daerah tangkapan airnya

Harahap,R.; Naiola,B.P.
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB)-LIPI; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Pengelolaan Tata Air dan Pemanfaatannya dalam Satu Kesatuan Toposekuens [Proceedings of the Seminar on Water Management and Utilization in Toposequential Unit], Cilacap 7-8 Oktober 1993; p.136-142

Availability :
Research and Development Institute for Botany; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2933

Tissue culture of important tropical forest trees in Indonesia


Harahap,RMS;Sumarna,Y
Forest Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia

BIOTROP Special Publication 35:71-73(1988)

Availability :
SEAMEO-BIOTROP Library




NO. 3545

Tree breeding as a basis for the success of forest development in Indonesia
Pemuliaan pohon sebagai dasar keberhasilan pembangunan hutan di Indonesia

Soeseno,OH
Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Perumusan dan Kumpulan Makalah Sarasehan I di Wanagama I; Buku I [Proceedings of the Workshop I,Wanagama I; Book I]; Yogyakrata; 1983; p321-350

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 4018

Recent development of tissue culture in forest plantation management
Perkembangan terakhir 'tissue culture' dalam penyelenggaraan tanaman hutan

Umboh,I
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO- BIOTROP); Bogor; Indonesia

Proceedings Diskusi Terbatas 'Beberapa Aspek Pembangunan Hutan'; Menelusuri Cara-cara Inovatif Reboisasi di Indonesia [Proceedings of a Discussion on Some Aspects of Forest Development; Tracing Innovative Reforestation Methods in Indonesia]; Wirakusumah,S et al(eds); Jakarta; PT Inhutani I; 1986; p175-186

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 9088

Utilization of biotechnology in the silviculture of forest plantations
Pemanfaatan bioteknologi pada usaha silvikultur HTI

Subiakto,A;Harahap,RM;Bogidarmanti,R;Darnowati
Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Makalah Seminar Bioteknologi Hutan [Seminar on Forest Biotechno- logy]; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; 1990; No.2; 7p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 68539

Effects of hostplant species on the growth of sandalwood
Pengaruh jenis inang terhadap pertumbuhan cendana

Rachmawati,I.
Research Institute for Forestry; Kupang; Indonesia

Laporan Teknis Litbang Kehutanan [Technical Report of the Forest Research and Development] (6):21-29(1993)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 107004

Effects of host plant species and phosphorous fertilizer dosage on growth of sandalwood seedlings
Pengaruh jenis tanaman inang dan dosis pupuk phosphor terhadap pertumbuhan semai cendana

Fitri,S.F.
Faculty of Forestry; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Forestry; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; 1995; 107p

Availability :
Library; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 90679

Marketing of products and by-products of multi-purpose tree species in La Union


de Padua, VM
DMMMSU (Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University) Research and Extension Journal: 13-34 (1994)

Abstract:
The marketing systems of products and by-products of selected multipurpose tree species (MPTS) in La Union was studied. Result of the study showed that there is a potential market of mango fruit because the production is not enough to cater the demand in the international and local markets. This is also true to woodfiles, charcoal, fuelwood and driftwood by-products of madre de cacao and fuelwood and lumber products of Acacia auriculiformis and Cassia spectabilis in the local market. The findings suggest that there is a need to increase production to satisfy the demand. This may be done through research and development of production area expansion. Temporary market shortages would have been due to the inefficiency in the distribution system of the products. This distribution system was the major factor that influenced the existence of intermediaries which formed the marketing of mango fruit while short channel in products and by-products of madre de cacao, Acacia auriculiformis and Cassia spectabilis. Such difference could be due to the differences in the market orientedness of the products and income levels generated from the marketing activities. Disparity in income levels would be due to the differences in the assumed risk, degree of control on the means of production especially capital and accessibility or control of the market. Exploitation on the different uses of these products may be improve the income distribution among the market intermediaries and physical distribution of the product in different localities. The buying behaviour of consumers towards mango fruit was significantly influenced by the consumer's case of madre de cacao products and by-products. Market segmentation is necessary to cater the needs in accordance to buyers characteristics in the case of major fruit. A study dealing with the correlation between consumer's buying behaviour and products' characteristics is essential.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office
Email: prosea@ultra.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 20552

Discolouration and heart rot of Acacia mangium Wild. - Some preliminary results


Lee, SS; Teng, SY; Lim, MT; Razali, AK
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(2): 170-177(1988)

Abstract:
The association of discolouration and heart rot in stems of Acacia mangium Willd. trees with external cull indicators, the amount of wood affected and the associated fungi were determined in this study. It was found that cankers associated with de cayed branch stubs and poorly healed basal pruning wounds were good indicators of discolouration and heart rot. The volume of discoloured wood ranged from between 18 to 48% (n = 8) while the volume of heart rot ranged from between 2.7 to 17.5% (n = 8). The length of the bole of the sample trees affected by heart rot ranged from between 34 to 100%. Seventeen species of fungi were isolated from the discoloured and decayed wood. Species of Phialophora, Trichoderma, Rhinocladiella, Thelaviopsis and Paecilomyces were most frequently isolated. However, no sin le species could be identified as the main discolouration or decay causing organism.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20558

Biomass and productivity of 4.5 year old Acacia mangium in Sarawak


Lim, MT
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika 9(1): 81-87(1986)

Abstract:
Acacia mangium one of the main species used for forest plantations as well as reforestation in Malaysia has been has been selected on account of its rapid growth and ability to overcome competition from weeds. A 4.5 year-old plantation stand in Sarawak had a density of 1084 trees/ha and a top height of over 20 m. The dbh of the trees ranged from 4.3 cm to 24.2 cm and averaged 14.3 cm. Regression of ranch, stem and total above- ground biomass on d b h produced equations with correlation coefficients 0.95. The biomass of the stand was estimated at 82. 1 tonnes/ha. The mean annual 18.2 t/ha is comparable to those of intensively managed crops such as Eucalyptus nitens and rubber. Several sample trees had stained heartwood and soft pulpy cores and further studies are recommended.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 21170

A note on genetic variation in seeds and seedlings of five provenances of Acacia auriculiformis


Huang, SN
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Longdong; Guangzhou; China

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(4): 401-404(1989)

Abstract:
A preliminary study on the variation of seeds and seedlings of five provenances from Queensland is reported here. For all provenance more than 70% germination occurred within twenty days after sowing, except the Weina Provenance which only reached 70% on day 30. The analysis of variance shows thar the seed traits assessed were not significantly different between provenances except seed weight. This preliminary study shows that variation does exist between provenances at least for the traits assessed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 106267

Study on the production of forage using a fence line system in East Nusa Tenggara
Studi produksi hijauan pakan dengan sistem baris pagar di Nusa Tenggara Timur

Sajimin; Suratmini,P.; Siregar,M.E.
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains & Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan & Komunikasi Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Result], Ciawi-Bogor 25-26 Januari 1995; 1: 277-281 (1995)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 94861

Growth and development of Paraserianthes falcataria, Albizia saponaria, A. lebbeck, A. procera and other nitrogen fixing trees as affected by spacing on hillsides in Eastern Visayas, Philippines


Bumatay, EC; Escalada, RG; Buante, C
Proceedings International Workshop on Albizia and Paraserianthes Species, Bislig, Surigao del Sur, Philippines, 13-19 November 1994; Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports, 1997; p 76-79

Abstract:
Distance of planting had dramatic effects on the diameter and height growth of the nitrogen fixing tree species grown under trial. Generally, the wider the spacing, the shorter the trees but the bigger their diameter. Paraserianthes falcataria trees spaced at 1m x 0.5 m grew very tall compared to other spacings. The growth pattern of all the species was observed at each time of measurement not to have followed the biological curve due to stem breakage and other damages caused by typhoons which passed over the experimental site.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 23017

Sulphate pulping characteristics of Acacia hybrid,Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis from Sabah


Khoo, KC; Mohd.Nor, MY.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(3): 206-214(1992)

Abstract:
Various sulphate pulps were prepared from 9-years-old Acacia hybrid, a cross breed of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis and compared with those of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis. The trees were taken from the SAFODA plantations in Sabah. The Acacia hybrid gave very good pulp yields in excess of 55% and the properties of the pulps were generally superior to those of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23020

Growth of Acacia mangium planted on windrow sites


Panitz, E; Adzmi, Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(3): 257-265(1992)

Abstract:
This study was conducted to test the difference in growth performance of Acacia mangium on rich and poor sites created by wind rowing as the usual site preparation method for large scale plantations. The experimental plots were laid out in Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve in a one-year-old plantation. Soil samples were analyzed and trees were measured in 1985 and 1989. Basal area development and volume increment as well as timber production were calculated. After one year as well as after five years planting there was a significant difference between dimensions of trees of both sites.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23087


Recent advances in biotecnology and its potential application for forestry

Zakri, AH
National University of Malaysia;Bangi:Selangor

Public Lectures on Current Forestry Issues at Forest Reserach Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Abstract:
Biotechnology in the broad sense may have been practised as early as the advent of agriculture some 10,000 years ago. The current euphoria about genetic engineering and its potential impact on human activities including forestry arises from the ability of scientists to manipulate genes through various novel ways. The potential benefits of this new technology in forestry may even be greater than in agriculture because of the possibility of gaining time in certain tree improvement processes. However,such advances can only be effectively applied when basic biological information and knowledge are available, and if sound tree improvement programmes are in place, within which such techniques can be used as important adjuncts to conventional tree breeding. Several major aspects of plant biotechnology, inter alia, in vitro germplasm storage, stomactonal variation, molecular markers, micropropagation, embryo rescue and genetic engineering are discussed in the context of their application in tree breeding

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23163


Graded sawn timber recovery study of Acacia mangium

Chan, HH
Science University of Malaysia;Penang

Malayan Forester 47(2): 116-124(1984)

Abstract:
A total of 264 thinned trees from a 5 year old stand of Acacia mangium was assessed for termite attack and heart rot. Of the 264 trees assessed 45 trees (17%) were attacked by termites and 28 trees (11%) were found to have heart rot. This high percentage of termite attack and heart rot is therefore a serious problem on the young stand. The termite attack also indicates that Heptachlor may be ineffective against termites five years after application and that a second application of Heptachlor may be needed for Acacia mangium plantation before age 5.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23166


Forest plantation development: Economic considerations. A case study of the activities of Sabah Forestry Development Authority (SAFODA)

Udarbe, MP
Seminar on Forest Plantation Development to Malaysia; 1984

Abstract:
The paper describes the objectives and development strategies of SAFODA in forest plantation development and illustrates how forest plantations can be used as a means in uplifting the standard of living of rural people in economically depressed areas. The financial and economic aspects of two major projects are examined.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23171


Response of Acacia mangium to fertilisation on red yellow podsolic soils

Sin, PC
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; 1986

Abstract:
Application of phosphorus at 5, 7 and 9 kg/ha (in combination with a compound fertiliser) to Acacia mangium seedlings on red-yellow podsolic soils do not produce significant increase in height growth after two and a half years. Closer examinations of the plot indicate that the treatment effects have been confounded with slope effects. Care should be taken in future experiments to ensure experimental treatments are properly blocked.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23167


An examination of inbreeding in Acacia mangium in Sabah

Williams, JStJ; Low, MT
Forest Research Centre;Sepilok;FAO/UNDP/MAL/78/009 Working Paper No. 14; 1982

Abstract:
The paper contains an investigation on inbreeding of Acacia mangium in Sabah. The examination was carried out with genetic material of limited variability. The authors concluded that: (1). The form of the F1 generation is much better than that of the next two generation and the form of F2 is somewhat better that the F3. Vigour data do not show any significant differences, only a tendency for the girth growth to be better in the F1 and F2 generations. (2) There is a great deal of confounding present that limit the significance of this study. However there is enough valid information to show that successive generations formed from the original importation of Acacia mangium to Sabah are degrading.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23169


The effect of topographic position on the growth of Gmelina arborea and Acacia mangium

Tan, KC; Sim, MS
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; 1986

Abstract:
[Growth and productivity of four-year-old G. arborea on soils of sedimentary rocks origin varied greatly over topographic position 1 to 4. Differences in top height, dbh and volume (top diameter limit 10 cm) under bark between the various topographic positions were highly significant (p=0.001). Productivity on the lower slopes was about 100% more than that on the upper slopes. Contrastingly, growth of similar age A. mangium was consistent over the topographic range. Overall, volume production between the two species at this age was comparable. Regression analysis indicated that topographic position was the single most important variable affecting growth of G. arborea. Influence of the steepness of slope has not been shown to be of any significance for both species. For planning of new plantings, it is tentatively suggested that G. arborea be allocated areas on topographic position 3 and 4 whereas A. mangium should be planted on topographic position 1 and 2 (1= ridge top, 2= hill creep, 3= lower mid slope, 4= vally bottom)].

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23170


Common insect pests in forest nurseries and forest plantations in Sarawak

Sarkawi, MU
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; 1986

Abstract:
Common insect pests in various forest nurseries and plantation trial plots in Sarawak that were reported to or encountered by the Entomology Unit of the Forest Research Branch are described. The damage caused by the pests is highlighted together with the methods of treatment and control. Insects attacks on A. mangium are reported to be caused by Lepidoptera, Homoptera and Hemiptera

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23173


A preliminary survey on nodulation of VA mycorrhiza in legume roots

Nurani, A
Malaysian Forester 46(2): 171-174(1983)

Abstract:
[In a survey of 41 leguminous species in the nursery at Kepong, Malaysia, nodulation was observed in all species of Papilionoideae, 14 out of 17 species of Mimosoideae, the exception being Adenanthera spp. and [the herb] Neptunia natans, and only one (Delonix regia) out of 16 species of Caesalpinioideae. All the species contained VA mycorrhiza (rarely in Saraca sp.)] Acacia mangium is mentioned regarding soil nutrient and mycorrhizal infection of the plantation site. Mycorrhizal infection and spore per 100 g were outperformed only by the Leucaena leucocephala site.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23174


Quantitative comparison of Acacia mangium versus hybrid A. auriculiformis

Rufelds, CW
Forest Research Centre; Sepilok; FRC Publication 40 (1987)

Abstract:
Various hybrid growth and form characteristics indicated that a hybrid breeding program could be beneficial. However, prior to establishment of a full scale program further research into breeding methods and vegetative propagation, as well as comparisons between the wood quality and the growth and form of the hybrid verses that of A. mangium were deemed necessary. This study is a statistical comparison of the growth and form of 80 A. mangium and hybrid A. auriculiformis trees growing in a plantation in north-western Sabah.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23177


Detailed site evaluation of a reforestation site in Sawai Protected Forest

Petch, B; Kong, H
Forest Department Sarawak; Soil Research Report S.S. 13 (1985)

Abstract:
An interim survey report on about 100 ha of illegally deforested land in the Batang wawai basin to the east of the Miri-Bintulu road, Sarawak. The land, which had been used for shifting cultivation, was devided into two units (upland and lowland on the basis of drainage and slope). The soils were similar to those described earlier. Vegetation and soil maps (scale 1:5000) and soil profile descriptions are included. recommendations are made for planting A. mangium on the upland and Shorea macrophylla on the lowland unit.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23179


Studies on Acacia mangium in Kemasul Forest, Malaysia: 1) Biomass and productivity

Lim, MT
Journal of Tropical Ecology 4: 293-302(1988)

Abstract:
Malaysia is establishing large-scale plantation reforestation and the production of wood for pulp and paper well as for light contruction.The main species used current is the exotic legume A. mangium. The above-ground biomass, litter production and litter accumulation in a four-year-old stand Peninsular Malaysia were studied. The mean diameter at breast height (dbh) was 12cm. The mean annual increment (MAI) in dbh individual trees ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 cm while MAI in height sample trees ranged from 2.9 to 5.5cm The total above-group biomass of the stand was 90.4 t/ha consisting of 57.6 t stem 14.1 t branch and 5.4 t leaf. Litter production averaged 10.2 t/ha/year with leaf litter making up 87.4% of the total. Leaf litter accumulation amounted to 6.64 t/ha and theturnover constant of leaf litter was estimated at 1.35. The high productivity in discussed in relation to the high turnover of foliage and the low turnover of litter.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23178


Mulching and C/N ratio with respect to common plant residues at Oya Road Plantation, Sibu, Sarawak

Phang, C
Forest Department Sarawak;Forest Soil Technical Note 3: 85(1985)

Abstract:
The suitability of organic material from Pteridium aquilinum, Dicranopteris lineasis, Lycopodium cernum and Acacia mangium (fallen leaves) for surface mulching was investigated. C/N ratios were determined and it was found that residue from these species has no prospect as mulching medium.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23181

The occurence of hybrid Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn ex Benth. in Sabah


Rufelds, CW; Lapongon; J
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; Sarawak; 1986

Abstract:
The Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium hybrid has received a lot of attention from Sabah's reforestation organisations in the recent past. It has the potential to be important for future reforestation in Sabah. For this reason, a survey of the occurrence of hybrid A. auriculiformis in Sabah was carried out. This is a summary of the results of the survey. The origin and current distribution of A. auriculiformis, A. mangium and hybrid A. auriculiformis in Sabah is presented. The desirability of the hybrid with respect to its characteristics is discussed. The implications of the small genetic base of A. auriculiformis and its ultimate effect on the quality of hybrid A. auriculiformis is considered. Solutions to this problem and strategies for developing the hybrid for future reforestation in Sabah are given.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23182

Sulphate pulping of Acacia mangium and Cleistopholis glauca from Sabah


Peh, TB; Khoo, KC; Lee, TW
Malaysian Forester 45(3): 404-418(1982)

Abstract:
The chemical morphological and sulphate pulping properties of A. mangium and Cleistopholis glauca from Sabah were investigated. Although Cleistopholis glauca was found to be superior,both species and their admixture were found to be easy to pulp,giving high yield of pulp with good strength properties. The very low basic density of Cleistopholis glauca had a considerable effect in producing a low digester efficiency. Bleached pulps exhibited good brightness values and only a slight drop in strength.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23186

Biomass accumulation in a naturally regenerating lowland secondary forest and an Acacia mangium stand in Sarawak


Lim, MT; Basri, MH
Pertanika 8 (2): 237-242 (1985)

Abstract:
A. mangium was planted in 1979 on a fallow site at 3x3 m spacing to provide shade for interplanted cocoa. At 3 years, the top height and above ground biomass of A. mangium were respectively 15.5 m and 54.4 t/ha. The cocoa stand was 1.5 mj high and evidently suppressed by the A. mangium. The biomass at adjacent plot (naturally regenerated A. mangium) cleared at the same time and now overgrown with Imperata cylindrica (1.5m high) and scattered woody species was only 6.2 t/ha.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23187

Pulping and papermaking characteristics of plantation grown Acacia mangium from Sabah


Logan, AF; Balodis, V
Malaysian Forester 45(2): 217-236

Abstract:
Sulphate and NSSC pulps of different degrees of delignification were prepared from nine year old plantation grown Acacia mangium from Sabah. The wood and wood plus bark chips could be pulped by the sulphate process with moderate amounts of alkali to yield excess of 50% of screened pulp with very good papermaking properties. The pulps could be readily bleached to acceptable brightness levels for use in fine papers and other bleached grades. Pulp yield from the NSSC pulps ranged rom 61-75%. The lower-yield pulps could be used to replace hardwood sulphate pulps in higher quality paper and paperboard products. The A. mangium pulps are compared with pulps from commercial eucalyptus.. chips and rom Acacia auriculiformis. The latter is a ver.. promising pulpwood plantation species from Papua New Guinea. The sulphate and NSSC pulping properties of the two Acacias are rather similar except that the A. auriculiformis would attract higher export woodchip price because of the higher wood density and pulp yield. For similar reasons, for the production of sulphate and NSSC pulp. A, mangium would command a higher FO.. price than some other well known tropical hardwood plantation species such as Gmelina arborea, Albizia falcataria, Anthocephalus chinensis and Eucalyptus deglupta.]

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23189

Diseases of nursery importance in Sarawak


Chin, PH
Pathology Research Report Series 2; 1980

Abstract:
A. mangium is mentioned as being affected by sooty mould caused by Meliola sp. Sooty mould growth or crust may appear on leaves when potted seedlings are 4-5 months old. The pathogen reduces vigor of the host by interfering with its physiological functions.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23194

A site suitability study of Acacia mangium Willd. at Oya road plantation reserve, Sibu


Butt, G; Ting, SP
Forest Department Sarawak; Forest Research Report 5.5.5 (?)

Abstract:
The Oya Road Plantation Reserve in Sarawak is a 200 ha plot of land degraded by shifting cultivation an acquired by the Forest Department for plantation species trials. Since 1977, Acacia mangium has been tested in the reserve in seven plots varying in size from 0.13 to 2.94 ha. The plots are variously sited either on the Nyalau and Merit family soils of the red-yellow Podsolic soil group or Bandang series soils of the Grey-white Podsolic soil froup. The mean annual height increment of the trees ranges from 1.3 to 2.8 m whereas the mean annual girth increment varies from 5.1 cm to about 8.3 cm. Growth is better on the plots sited on the relatively well-drained soils of the Red-yellow podsolic soil group and is comparable to that of that of Acacia mangium trees grown under poor soil conditions in Sabah. Survival of trees is satisfactory if attacks by Pink disease caused by Corticium salmonicolor are controlled.] Age of analysed plots ranges from 3.3 to 7.7 years. Initial spacings were 2.5x2.5 m and 3x3 m. Mortality rates given are hardly comparable due to different stand ages and abnormally highly infestations with pests.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23190

Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees with special reference to SAFODA


Khamis, S
8th Malaysian Forestry Conference; andakan; Sabah; 1982

Abstract:
The paper describes the diseases of acacia mangium, Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus deglupta and Albizia falcataria. Acacia mangium is attached in Imperata grasslands by rodents (Rattus argentiventer). Slug attack (Vaginula sp.) is reported from peaty plantation sites. Caterpillars of the butterfly Eurema blanda defoliate the mimosa like leaflets of young Acacia mangium seedlings. Sometimes the damage is so severe, that the stem is completely cut off resulting in death of the seedling. Grasshoppers usually are present in various numbers in nurseries causing only minor damage. In plantations, Acacia mangium can be attacked by squirrels which strip off the bark at the base of the tree resulting in decay of the exposed wood. Termites are destructors which have to be taken seriously. In 1981, it was found that 23% of the 10-year old plantation trees in Ulu Ukit were infested. Attack by Ambrosia beetles (pinbole borers) of the family of Scolytidae and Platipodidae is frequently observed and symptoms are recognizable from the dark staining around the holes. Attack is seldom severe. Out of the diseases in the seedling stage damping off caused by fungi (Phytophtora, Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia) can be a very serious problum in the nursery. Charcoal root disease is another disease of the nursery and is caused by Macrophomia sp.. Dieback is found on A. mangium trees that are growing on poor soil. A sungus Tremetes corrugata is associated with the disease. Pin disease caused by the fungus Corticium salmonicolor is the most serious plantation pest of Acacia mangium. The fungus kills the bark, so that when the bark flakes off the wood underneath is exposed and eventually will decay.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23191

Acacia mangium provenance trial in Sabah


Lapongan, J; Low, MT
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; Sarawak; 1986

Abstract:
Provenance trials of Acacia mangium have only recently been established in Sabah in the early 1980's. To date, there have four phases of provenance trials on Acacia mangium. All the trials were established in Kolapis A, Kolapis b, Telupid, Sook, Silam and Brumas. The objective of this research is to find out the performence of the different provenances of Acacia mangium in Sabah. The first provenance trial shows that the Daintree river provenance from Queensland performed best. In the second trial, the claudie River provenance trial shows the three provenances, viz. The Claudie River, Oriomo and Iokwa provenances occupying the top three places in vigour. The fourth provenance trial also shows the same three provenances of Claudie River, Oriomo and Iokwa occupying the first three positions. The provenances from Sabah and Indonesia did not fare well in growth when compared with the provenances from Papua New Guines and some of the provenances from Queensland

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23193

Preliminary findings of damages caused by insects in tree plantations


Yoshii,R
8th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Sandakan; Sabah; 1982

Abstract:
This report gives a preliminary findings of insect damages in tree plantations.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23196

Seed handling practices; four fast growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the eighties


Bowen, MR; Eusebio, TV
Malayan Forester 45(4): 534-547(1982)

Abstract:
Appropriate seed handling practices havebeen developed for four fast growing handwoods, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta, Acacia mangium and Gmelina arborea, all of which are suitable for establishing plantations in the humid tropics. Investigations have been carried out under five headings, viz. phenology studies, harvesting techniques seed cleaning, seed testing and seed storage. A few of the research results obtained over the period March 1981 to March 1982 are presented in this paper to illustrate the procedures involved and to act as a basis for similar studies on other species.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23198

Performance of Acacia mangium Willd. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit at Niah Forest Reserve, Sarawak


Halenda, C
Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports No. 6; 1988; p15-17

Abstract:
A trial was established in the Niah Forest Reserve with the aim to determine the most successful treatment (out of a total 5 treatments) for biomass production, site stabilization and site fertility. It was carried out in abandoned shifting cultivation sites. The five treatments were; 1. Planting Acacia mangium, at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 2. Planting Leucaena leucocephala, at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 3. Planting Gmelina arborea at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 4. Line-planting of Araucaria cunninghamii., and 5. Natural regeneration. The paper discusses the results for Acacia mangium and Leucaena leucocephala only. Within the stand of both species on the midslope of low hills (highly acid red-yellow podsolic soil) sample plots of 10x20 m were established (replicated). From each plots, soil samples were taken for chemical analysis. Within each plot 10 (1x1 m) subplots were randomly placed and lower vegetation biomass and small-litter standing crop collected. In the 10x20 m plots all trees were harvested and weighed. Fresh weight for the following components were determined; 1. leaves, 2. twigs , 1 cm diameter over bark, 3. branches 1-3 cm diameter over bark, 4. dead branches, 5. stem, and 6. fruits and flowers. Over-dry weights of each component were taken. Acacia mangium is superior to Leucaena leucocephala in all aspects. It has much better growth rates and over dry biomass was 15 times greater than that of L. leucocephale. The litter-layer seemed effective in stabilizing the site against erosion growth.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23199

The role of forest plantation in the long term national timber production strategies in Peninsula Malaysia


Haron, HAH
Seminar on Development of Forest Plantations in Malaysia; Kota Kinabalu; Kundasang; Sabah

Abstract:
The paper describes the launching of the compensatory plantation programme from the national point of view and the history and strategy of resource development. Thr role of forest plantation is explained under the following topics; (1) increasing forest productivity, (2) expected financial return, (3) improvement of rural industries, (4) increasing income for the rural people (5) employment opportunities. The constraints for forest plantation development are mentioned especially the lack of trained staff and funds. Paper contains basic socio-economic data on the forestry sector in Peninsular Malaysia. Acreage of Acacia mangium plantations and growth rates are mentioned.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23200

Initial performance of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Acacia mangium Willd. under plantation conditions


Ramli, A; Mohd Amran, MG
Malayan Forester 47(4): 255-262(?year)

Abstract:
Initial performance of G. arborea and A. mangium stands established on Rengam and Bungor soils was evaluated in relation to upper and lower slopes. Both species generally had lower percentage of abnormal trees, higher percentage of trees with good crown and stem quality, ahigher MAI of diameter and height on the lower slopes. G. arborea tends to have less abnormal trees and higher growth rate on Rengam than on Bungor soils. A. mangium showed little variation in its performance on the two soils. The abnormal trees of both species had lower height but greater diameter growth than normal trees. In general, A. mangium was found to grow faster than G. arborea on both slopes and soils.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23205

Meloidogyne spp. - cause of root knot of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings


Chin, FH
Forest Department Sarawak;Forest Research Report FP4; 1986

Abstract:
The paper describes distribution, morphology and life cycle of the nematode, the damage they produce and the control measures. The inhibition of height growth of infested Acacia mangium seedlings is illustrated by height growth data and photographs. The author recommends five control measures; (1) application of the nematicide `FURADAN 3G' (wettable powder) at 0.5 gm per seedling before the age of five weeks. (2) treatment of soil with 4.5% commercial formaldehyde at 8 ml per 470 ml of water to 900 sq.cm of soil 5-7 days before sowing, (3) sanitary measures by removing all dead plants from the nursery and improvement of the drainage system, (4) rotation with nonsusceptible crops, (5) hot water dips of infested roots or chemical dips.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23206

Acacia mangium : A note on seed collection, handling and storage techniques including some experimental data and information on A. auriculiformis and the probably A. mangium and A. auriculiformis hybrid


Bowen, MR
FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009 Seed Series 3; 1981

Abstract:
The paper describes flowering, fruiting, seed harvesting, seed drying, seed extraction, seed storage and seed germination of Acaci a mangium. Techniques recommended by the author are: 1. Collect mature seeds by crown harvests of the pods. 2. Sun dry or preferably warm-air dry pods fro 2-3 days to aid seed separation 3. Extract seeds by crushing or shaking pods. 4. Sieve and winnow debris from seeds 5. Store seeds at 4-10% moisture content in airtight. containers at 3-5C. 6. Pretreat seeds with five times its volume of water at 100C. Cool to ambient temperature and imbibe 16-24 hours. 7. Test germination on damp filter paper at 30C 8. For nursery sowing, pretreat seeds as above and sow onto carefully prepared seed beds.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23201

Nursery practice, site evaluation and silvicultural management for forest plantations in Sarawak


Kendawang, JJ; Chai, FYC
Seminar on Forest Plantation Development in Malaysia; Kota Kinabalu; Kundasang; Sabah

Abstract:
Plantation of a significant scale was started in Sarawak only in 1979. Prior to this, plantation were confined to trials of coniferous species and hardwood species including legumes. Major reforestation species now include Acacia mangium, Shorea spp. (Engkabang), Durio spp. and Swietenia macrophylla. Nursery practices for these species are outlined. Site evaluation is carried out as far as possible to match the species to site Silvicultural practices including weeding, fertilisation and thinning operation have been carried out on an arbitrary basis and need further studies. Effective protection against insect pest and fungal diseases, fire control and tree improvement measures are essential for the success of future forest plantations in Sarawak.] The author recommends pre-treatment of Acacia mangium seeds by submerging seeds in boiling water (100C) overnight. The seeds are sown using pure river sand as sowing medium. Pricking is done as soon as seedlings are large enough and this is usually done at about 2-3 weeks after sowing. Seedlings should be ready for planting three months after potting. The paper contains a suitabilit list for the Sabah Forest reserve. With exception of gley soils, Acacia mangium is recommended for all other existing soil types. Various diseases are listed, of which none has become epidemic.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23202

Insects pests of plantation species in Sarawak


Abang, AH
8th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Sandakan; Sabah; 1992

Abstract:
The paper briefly describes insect pest of Albizia falcataria, Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus deglupta, that have been planted in trial plantation plots in Sarawak. In Acacia mangium, Helopeltis spp. (Miridae) was sucking on shoots causing multiple leadering. Penthicodes farinosa was noted to meve into some Acacia mangium plots, but no immediate damage had been found. It is suggested that population of defoliating stick insects be monitored.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23203

Insects pests of Acacia mangium Willd. in Sarawak


Abang, AH
Forest Research Report FEI; 1987

Abstract:
The paper describes insect pests of Acacia mangium caused by defoliators (Thosea asigna), grasshoppers and crickets (Atractomorpha spp., Nisitra vittatus, Valanga nigricornis), bagworms (Cryptomela sp., Pteroma plagiophaleps), sap-suckers (Helopeltis spp.) and termites (Coptotermes curvignathus, Coptotermes sepangensis, Microcerotermes distans). Symptoms and causes of the delseases are described as well as protective measures.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23204

Meloidogyne spp. - cause of root knot of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings


Chin, FH
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference Kuching; Sarawak; 1986; p.13-20

Abstract:
The cause of extremely high mortality and poor health of Acacia mangium willd, at forest nurseries in Niah and Sabah areas in Sarawak in 1984 and 1985 was traced to othe root-knot nematode Meloidogyne. The damage caused by the pathogens, their life cycle and distribution and control measures to be taken are discussed.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23207

Acacia mangium: Updated information on seed collection, handling and germination testing


Boven, MR; Eusebio, TW
FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009 Seed Series 5; 1981

Abstract:
Information on Acacia mangium seeds published in FAO Seed Series no. 5 is updated. They deal with collection site and harvest period, pod harvesting, seed extraction and cleaning, seed yield and seed size, variation in Acacia mangium seed, seed moisture content, germination, effects of inhibition and redrying, effects on germination of heating dry seed, temperature conditions for germination, insect damage to seed and insect associates. The pretreatment is refined and the following procedure is recommended: 1. Measure the volume of seeds to be sown. 2. Measure the volume of seeds to be sown. 2. Heat five time this volume of water in a glass or light metal container until it is boiling vigorously. 3. Remove the water from the heat source. 4. Immediately pour seeds into water at 100C. 5. Stir seeds and water for 30secs precisely. 6. Pour off the water. 7. Add 20 times the seed volume of cold water (room temperature). 8. Stand overnight to imbibe. 9. Sow in the laboratory or nursery bed. The authors emphasize that all measurements and timings must be followed exactly. Pretreated seeds can be redried without loss of germination. Heating of dry seeds at 100C gave acceptable germination only with the treatment time of 10 min. A trial on four different temperature regimes showed that germination was best either with a constant temperature of 25 or 35C for 17 hrs or 25C for 7 hrs. Low germination was achieved with a constant temperature of 35C for 24 hrs.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23208

Acacia mangium - a plantation species for Imperata cylindrica grassland in Sabah


Thom, CK
FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009 Report; 1980; p.14

Abstract:
In Sabah there are about 902,000 ha of degraded land which are colonied by Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Acacia mangium Willd, was found to outgrow Pinus caribaea Mor. var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf. on such sites. The chief attributes of the species are an ability to grow on infertile sites, rapid growth and reasonably good form. Ten-year-old trees have yielded AN OVER-BARK VOLUME OF 439 3C/ha. The wood is suitable for sawn timber, particle board manufacture and pulp and paper making.] The paper describes the natural distribution and habitat, seed availability and storage, performance in grassland, wood properties and utilization of Acacia mangium. The appendix contains a map showing the natural distribution and a graph showing height and diameter growth curves in comparison with Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23209

Site evaluation for reforestation and rehabilitation projects in Sarawak


Ting, SP
9th Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kuching; Sarawak; 1986

Abstract:
This paper outlines the method used in the evaluation of site for reforestation and rehabilitation projects in Sarawak. Stages include planning, field survey, delineation of map units, review of growth characteristics, requirements of tree species and species-site matching. Problems encountered in the implementation of the method are discussed.] The paper includes tabulated information on the growth characteristics and tolerances of Acacia mangium and on the suitability of soils for Acacia mangium plantations.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23210

An appraisal of the compensatory plantation programme in Peninsula Malaysia


Johari, B
Seminar on The future role of forest plantations in the national economy and incentives required to encourage investments in forest plantation development; Kota Kinabalu; Sabah; 1987

Abstract:
The compensatory plantation programme was first started in late 1982 and based on the experience pained, the programme has been found to be technically sound and could be implemented using current management and silvicultural techniques. The plantations are relatively free of diseases and pest attacks. Loss due to forest fire has been minimal and the growth of the plantations very encouraging. However, early pruning (Acacia mangium) and thinning are required to have good form trees and maintain growth vigour. Research results also showed that the species have vast utilisation potential. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the current project is commercially viable with an IRR at 19.2&. However, research has to be strengthened and intersified so that it could give the appropriate support to the programme.] The paper deals in detail with the financial analysis and includes a sensitivity analysis. The results are tabulated and assumptions for economic calculations are explained.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23211

Report on some nursery trials with Acacia mangium Willd.


Jones, N
Forest Research Centre Sepilok;Sabah;FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009 Working Paper 22; 1984

Abstract:
Acacia mangium Willd., an exotic in Sabah is proving to be an important species in the rapidly expanding afforestation programme. Its ability to compete with Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. and to grow well with a good straight bole on wasteland sites are its most valuable characteristics. The original importation was from a single parent and small in size; however precocious flowering has made local local seed harvesting possible which has subsequently provided a large population from the narrow genetic base. Degradation in form but not in vigour.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23332


Growth of Acacia mangium during three years following thining: preliminary results

Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y
Journal of Tropical Forest Science 6(2): 171-180(1993)

Abstract:
The growth response of Acasia mangium stands under two thinning intensities is discussed. A mean annual diameter increment of 3.0 cm of the whole period could not be achieved even for the 300 biggest crop trees in the heavily thinned stands. The periodic annual increment was 2.0 cm. Similar was the periodicannual increment for the 300 selected crop trees (PTC) in the heavily thinned plots (1.9 cm). The total volume increment (volume over bark up to 10 cm top diameter limit )of three years was highest in the unthinned control (130.51 m) lowest in the heavily thinned plots (110.56m) Live crown ratio gained distinctly from the thinning interventions. At the beginning of the trial live ranged from 27.3 % ( control plots ) to 33.1 % (heavily thinned plots). After three years, live crown ratio ranged from 22.9% (control plots to 38.3% (heavily thinned plots). highest live crown ratios were found in the heavily thinned plots and lowest in the unthinned control plots. Overall, the thinning trial gave pronouncedly stratified results. Acacia mangiium reacts favourably to thinning interventions with improvement of the growth rates and crown size. However, it will be impossible to achieve an average diameter increment of 3 cm y over the rotation time of 15 y. As a result, a reduction in the number of final crop trees and raising of the rotation age is advisable.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23336


Fungi associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium in Peninsular Malaysia

Lee.SS; Maziah Zakaria
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropial Forest Science 5(4): 479-483(1993)

Abstract:
Fungal isolations were made from heart rot affected wood of freshly felled Acacia mangium trees of various ages obtained from several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Seven distinct types of rot were recognised and 25 different Hymenomycete fungi isolated. Only one of the fungal isolates could be positively identified as Phellinus noxius from cultural characteristics. Although the other 24 fungi could not be positively identified, they were recognised as different from each other based on cultural characteristics. Phellinus noxius was only associated with honeycomb rot found in trees between seven and eight years of age from various locations while a large number of different fungi were associated with white fibrous rot in trees of various ages. The implications of these results are discussed.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23339


Effect of root wrenching and controlled watering on growth, drought resistance and quality of bare-rooted seedlings of Acacia mangium

Khamis, A; Chavez, CG
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(3): 309-321(1993)

Abstract:
The possibility of conditioning and hardening bare-rooted Acacia mangium seedlings by root wrenching and controlled watering was investigated. Ten-week-old seedlings in open beds were subjected to combined treatments of three root wrenching regimes (unwrenched, wrenched fortnightly, wrenched monthly) and two watering regimes (once every three and six days). Potted seedlings with daily watering were used as controls. Twelve weeks later, the seedlings were assessed for dry matter production, root/shoot ratio, root growth capacity, diameter and height growths, diameter/height ratio, water relations and survival. Root wrenching and controlled watering had significant effects on most of the growth parameters. Good survival was associated with high root/shoot ratio, diameter/height ratio, root growth capacity and efficient water economy. Good survival was observed in seedlings watered every six days and wrenched either monthly of fortnightly. Control seedlings which had high shoot development but low root growth capacity and poor water economy showed low survival rates.Unwrenched bare-rooted seedlings watered every three days had poor survival compared to unwrenched seedlings watered every six days. Monthly wrenched seddlings had only slightly better survival results than fortnightly wrenched seedlings, indicating that increased frequency did not necessarily improve survival. A combination of monthly wrenching and 6 day watering is recommended.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23342


Phosphate fertilization of Acacia mangium: residual of various p-fertilizers and effect on uptake of other elements

Wan Rashidah, A.K; Ahmad Sahali, M; Khiruddin, A.R
Forest Research Institute of Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(3): 361-371(1993)

Abstract:
An isotope dilution technique, based on the uptake of labelled phosphorus (32P), was used to measure the effectiveness of different P sources after incorporation into the soil under Acacia mangium plantation. The Phosphate (P) sources tested were Christmas island rock phosphate (CIRP), Moroccan rock phosphate (MRP), Jordanian rock phosphate (JRP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). Measurement were carried out at 6, 15 and 20 months after fertilizer application. Significant increment in foliage dry matter and P yield was obtained with JRP treated trees at 6- and 15-mth sampling. As for the whole tree, the contribution of dry matter weight initially comes mostly from foliage, but at later stages other parts contribute equally or higher. Application of P fertilizer increases the uptake of other nutrients, particularly N and K. The fraction of P taken up by the trees which was derived from fertilization with JRP and TSP decreased gradually with time. On the other hand, CIRP had a longer residual value. All fertilizers showed relatively comparable P availability for every equivalent unit of material after 20 months of application.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23347

Decay resistance of Acacia mangium heartwood against brown- and white-rot fungi: preliminary results


Salmiah, U; Amburgey, TC
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal Tropical Forest Science 6(1): 16-20(1994)

Abstract:
The decay resistance of the outer heartwood of Acacia mangium from two sources was evaluated against the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor and the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The outer heartwood of A. mangium from Ulu Sedili was found to be non-resistant and that from Kemasul was determined to be moderately resistant. The study indicated a variation in the decay resistance of A. mangium from the two sources. Keywords: Acacia mangium - decay resistance - Curiolus versicolor - Gloeophyllum trabeum

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23348

A survey of heart rot in some plantations of Acacia mangium in Sabah


Mahmud, S; Lee, SS; Ahmad, H
Journal of Tropical Forest Science (?vol) (?year) (?p)

Abstract:
The extent of heart rot in Acacia mangium, was determined by destructively sampling 100 trees from 3-y-old thinnings and 195 trees varying from six to nine years old in 20 selected plots. Only 4% of the thinnings had heart rot which appeared to originate from thinningwounds. In the older trees, the average incidence of heart rot was 35.5%. The volume of wood affected by heart rot and discoloration ranged between 0.3 and 24.0% while the volume of wood affected by heart rot alone ranged between 0.03 and 18.0%. The main infection courts were dead branches while cankers and less frequently, roots and branch stubs were supplementary infection courts. There was no significant difference (p<0.0.05) in diameter and height of heart rotted and non-heart rotted trees. However, there was a significantly higher incidence of heart rot in 8-y-old trees from Keningau (48.7%) than those from Kudat (10%) (p<0.05) and this was probably related to site factors. Only 4% of sampled trees were attacked by termites. Keywords: Acacia mangium - heart rot - infection courts

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23352

Industrial wood preservation : A role in the conservation of tropical biodiversity


Wong,AHH;Hong,LT;Daljeet Singh;K
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Malayan Nature Journal 45(1-4): 563-578(1992)

Abstract:
The tropical rainforests, covering some twenty percent of the world's land mass, are fast disappearing mainly because of the rapid rate of felling in order to meet demands for timbers. Under humid conditions timbers are exposed to biological degradation and require chemical protectants, in the form of antifungal and anti-termitic wood preservatives. Treated timber will last considerably longer in high decay hazards and therefore, hopefully, this will help reduce pressures on natural forests for replenishment of wood materials lost through biological destruction. In this respect, the development of sound methods of treatment of timbers by Malaysian wood preservation industry, can playa role, albeit indirectly, in the conservation of tropical biodiversity.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23369


Growth difference fertility status and foliar deficiency levels of six year old Acacia mangium on bris soils

Amir Husni, M.S; Wan Rashidah, W.A.K.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 6(3): 356-358(1994)

Abstract:
A study was made on the foliar elemental levels and growth differences in terms of height, diameter and basal area compositions between two soil types, and the foliar deficiency levels for elemental N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Mn an Zn. Based on ANOVA and Correlation Coefficient Analysis, it was shown that N uptake was somewhat independent of N in the soil. Significant relationships were also established for foliar K and Ca and their corresponding soil nutrients. Influence of site was significant for accumulated height but not for diameter and basal area. Nitrogen and K levels of 2.35% and 0.65% respectively in the foliage of A. mangium growing in Rhudua soils were considered non- limiting, while the K level of 0.4% in the foliage of Acacia growing on Jambu soils was considered as a limiting level for growth.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23371


Effects of a growth retardant and shoot pruning on the growth of Acacia mangium seedlings

Sheikh Ali, A; Cheong Kok, L
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 6(3): 239-248(1994)

Abstract:
Two experiments of chemical manipulation using a growth retardant, paclobutrazol, and a physical manipulation by shoot pruning were conducted in an attempt to developan effective nursery technique to control excessive growth of Acacia mangium seedlings prior to transplanting. The first experiment involved foliar spraying of 10-week-old seedlings with paclobutrazol at concentration of 0,0.25,0.5,1,2,4,8 and 12gl-1 in the presence of a Du pont agricultural surfactant. The effects of two frequencies of application were also tested. Twelve weeks after treatment, factorial analyses revealed the main effects of concentration and frequency of application to be significant in reducing the plant height,leaf area,shoot and root dry weights and increasing the root lenght to leaf area ratio. Only the main effects of concentration were statistically significant in reducing the diameter increment and total root length. No interactions were recorded between the two factors for most of the parameters measured and effects on growth appeared additive. growth retardation increased with increasing chemical concentration to a maximum. at 12gl-1. The second experiment tested the effects of pruning the main shoot of 10-week-old seedlings at 0,30 and 60% of their total lenght before planting out.Similar growth parameters as for the first experiment were monitored for 12 weeks and the results showed maximum reduction in plants with 60% shoot removed. The effect of shoot pruning was statistically significant for all the parameters measured except for height increment and root to shoot ratios. Chemical control of growth was more promising than shoot pruning.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23372


Provenance trial of Acacia auriculiformis in Peninsular Malaysia 12 month performance

Nor Aini, A.S; Kamis, A; Mansor, M.R; Abd. Latib, S
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 6(3): 249-256(1994)

Abstract:
A trial of 28 provenances of Acacia auriculiformis was assessed for survival and growth at age 12 months. Of these provenances, 7 were from queensland and 15 from northern Territory, australia, and 6 from Papua new guinea. All provenances survived very well (>92%), but they differed very significantly (p<0.001) in their growth performance. A selection of provenances from Northern Territory and Queensland were among the top performers, with East Alligator River (16152) being the best. The results indicate the presence of genetic diversity in this species and support the need for genetic improvement.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23378


Occurrence of mycorrhizae in seedlings of some tree species in Sarawak

Lucy, C.
Forest Research Centre;Wisma Sumber Alam;Kuching;Sarawak

Forest Research Report (No. FP 5) 1987

Abstract:
Roots of 25 species of seedlings from Oya Road nursery and 12 species from Niah Research Station nursery were examined for mycorrhized infections. Pinus cubensis,Pinus oocarpa and Shorea macrophylla were found to have ectomycorrhizal associations only. Endomycorrhizal fungi were observed in 25 species of seedlings having little effect on root morphology. Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis developed both vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 23439

An afforestation technique for establishment of Acacia auriculiformis on sandy tin tailings


Ang, LH; Chan, HT; Darus, HA
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor; 1-2 Nov. 1993

Abstract:
Several studies showed that afforestation efforts are needed for the rehabilitation of sand tailings. The poor chemical and physical properties of sand tailings for plant establishment make them costly to be rehabilitated. Previous attempts showed that sand tailings are feasible for tree planting if they exceed 15 years after mining. This study showed that six-month-old sand tailings can be revegetated with Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. The results showed that A. auriculifomis and A. mangium have high survival ranging from 94 to 100% and 87 to 100% respectively. Higher survival and growth were recorded for both acacias at 1 m above standing water level. The cost effective technique developed for afforestation of sand tailings required minimal organic amendment and without irrigation system. Hence this study showed that the technique developed is practical for afforestation of sand tailings.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 25160

Stand growth response of 12-year-old plantation grown Acacia mangium willd. under different thinning regimes


Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y; Mohd. Noor, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of the Fourth Conference; Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 1997; p 145-157

Abstract:
The stand growth response of 12-year-old plantation grown Acacia mangium Willd. to two different thinning intensifies is discussed. A periodic annual diameter increment for the whole stand ranged from 0.7 cm (unthinned) to 1.8 cm (heavy thinning) for the whole 12- year period. Similarly, for the 200 potential final crop trees, the periodic annual diameter increment ranged from 1.1 cm (unthinned) to 2.4 cm (heavy thinning). The total volume increment (overbark) was highest in the moderately thinned (211.77 m3 ) and lowest in the unthinned plots (199.55 m3) . Live crown ratios, however, have no significant effect from the thinning interventions. The live crown ratios ranged from 18% (unthinned) to 30% (heavy thinning). Overall, Acacia mangium responded favourably to thinning intervention with the improvement of growth rates. However, the initial target of reaching annual increment of 3 cm per year is unlikely to be achieved within a rotation period of 15 years. Reduction of the rotation period for the production of other products such as industrial wood products is proposed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23531

Chemical properties of Acacia mangium barks of different ages and locations


Chew, LT; Nurulhuda, MN; Saimin, B; Yamada, N
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Proceedings of the Second Chemistry Division Seminar 29 February;7-12p

Abstract:
Neither the age nor the location of the Acacia mangium trees from 10 different plantation plots in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah influenced the tannin contents or chemical constituents of their barks. Although the trees were only 5 to 9 years old, the barks had high tannin content which ranged from 18 to 39 percent and justified possible commercial exploitation of the tannins. The high content of hot water solubles of the Acacia mangium barks indicated that water as the most economical and suitable solvent for tannin extraction.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23567

A note on the effect of outliers on the valiability of Acacia auriculiformis trials


Venkateswarlu, P; Kamis, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 6(4): 553-557(1994)

Abstract:
This paper is to illustrate Tiku’s robust procedure for the detection of outliers with experimental data from A. auriculiformis provenance trials and compares the estimate of error variances where outliers have been included and excluded.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23661

Finishing properties of Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea timbers: Some important parameter


Ahmad Shakri, MS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 1(1): 83-89(1995)

Abstract:
The performance of four common finishing systems on three plantation species, namely Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea was investigated. These timbers could be finished easily and gave an attractive finish. The properties of the finish varied for different finishing systems and timber species. The study suggests that selection of finishes should be considered in finishing these timbers for different end uses.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23720

Effects of soil compaction on growth of three-years old Acacia mangium Willd. stand in Setul, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia


Mohd. Basri, H; Nik Muhamad, M
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 50 (3): 250-257 (1987)

Abstract:
Acacia mangium stand was established in undulating lowland which included a former and compacted ca. 0.4 ha primary log-landing site (matau). Site preparation was the standard manual slash- and-bum method with no mechanical soil disturbance except for the matau area which was ploughed once to ca.30 cm depth. Silvicultural treatments included 2 fertilizations, once at establishment and the second 6 months later with ca. 170g/plant CIRP, and two prunings at 6 months and 2.5 years. There was no thinning. Stand growth at 3 years was assessed and soil sampled in 20x2Om plots, each with ca.49 trees, for selected physical properties. Three plots were located inside the matau and three without but on comparable terrain and within the same soil series (Tropeptic Haplorthox). Height and diameter growth were significantly reduced. Compaction as indicated by the bulk density, was greater by >35%. Compaction, as indicated by the bulk density, was greater by > 35% (1.53 g/CM3; P < 5%) and corresponding total pore space reduced by about 30% (42%..P
Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23872

The abrasive resistance of seven-year old Acacia mangium timber from Kepong plantation


Ahmad Shakri, MS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(2): 140-144(1988)

Abstract:
The abrasive resistance of Acacia mangium was assessed and compared with that of kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), a common flooring timber. The results showed that A. mangium is much inferior to kempas and is not suitable for use as a flooring material.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24010

Insect pests of Acacia mangium sawn timber


Ho, YF; Maznah, O
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 1(2): 113-116(1995)

Abstract:
A total of 21 species of beetles from the family Scolytidae were found to infect Acacia mangium timber. Both unseasoned and seasoned timbers were prone to scolytid attack of Acacia mangium

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24064

Seedling disease of Acacia mangium Willd. and Gmelina arborea Roxb. in forest nursery


Lee, SS; Goh, LK
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

The Malaysian Forester 51(1): 1-7(1989)

Abstract:
The disease and associated pathogens of A. mangium and G. arborea in a forest nursery are identified and seedlings mortality rates quantified. A. mangium seedlings had very high survival rates, 91.4% of the seedlings survived after 4 months, while G. arborea seedlings suffered very high mortality, with only 15.4% survival after the same period of time. Stem rot and anthracnose were the most frequently occuring and damaging diseases among G. arborea seedlings. Nineteen species of fungi were isolated from diseased seedlings of both species and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was the fungus most frequently isolated. It was associated with leaf spots in 2,3 and 4 month- old G. arborea. The disease control measures practised in the nursery did not give adequate protection to G. arborea seedlings although they were effective for A. mangium seedlings. The reasons for the poor disease control and high mortality rates in G. arborea seedlings are discusses.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24065

Properties of particleboards manufactured from fast-growing plantations species


Razali, AK; Kuo, HS
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52 (1): 8-14 (1989)

Abstract:
The main objective of the study was to determine the suit ability of converting first thinning wood material into parti cleboards by testing their physical and mechanical properties. The first thinnings (4-5 year old) of fast-growing hardwood forest plantation species, Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria were used as the raw wood material for the manufacture of medium-density particleboards. In addition, thinnings of Araucaria hunstenii, a softwood species, were also used. Wood flakes of each test species were fabricated into 650kg/m3 density boards with 7% and 1 % resin and wax contents, respectively. Commercially available urea formaldehyde resin adhesive was used as the binder. A. mangium and G. arborea flakes were also blended at a 7:3 ratio to produce mixed species boards. The properties tested were in with the Japanese Stan dards, JIS A 5908-1983. All the 650 kg/m3 boards manufactured met the requirement of JIS Type 200 board. Among the hardwood species, G. arborea had the highest bending strength (MOR) at 281 kg/cm2 and internal bond (IB) strength at 10 kg/cm2. A mangium on the other hand, had the highest stiffness (MOE) at 3.4 x 10 4kg/cm2 and screw retaining force at 116.2 kg, with lowest water absorption (16.2%) and thickness swelling (15.4%) properties. A. hunstenii boards had the highest MOR (302 kg/cm2) and MOE (3.8 x 10 kg/cm2), but lowest IB at 7 kg/cm2 compared to all the other 650 kg/m3 particleboards. P. falcataria particle board manufactured at a density of 500 kg/m3, satisfied only JIS Type 100 board properties: MOR 135 kg/cm2, MOE 1.5 x 10 4 kg/cm2 and IB 4 kg/ cm2. The first thinnings of the fast-growing plan tation species were successfully manufactured into interior grade particleboards using readily available synthetic resin adhesive. This provides an opportunity to utilize the fibre resources which otherwise would be left unused in the plantation forest.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24066

Modelling the growth of Acacia mangium (Willd.)


Lim, MT
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52(1): 15-15(1989)

Abstract:
Acacia mangium has been the major species used in reafforestation and afforestation efforts in Malaysia since the late 1970's. Several thousand hectares have been planted with this species and by the year 2000 it is expected to cover over 200,000 ha. Inspite of it all, there has been very few studies on how well it will perform, apart from a limited number of reports which indicates that it grows very rapidly during the first five to seven years. This paper attempts to synthesize and integrate some of the data obtained into an overall model which can be used to predict the performance of the species at the end of the proposed rotation of 15 years.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24069

The weathering performance of Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea timbers coated with exterior finishes


Ahmad Shakri, MS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

The Malaysian Forester 51 (3): 134-141 (1988)

Abstract:
Weathering test on three Malaysian Compensatory Plantation timber, Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea coated with three products of penetration and four pro ducts of film-forming exterior wood finishes was carried out. The panels were exposed to exterior weathering at a rural site for 12 months. Both timber and coatings were assessed for de fects. All the species tasted were not resistant to exterior weathering. Exterior wood finishes were only able to provide a temporary protection. However, the film-forming types exterior finishes performed slightly better than the penetration types.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24067

Gluing properties of three fast-growing plantation species


Mohd Hamami, S; Razali, AK; Kee, TK
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52 (2): 46-60 (1989)

Abstract:
Glueability of three fast-growing plantation hardwood lami nates of species viz. Acacia mangium Willd., Gmelina arborea Roxb., and Paraserianthes falcataria Back. glued with phenol- resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) resin adhesives were evaluated using shear strength and percentage wood failure. PRF and UF glued joints were assessed by block shear test. A total of six combinations were tested; three for single-species laminates and the remaining three for mixed-spe cies laminates. Specimens were tested dry and wet in accordance to American Society for Testing and Materials, ASIM D 905- 49(76). Results showed that the majority of the species combina tions glued with PRF adhesive exceeded the minimum industrial requirements of 5.5 MPa and 4.1 MPa for dry and wet conditions, respectively. Single species A. mangium combination exhibited the highest glue joint shear strength of 9.8Mpa and 6.29 Mpa for dry and wet, respectively. With UF adhesive, however, none of the species combination achieved the glue joint strength re quirement for dry test. The strongest shear strength for board glued with this resin was exhibited by P. falcataria - P. falca taria combination at 5.22 MPa. It was also found that the per centage of wood failure did not indicate the respective shear strength of the glue joints. All dried P. falcataria combina tions gave a relatively low shear strength but exhibited more than 70%wood failure for both PRF and UF resin adhesives. Physical factors such as species density, moisture content, shrinkage and swelling properties of wood as well as the inher ent characteristics of the adhesive such as viscosity, pH and solid content influence the bonding strength. Plantation spe cies which are generally small in size could be joined with suitable adhesives to form useful dimensions for various end uses.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24094

Intergrity of phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde glue joints on three fast growing tropical hardwood species


Mohd Hamami, S; Kee, TK
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 53(4): 82-90(1990)

Abstract:
The intergrity durability of phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) glue joints on three fast-growing tropical hardwood species were evaluated. Single and mixed species laminations were produced using these adhesives at room temperature. The intergrity of glue bond to delamination was tested according to the ASTM D 1101-59 (76). All species glued with PRF glue offered less than 1% of the maximum allowable 10% delamination percentage while all the UF glued species combinations experienced more than 10% delamination percentage. PRF glue joints was found to be stronger and more durable than UF glue joints. Mixed-species combination of PRF glue joints performed better than their single-species counterparts. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24096

Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)- A new insect pest of Acacia mangium Willd.


Ahmad Said, S; Lee, SS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

The Malaysian Forester 53(4): 149-155(1990)

Abstract:
Seedlings of Acacia mangium Willd. (Leguminose) were reported to be attacked for the first time by a native ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera:Scolytidae). The beetle attacked seedlings growing under stressed in nurseries. The beetle required 18 days to develop from egg to adult emergence. Four deuteromycete fungi, Botryodiplodia sp., Fusarium sp., Monilia sp. and Pestalotiopsis sp. were isolated fron the beetle and affected vascular tissues. (Authors' abstrcat)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24097

Physical characteristics of 1 1/3 year old Acacia mangium stand


Ahmad Ainuddin, N; Abdul Wahab, D
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52(3): 125-135(1989)

Abstract:
Establishment of forest plantation can affect the environment. This study was carried out to investigate the physical characteristics of Acacia mangium stand. This study was conducted in a 1 1/3 year old Acacia mangium stand in Rantau Panjang Forest Reserve. Physical characteristics such as solar radiation, air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, soil moisture and rainfall were taken. The data were taken hourly for five days and weekly for 13 weeks. The result showed that the forest floor received solar radiation of 175.5 watts/m2, had air temperature of 33.2 oC with a different of 12.8 oC between daily minimum and maximum; relative humidity 99.6% (max.) and 76.6%(min.) and maximum wind speed of 15.3 m/sec. The soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth differed by 0.6 oC. The values for the parameters in the 1 1/3 year old stand were higher than those of natural forests. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24098

Root and shoot growth and their manipulations of Acacia mangium seedlings


Sheikh Ali, A; Jaludin, A
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52(3): 136-145(1989)

Abstract:
Root and shoot of A. mangium seedlings grew in concert with each other such that a funtional balanced was maintained as shown by the existence of a constant root length; leaf area ratio averaging 5 cm per cm. The trees appear to re-establish their optimal `funtional' ratio by way of a co-ordinated pattern of growth tending to correct any disturbance to the ratio resulting from any manipulative process. Manipulations by pot size reduction, root pruning and shoot pruning inhibited both root and shoot growth. Overall, the effects of growth can be ranked as pot size > shoot pruning > root pruning. The effects were additive and generally showed no interactions between factors for most of the parameters measured. (Authros' abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24099

Effects of paclobutrazol and its method of application on the growth and transpiration of Acacia mangium seedlings


Sheikh Ali, A; Teng, LT
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 52(3): 146-158(1989)

Abstract:
Ten-week-old potted A. mangium seedlings were subjected to a growth retardant paclobutrazol (PP333) at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 4000 and 12000 mg/I. Four method of applications were tested i.e. S: soil drenching at week 0:S+F: soil and foliar spray at week 0:F1: foliar spray at week 0:F2: foliar spray at weeks 0 and 6. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks of various growth measurements. Height and leaf area increments, transpiration and stomatal conductance were monitored at weekly intervals. Paclobutrazol was found to be very effective in reducing the root and shoot growth, transpiration and stomatal conductance of the seedlings. The converse was true for root to shoot ratios. These effects increased with increasing concentrations. However, there appears to be a threshold concentration at 4000 mg/l above which differences between treatment means for the parameters measured were small. Differences between treated and control for these parameters were greatest for plants treated by soil (S) or soil and foliar (S+F). (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24201

Forest Tree Plantations - Sabah Softwoods' Exprience


Edward, C
Sabah Softwoods Sdn. Bhd.;Tawau;Sabah

The Planter 72: 617-623(1996)

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present the practical experiences of Sabah Softwoods in forest tree plantations. In order to succesfully establish a forest plantation, apart from having sufficient initial capital and commitment one has to have good knowledge in its utilisation and of course, the future market potential. Equally important is the planting of genetically improved material and silvicultural inputs to enhance production and profitablity. Inevitably, like other investments there are always constraints and limitations which require appropriate assistance and consideration from the government.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24206

Genotype x environment interaction and its stability in Acacia mangium


Lokmal, N; Ab. Rasip, AG; Norwati, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 8(2): 247-254(1995)

Abstract:
Five provenances of Acacia mangium were used to establish provenance trials at five locations, namely Sabal, Jakar, Oya Road, Labang and Sawai Forest Reserves in Sarawak. The provenances were Broken Pole, Cassoway, PiruCeram, Rex Range and Sidei. Plots mean of each provenance were subjected to joint regression analysis using height and diameter growth. Location, provenance and interaction between provenance and location effects were significant. Provenances Piru Ceram, Rex Range and Sidei were found to be stable in their response to different locations while Broken Pole and Cassoway were ubstable. Hence, the former provenances were expected to give an average response to various locations while the latter were more suitable for good locations only.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24208

Survival and growth of three dipterocarp species line-planted under Acacia mangium


Ueda, K; Kimura, K; Matsumoto, Y; Samsudin, S; Mangsor, MY
Forestry Department;Ipoh;Perak

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research; 1995; p87-98

Abstract:
Survival rate and height growth of Shorea leprosula, S. parvifolia and Neobalanocarpus heimii line-planted under Acacia mangium at 30 months after planting are reported. Five types of plot with different strips (widths of 6,9,15, 27 and 51 m respectively) were established in the three-year-old Acacia mangium plantation. Survival rate and height growth were measured every six months, and the relative accumulated illuminance (RAI) measured at 24 months after planting. Shorea leprosula showed the highest survival and height growth among the three species in all planting types. RAI in each planting strip was higher in proportion to the width of the strips. Survival rate and height growth of three species were low under high RAI. Survival and height growth of the three species were better in narrower (6, 9 and 15 m) than in wider strips (27 and 51 m).

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24217

Clonal identification of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrids using rapd markers


Wickneswari, R; Lee, CT
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

The Malaysian Forester 56 (1): 36-42 (1993)

Abstract:
Clonal identification of five putative Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrids (verified earlier by isozyme analysis) was attempted using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis. After optimisation of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) conditions, 17 arbitrary primers from OPERON technologies Incorporated, USA were screened for DNA polymorphic. Template DNA concentrations of 10ngul-1 yielded good amplification products. Twelve primers (OPB-01, OPB-04, OPB-05, OPB-17, OPC-07, OPD-07, OPU-07, OPU-16, OPU-17, OPU-18, OPU-19 and OPU-20) produced a total of 54 DNA fragments varying in size from ).21 kb to 2.50 kb. Primers OPB-04, OPC-07 and OPU-07 could be used to differentiate the hybrid clones. The Nei's mean genetic distance between the 5 clones was ).074 with valves ranging from 0 to 0.174. The pair of clones with a genetic distance of 0 was confined to be ramets from an ortet.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24221

Analysis of 5-year-old Acacia mangium Willd. provenance trial in Peninsular Malaysia


Tuck, YC; Zulkifli Tukiman, D
Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia;Kuala Lumpur

The Malaysian Forester 58 (1): 1-11 (1995)

Abstract:
Analysis was made on the performance of 5 year-old Acacia mangium Willd. provenance trial. Indices, such as survival rate, height diameter, stem straightness and volume increment were applied to evaluate their performance at four different sites. In general, the mean survival percentage and the height mean annual increment were fairly consistent between the sites ranging from 83.1% to 85.8% and 3.8 m/yr. to 4.0 m/yr respec tively. Significant different in mean diameter groath between provenances were detected for two sites and M.A.I. ranged from 2.5 cm-3.5 cm. Although significant difference in the mean stem straightness was detected for one of the sites, there were however great variability in stem straightness in all of the sites, ranging from 6%- 60.1%, and similarly with the acceptable stem straightness index. In general, the provenances were very variable in their performance and more trails were recommended.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24223

International provenance trial of Acacia auriculiformis A.cunn ex Benth in Malaysia: Results at 18 months


Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A; Mohd Hamami, S
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 59 (1): 8-17 (1996)

Abstract:
A trial of 28 provenances of Acacia auriculiformis was assessed for survival and growth at age 18 months. Of the provenances, 7 were from Queensland and 15 from Northern Territory, Australia and 6 from Papua New Guinea. All provenances survived very well (>92%) but they differed very significantyly (P<0.001) in their growth performance. A selection of provenances from Northern Territory and Queensland were among the top performers, with East Alligator River (16152) being the best. The results also indicate the presence of genetic diversity within the species and support the need for genetic improvement.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24353

Results of media trials using saw dust on germination of Acacia mangium


Newman, V
Forest Research Centre; Sepilok; Sabah

Forest Research Centre Publication 53 (2): 1989

Abstract:
Saw dust of Dryobalanops, Dipterocarpus, Shorea produce germination percentage significantly lower than those obtained in controls; while Alstonia, Octomeles produced better results.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 24359

Shade trees for cocoa


Ricky, AM
Forest Research Centre, Sepilok, Sabah

SPFC Newsletter Oct. 3 1990: pp 5-6

Abstract:
Gliricidia sepium has been found to be the best shade for cocoa.

Availability :
Forest Research Centre




NO. 38905

The effects of green feeds (malunggay, ipil-ipil and acacia) on the performance of broilers


Visco, LL
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983);ILARC;MMSU;Batac;Ilocos Norte; 1979;p171-172

Abstract:
The green feeds used were: malunggay, ipil-ipil and acacia. Birds fed with five percent malunggay leaves consumed the least amount of feed, gave the highest final weight and highest gain in weight and were the most efficient in converting feeds into meat. This followed by the birds fed with five percent ipil-ipil. Furthermore, cost and returns analysis showed that birds in Treatment D (5% malunggay) gave the highest net profit of P3.97 per bird.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 24441

Observations on insects associated with Acacia mangium in Peninsular Malaysia


Intachat, J; Kirton, LG
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 9 (4): 561-564 (1997)

Abstract:
This paper list the indigenous insect pests associated with Acacia mangium. A total of 38 insect pest were recorded on A. mangium. Of which, Eurema hecabe contubernalis, a defoliator and Xylosandrus compactus, a stem boring beetle are important pests at nursery stage while the termite is important in actual plantation.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24437

Effects of tractor logging and burning on biomass production and nutrient accumulation in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia


Nykvist, N; Sim, BL; Malmer, A
Research & Development Department; Forestry & Timber Division; Sabah Forest Industries; WDT 31; 89858 Sipitang; Sabah; Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 9 (2): 161-183 (1996)

Abstract:
Three 3.8-y-old tropical forest plantations of Acacia mangium, established in different ways, were compared in terms of biomass accumulation and the nutrient contents of different above- and below-ground biomass components. On two soil types, stands established on unburned sites where logs had been manually ex tracted before planting, growth was faster and biomass accumu lation almost double compared with stands subjected to the "normal practice" of tractor log extraction and burning before planting. Sites on which secondary forest, after the "Borneo fire" in 1983, had been subjected to burning before planting, showed the lowest rates of growth and biomass production. Most plant nutrients accumulated rapidly in the plantations. About 80 % of the P in the previous rain forest stand had accumulated after 3.8 y in the above-ground biomass of the best-growing A. mangium plantation. Corresponding figures were 68 % for N, 72 % for K, 47 % for Na, 46 % for Zn, 38 % for S, 24 % for Ca and 23 % for Mg whereas the proportion of dry matter biomass accumulat ed was only 19 %. The fast accumulation can be ascribed to the rapid growth of leaves and small branches by young trees and has important implications for the timing of fertiliser treatments in tropical forest plantations.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24440

A possible link between rainfall and heart rot incidence in Acacia mangium?


Lee, SS; Frans Arentz
Forest Research Institute of Malaysia; Kepong; 52109 Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 9 (4): 441-448 (1997)

Abstract:
Over the last 20 years extensive plantations of Acacia mangium have been established in Sabah and Kalimantan on the island of Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Papua New Guinea. Areas under A. mangium plantations continue to expand annually in these regions. Although there are several reports of heart rot in A. mangium, figures are only available from Malaysia. In Sabah, between 10 and 50% heart rot incidence has been reported in 6- to 9-y-old trees while in Peninsular Malay sia between 49 and 98 % of 2- to 8-y-old trees have been found to have heart rot. The volume of wood affected by the disease was, however, relatively low. In its natural habitat, A. mangi um grows in areas with a strongly seasonally distributed mean annual rainfall of 1500-3000 mm. It is our hypothesis that the higher incidence of heart rot in A. mangium in Peninsular Malay sia compared to Sabah may be associated with the lack of a sea sonal distribution of rainfall in the peninsula. The absence of a dry spell probably reduces the self-pruning ability of A. mangium branches in Peninsular Malaysia. These dying branches probably permit the development of entry points for the decay fungi. Such conditions of continuous high relative humidity are also conducive to fungal infection.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24443

Growth of three multipurpose tree species on tin tailings in Malaysia


Kamis, A
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 7 (1): 106-112 (1994)

Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of tree management tech niques (pollarding and pruning) on two genotypes each of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena sp. planted on a mixture of sand and slime tin tailings. Eighteen months growth was assessed. Survival was generally high for all the gen otypes. The best growth was recorded in A. auriculiformis, followed by A. mangium and Leucaena sp.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24444

Effects of fertilizer on wood properties plantation grown Acacia mangium


Ani, S; Wan Rasidah, AK; Mohd. Shukari, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong 52109; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4 (2): 119-126 (1991)

Abstract:
The wood properties of 6 - y - old Acacia mangium applied with different combinations of N and P fertilisers during its early growth were studied. Differences in height and diameter growth increment and basic density were found to be insignifi cant at all levels of treatment. Nitrogen application appeared to have some effects in improving the heartwood to sapwood ratio. An interaction was also observed between portions of disc and fertiliser treatment. Combination of P and N improved the mechanical strength of timber while with N alone, the strength appeared to decrease.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24491

Comparison of different phosphorus sources on the early growing of Acacia mangium


Wan Rasidah, WAK; Ahmad S, Mardi; Razley, MN; Zaharah, AR
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2 (2): 97- 103 (1989)

Abstract:
The efficiency of phosphorus fertiliser from different sources for Acacia mangium was assessed using isotope dilution method. Of the four sources of fertiliser used, namely Christ- mas Island Rock Phosphate, Moroccan Rock Phosphate, Jordanian Rock Phosphate and Triple Super-phosphate, the last showed the highest uptake by the plants. However, Jordanian Rock Phosphate treated plants showed the highest increase in dry matter weight. For eight weeks after fertiliser application, the order of effi- ciency in uptake was as follows : Triple Superphosphate > Jorda- nian Rock Phosphate > Moroccan Rock Phosphate > Christmas Island Rock Phosphate.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24535

Diameter increment of Acacia mangium Willd. following first thinning


Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y; Weinland, G
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2(4): 349-350(1990)

Abstract:
A crown thinning trial was established in a 3 y old pure and even aged A. mangium plantation. A current annual growth rate of at least 3 cm was achieved only by the selection of potential crop tree (PCT) and the subpopulation of 300 biggest trees for heavily thinned plots.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24538

Abnormal rooting in Acacia mangium trees


Hashim, MN
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 3(2): 191-193(1990)

Abstract:
Root mass was noted in the central portion of the a stem which was already decaying. The roots originated from the new bark outlining th einners urface that separated the cambium from th edecay wood. Some roots had nodules. This abnormal rooting habit indicated that ability of the tree to grasp at an opportunity to extract essential substances from any available sources even within itself.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24565

The morphology, pretreatment and germination of Acacia mangium Willd. seed


Mahdan, B
Forest Plantation Unit;Forestry Department Headquaters;Jalan Sultan Salahuddin;Kuala Lumpur

The Malaysian Forester 59(4): 195-209(1996)

Abstract:
Dormancy in Acacia mangium Willd. (Mangium) seeds is a result of the hard seedcoat which is impermeable mainly to water and to a certain extent to gas. Without pretreatment the seeds main tain their dormancy status. Germination of mangium seeds was tested in controlled-environment conditions after applying a range of hot water pretreatments. Pouring two parts of boiling water to one part of seeds by volume, and leaving the seeds soaking in the water for 30 minutes, was the best and most prac ticable pretreatment. In a pretreated seed, the strophiole and the micropyle are likely to be the first site of water entry, which then causes swelling of the cotyledons.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24574

Biology of Spirama retorta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a new pest of Acacia mangium in Peninsular Malaysia


Ahmad Said, S; Yaacob, AW; Aidah, M
Department of Forest Management;Universiti Putra Malaysia,43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10 (2): 167 - 175 (1997)

Abstract:
An outbreak of Spirama retotia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidac), affecting 800 ha of a one-year old Acacia mangium plantation, occurred in May to October 1992 in Gunung Besaut Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. In the laboratory, more than 60% of larvae reared on A. mangium leaves reached adult stage. Devel opment from egg to adult took 42 days through seven instars requiring 27 days. The moth was medium sized, having red abdo men and an eyespot on its forewing. The female (R = 64.4 mm), bigger than the male, had greyish-orange forewings with promi nent eyespots. The male (x = 58.8 mm) had dark brown to almost black forewings with less conspicuous eyespots. The life table parameters recorded from laboratory population were: the net reproductive rate (Ro) of 203.2, the mean generation time (Tc) of 43.3 days, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of 0.1 and the doubling time of 5.6 days. Results from biweekly sampling showed that the infestation, indicated by the number of trees with larvae, varied from 30% at the beginning of the study, rose to more than 60% in the fourth week and dropped to less than 10% at the end of the fourteenth week. Three tachinids, Carcelia sp., Exorista sp and blepharella sp., emerged from field collected larvae. Larval-pupal mortality due to parasitism was 5.6-43.3%. Predators, Sycanus leucornesus (Reduviidae), Cantheconidea fur cellata (Pentatomidac), Mallada basalis (Chrysopidae) and Vespa affinis indosinensis (Vespidae) were observed feeding on the larvae.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24599

Field grown Acacia mangium: How intensive is root growth?


Wan Rasidah, WAK; Azizol, AK; Van Cleemput, O; Zaharah, AR
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lum pur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10 (3): 283 - 291 (1998)

Abstract:
Field grown Acacia mangium: How intensive is root growth? Under rainfed conditions, root development of trees can be very unpredictable and variable, depending on the amount and distribution of rainfall received. This becomes more critical when the rainfall is seasonal and the soil has a high clay content. Our investigation dealt with the root development of Acacia mangium established as plantation forest on a soil with heavy clay texture in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Malaysia. The distribution of active roots was measured at 9- and 21-month-old plantations rising the radioactive 32P injection method. Growth that different distances from the tree base and at different soil depths was studied. After nine months of field planting, we found that roots were mostly concentrated at the surface within 1000 mm distance from the tree base. At one year after the first measurement, roots were traced as far as 6400 mm away. A large part of these roots, however, were detected within 3700 mm distance in the tapper 300 mm soil. At this stage, roots still did not go deeper than 450 mm depth, probably due to the high clay content at lower depth and low pH. This rapid root growth indicates that below-ground competition can be very intense if this species is established as a mixed-species plantation.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24654

Foliar sampling guidelines for different aged Acacia mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia


Nik Muhamad, M; Mohd. Azani, A, Bimal, KP
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10 (4): 431 - 437 (1998)

Abstract:
Foliar sampling guidelines for different aged Acacia mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Foliar analysis is a useful tool for evaluating the nutritional status of a crop. There are, however, no guidelines for foliar sampling of Acacia mangi um plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was thus aimed to determine the best time for foliar sampling in Acacia mangium plantation. The study was conducted in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Pahang. Foliar samples were collected monthly from Acacia mangium stands of five different ages over a period of one year. The results show that foliar sampling in Acacia mangium stands should be performed as follows: for one-year-old stand in January-March and June-July; for two-year-old stand in December-January and June-July; for three-year-old stand in June-July; for four-year-old stand in February March and June- July; for six-year-old stand in February-March. In general, July is the best time for foliar sampling of one- to four-year- old stands whereas February-March would be the best time for six-year-old stands. The results are based on the fact that foliar nutrients are generally constant over these periods.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24670

Glue bond properties of some mixed hardwood species


Kamarulzaman, N; Tan, YE; Sim, HC; Said, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 4 (2): 109 - 119 (1998)

Abstract:
The glue bond properties of standard blanks of mixed hard wood origin and those of Acacia mangium were evaluated using procedures stipulated in the JAS: SIS-7. Structural evaluation of the bonding was also carried out for comparison. The effect of surfaces prepared by ripping and planing was also determined. Emulsion polymer cross-linked with isocyanate was used. In this study, strips of mixed hardwood were divided into three density groups while the single species Acacia was used in the prepara tion of the blanks. The glue bond properties of mixed- and single-species combinations of hardwood lumber were not affected significantly by the surfaces of the specimens. The delamina tion percentage, glue bond shear strength and wood failure re sults of the glued specimens, however, were significantly in fluenced by density. In all the tests, medium density mixed- species combination consistently produced better results than those of the other combinations. Generally, the medium density mixed-species combination performed better than the single spe cies Acacia with the exception of the boiling water soak delami nation test.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24680

Soil nitrogen dynamics in the early estabilshment phase of a forest plantation in Peninsular Malaysia


Wan Rasidah, K; Van Cleemput, O; Zaharah, AR
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lum pur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(l): 100-110 (1999)

Abstract:
A study was conducted on the dynamics of N in the soil as a consequence of clear-cutting and replanting of a forest area with Acacia mangium trees. Measurements were carried out within the first two years of tree growth. Soil N fluctuations at different soil depths under and between trees were monitored. Mineral N concentration fluctuated conspicuously within the measurement period. It varied between 1 and 7% of the total N. The nitrate-N (NO3--N) content for 0-45 cm depth soil continu ously decreased with stand age. For example, for stand age of 3 to 6 months, the total decrease was 44 ug g-1 (35 % decrease) for the soil between the trees, and 74 ug g-1 (51% decrease) for the soil under the trees. These values generally dropped with stand age. The concentration remained at the baseline from stand age of 18 months until the last measurement period. The ammonium-N (NH 4+ -N) behaved rather differently. From the stand age of 3 to 6 months, the soil NH 4+-N concentration in creased at both sampling locations, being most prominent between the trees. It then decreased and at 24 months, an increase was noted again in the 0-5 cm soil layer under the canopy. The amount of mineral-N decrease at the beginning of measurements was not in good synchrony with the amount of N increase in the Acacia mangium tree. The potential mineralisation measured showed a high rate during the first year, declined in the second year, and increased again after two years. This fluctuation coincided with the changes in mineral-N content. The increase of NH 4+-N at the beginning could be due to the mineralisation of root residues from the previous vegetation, while the appar ent increase at the last measurement stage in the first 5 cm soil layer tinder the trees came from the mineralisation of litter. Apart from soil transformation processes, liptake by the plants was one of the reasons leading to the lower concen tration of mineral-N under the trees compared to those between the trees.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24682

Estabilshing a protocol for commercial micropropagation of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrids


Aziah, MY; David McKellar; Fadhilah, Z; Halilah, AK; Haliza, I
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lum pur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11 (1): 148-156 (1999)

Abstract:
This study examined the multiplication and in vitro rooting of micropropagated Acacia hybrid clones and the subsequent acclimatisation survival of the plantlets. Shoot multiplication rates varied between 1.6 and 2.5 for the six hybrid clones test ed. Of the shoot explants placed on in vitro rooting media, between 50 and 60% formed roots in culture. Shoots possessing in vitro formed roots exhibited far greater survival during the acclimatisation process than those without in vitro formed roots.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24687

Fungi associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium trees in Peninsular Malaysia and East Kalimantan


Lee, SS; Noraini Sikin, Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11 (l): 240-254 (1999)

Abstract:
Heart rot is a well-known defect in Acacia mangium trees grown in Southeast Asia. However, the identification of the fungi associated with the heart rot has been hampered by the absence of fruiting bodies or sporocarps on affected trees. Using a simple technique described in this paper, sporocarps were successfully produced for the identification of the asso ciated heart rot fungi. Mycelial cultures obtained from A. mangium trees with heart rot from various locations in Peninsu lar Malaysia and Kalimantan, Indonesia, were tested. Based on the sporocarps produced, four species of wood decay fungi were successfully identified from the heart rot isolates. These were Rigidoporus hypobrunneus (Petch) Corner, Phellinus noxius (Corn er) Cunn., Tinctoporellus epimiltinus (Berk. & Br.) Ryv. and Oxyporus cf. latemarginatus (Dur. & Mont. ex Mont.) Donk. The first three fungi were isolated from both Peninsular Malaysia and Kalimantan while O. cf. latemarginatus was only obtained from Peninsular Malaysia.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24683

Microclimate and water status of sand tailings at an ex-mining site in Peninsular Malaysia


Ang, LH; Seel, WE; Mullins, C
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lum pur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11 (1): 157-170 (1999)

Abstract:
Experimental plots, each of size of 12 x 7.5 m, were estab lished on sand tailings at an ex-mining site in Peninsular Malay sia at 8 m above the standing water-table level (a.s.w.l.) (open and shade plots) and at 2.5 m a.s.w.l. (open plot only). The shade plot received about 45% irradiance while the open plot received full irradiance. Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis seedlings were planted in both plots at 0.75 x 0.75 m spacing. Shading reduced air temperature, raised relative humidity (RH) and decreased air vapour pressure deficit (VPDair). The results of 195 daily recordings of water-table levels in 3-m depth dip wells showed that ground water supply was limited at the site. The suction of sand at 0-15 cm depth at 1, 3 and 6 days after rainfall (> 37 mm per day) showed that the sand tailings at 8 m a.s.w.1 dried rapidly from 3 to 6 days after rainfall. Days of available sand water (DAW) for A. mangium and A. auriculiformis were estimated based on root depths of each species and water release characteristics of the sand tailings. The DAW values for 9-month-old A. mangium and A. auriculiformis were 6 and 11 days respectively.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24686

Do forest-floor wood recidues in plantations increase the incidence of termite attack? Testing current theory


Laurence GK; Valerie, KB; Azmi, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lum pur, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11 (l): 218-239 (1999)

Abstract:
The incidence of attack by the termite, Coptotermes curvig nathus Holmgren, in four- to eight-year-old Acacia mangium forest plantations is examined and discussed in relation to 1) the occurrence of the termite on wood material on the forest floor of plantations and dipterocarp forest, and 2) the severity of attack reported in four-year-old conifer plantations. Although A. mangium plantations had a much greater number of large stumps and logs on the forest floor than dipterocarp for ests, due to incomplete clearing and burning of the original forest, numbers of forest floor wood material in which the term ite occurred averaged 5.3 per ha and 8.0 per ha respectively for these habitats. The number of living A. mangium trees with infestations averaged 13.3 per ha, while there were no infesta tions of living trees sampled in dipterocarp forests. The in cidence of attack on A. mangium trees was greater than that reported for Pinus caribaea, P. merkusii, P. oocarpa and Agathis macrophylla, but lower than that reported for Araucaria cun ninghamii and A. hunsteinii However, reported rates of mortality among these conifers in plantations greatly exceeded that of A. mangium. The results of the study suggest that, although popula tions of the termite C. curvignathus are neither eliminated nor greatly reduced by the practice of clear felling and burning of wood debris, contrary to current theory, large stumps and logs left behind by this site preparation practice do not contribute much to increases in the termite population. Susceptibility of the tree species appears, therefore, to be the major factor affecting the incidence of attack and mortality in plantations. It is suggested that this pest be managed by selection of plan tation tree species which are less susceptible to attack and planting of susceptible species, such as conifers, at low-risk sites.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24809

Growth response of Acacia mangium plantation to N, P, K fertilisation in Kemasul and Kerling, Peninsular Malaysia


Nik Muhamad; Paudyal, BK
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(2): 356-367(1999)

Abstract:
Peninsular Malaysia launched the Compensatory Forest Plantation Project (CFPP) in 1982 to meet the increasing wood demand for domestic comsumption. Acacia mangium is the main species planted. However, no comprehensive research has been performed on the nutrient requirements of this species. A NPK fertiliser study was, therefore, conducted on two sites, namely KEmasul in Pahang and Kerling in Selangor, with three-and five-year-old A. mangium stands. The experimental design used was a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments and five replicates. The treatments were: N0P0K0 (control), N0P1K1, N0P2K1, N!P1K1, N1P2K0 and N1P0K1 where P1 = 500 kg P2O5 ha-1, P2 = 800 kg P2O5 ha-1, N1= 500 kg urea ha-1 and K1 = 100 kg K2O ha-1. The results showed that height and diameter were significantly increased by the combined effects of 800 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 100 kg K2O5 ha-1. The results also demonstrated that application of urea at the rate of 500 kg ha-1 might be necessary in Kemasul.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24882

Genetic Conservation and Improvement of Acacia Species (TropBio-FRC Acacia Research Project)


Lapongan, J; Ajik, M; Chia, FR; Guanih, SV; Kimjus, K
Forest Research Centre; P.O Box 1407; Sandakan; Sabah

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series; Genetics and Tree Improvement: 'Towards Improved Planting Materials and Mass Production For Future Forestry'; 4-5 October 1999; FRIM; Selangor

Abstract:
The massive deforestation has resulted in the lost of genetic resources of the tropical rain forest at a rapid rate. Hence, embarkation of forest plantations has been intensified in the recent years as to alleviate our total reliance on the natural resources. The success of forest plantation depends largely on the use of genetically improved materials. Conservation of Genetically superior resources is equally important in that constant access to these materials is unavoidable. Thus, some of the fast growing plantation species such as the acacias have been identified for large scale planting. This paper attempts to evaluate the status of genetic conservation and improvement of Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. aulacocarpa, A crassicarpa and Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium X A. auriculiformis) since the inception of FRC-TropBio Acacia Research Project in 1997.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24886

Understanding Genetic Variation of Tropical Tree Species - The Way Forward


Wickneswari, R
School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences;Faculty of Science and Technology;Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia;Bangi;Selangor SD Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series;Genetics and Tree Improvement:'Towards Improved Planting Materials and Mass Production For Future Forestry';4-5 October 1999;FRIM;Selangor

Abstract:
Species, provenance and progeny trials have been integral activities of tree breeding and improvement programmes for the production of genetically improved planting materials. With trees having long generation intervals, these trials take a long time and require large areas of land besides being labour intensive and costly. Hence, a priori information on genetic variation and improved characterisation of genotypes can expedite progress of tree improvement programmes. Detection of genetic variation and rapid characterisation of genotypes can now be carried out using a range of molecular markers from isozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), directed amplification of minisatellite regions (DAMD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to simple sequence repeats (SSR). This paper will address the methods of assessing genetic variation and the need for conservation and management of genetic variation of tropical tree species in order to sustain long-term benefits using specific examples.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24890

Isozyme Variation of Acacia crassicarpa in a Provenance Trial Plot at Serdang, Selangor


John Keen, C; Nor Aini, AS
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series;Genetics and Tree Improvement: 'Towards Improved Planting Materials and Mass Production For Future Forestry';4-5 October 1999;FRIM;Selangor

Abstract:
Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. is a woody legume with potentials as a plantation species. There is little report been made on its genetic variability. Thus, this study tried to investigate the genetic variation of the species by performing isozyme analysis utilising leaf samples collected from a provenance trial in Serdang, Selangor. Twenty-three loci encoding 12 enzyme systems were analysed with 58.7% polymorphic loci and 2 alleles per locus. The mean expected heterozygosity of the provenances ranged from 0. 1900 to 0.23 70. In addition, the inter-region genetic diversity observed 36 loci encoding 20 enzyme systems. Twenty-four loci were polymorphic with expected heterozygosities of 0.2316 and 0.2675 for Queensland and Papua New Guinea respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci for both regions was the same (66.67%) with an average of 2 alleles per locus. Provenances from Papua New Guinea were found to be potential and should be given higher priority in the selection of provenances for the purpose of forest plantation in Malaysia based on its heterozygosity values. Genetic identities for the species were high, with values ranging from 0.9770 to 0.9955 but no clusterisation according to the specific regions was observed. Factors associating with the environment (i.e. habitats) and adaptation influenced the patterns of genetic variation of the species.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24895

In vitro Development of Plantlets from Nodal Stem Segment and Leaf Explant of Acacia crassicarpa


Griffin, A; Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A; Jamaluddin, B; Aziah, MY
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series;Genetics and Tree Improvement: 'Towards Improved Planting Materials and Mass Production For Future Forestry';4-5 October 1999;FRIM;Selangor

Abstract:
Nodal stem segment and leaf explants, obtained from in vitro grown seedlings were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 8 concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 mg/L) of 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) for the purpose of culture initiation of A. crassicarpa. Nodal stem segment was found to be the most appropriate explant for both shoot and root formation i.e. producing the highest mean number of shoot (5.35) and the longest mean shoot length (8 mm) when being supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP. In addition, the highest mean number of root (4.85) was obtained in medium supplemented with 8.0 mg/L NAA while the longest mean root length of 21 mm was obtained from medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA. For leaf explant, the highest mean number of root (6.77) was obtained in medium supplemented with 8.0 mg/L NAA while the longest mean root length (48 mm) was obtained on medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA.

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Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24927

Wood quality studies of fast-growing plantation species


Mohd. Hamami, S
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
Study on the anatomical properties of Acacia mangium i.e. the tissue proportions and fibre dimensions was carried out. Ten selected trees from two age groups i.e. 4- and 8-year-old samples were obtained from plantation forest in Selangor. Two 5-cm thick discs were taken from four sampling heights, namely at DBH, 15%, 35% and 65% of total tree height. Three small blocks from three radial sampling points were taken; one from near pith, one from heartwood and one from sapwood region. Two good slides of thin sections and wood macerate were selected for microscope examination. The tissue propor tions and fibre dimensions were measured using an image analyser with specially developed software for this study. The results indicated that Acacia mangium wood shows special pattern of property variation. The average percentage of fibre, vessel and ray tissues of 4-year old and 8-year-old samples were 85.76%, 9.13%, 5.15% and 84.82%, 9.84%, 5.34% respec tively. The Acacia wood is classified as short-fibred tropical species.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 24930

Productivity and nutrient cycling of Acacia mangium


Lim, MT
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
Acacia mangium is the main species used in reforestation efforts and plantation establishment in Malaysia. It is an exotic species from Australia and while it is known to grow rapidly, relatively little is known of its requirements and possible impact of its introduction. The primary objective of the study is the understanding of the growth and nutrient cycling of the species. It involves the determination of dbh and biomass production of young stands of Acacia mangium. Production of leaf litter, accumulation of litter on the forest floor and the decomposition of fine litter have also been studied. Nutrient analyses of tree samples and of litter samples have also been done. Preliminary studies on decomposition and the involvement of its agents have also been conducted. Other studies on the development of the canopy and of the roots have also been initiated. At four years of age, the stand had tree densities of 1566 trees/ha and mean diameter at breast height (dbh) of 12.0 cm and a mean height of 19.1 m. The total above-ground biomass of the stand was 90.4 t/ha, consisting of 57.6 t stem, 14.1 t branch and 5.4 t leaf. Leaf litter production averaged 10.2 t/ha/year (1). Samples of tree components, litter fractions and soil have been analysed to determine the nutrients bound in the various components of the stand and to determine the transfers of nutrients between the plants and the soil. Preliminary analysis of the tissues also indicates a high content of nitrogen in the stem, branches and leaves as well as in the litter (2). While this is expected as the tree fixes nitrogen (2), the concentrations are rather variable and the concentration values are being rechecked. Based on the growth of the stand and published data from elsewhere, the height and dbh growth of the species have been modelled (3). Acacia mangium leaves decompose at an average rate of between 2.3 to 2.8% per week and up to 12 weeks in the field. The types of fungi involved were all non-basidiomycetes. Root biomass studies indicate that fine root biomass amounted to over 4 t/ha and root growth could be as high as 1.4 t/month. The results should indicate the requirements for growth of the species as well as the performance of the species. The tentative findings are that the species grows well for about 7-8 years, and thereafter slows down considerably. A review of the objective and use of the species in plantation forestry is called for (3).

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 24932

Chemical control of the growth of Acacia mangium seedlings for plantation establishment in Malaysia


Sheikh Ali, A
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
Malaysia is currently establishing large-scale plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. for general utility timber. The species has a very fast growth rate, and this poses a major problem at the nursery. Seedlings overgrow in size when the timing between plant production and field planting cannot be synchronized. Survival and growth of overgrown seedlings are reported to be poor because of unfavourable root to shoot ratio resulting in desiccation post-transplanting. Two common growth regulators, namely paclobutrazol (cultar) and daminozide (alar) which inhibit endogenous gibberellin biosynthesis and thereby control excessive growth of plants were tested on A. mangium seedlings. Paclobutrazol was found to be more effective than daminozide in reducing root and shoot growth, root to shoot ratio, transpiration and stomata] conductance of seedlings. The effects of these chemicals increased with increasing concentration and frequency of application. Both chemicals were most effective when applied through the soil either by drenching or spraying. The project is on-going to develop blueprints for paclobutrazol concentration, frequency of application and their implications to the production and establishment of A. mangium seedlings.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 24933

Variation in Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn en Benth provenances


Nor Aini, AS
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
A study of the extent and pattern of genetic variation among eighteen provenances, viz. one from Queensland (Qld), 12 from Northern Territory (NT), Australia and 5 from Papua New Guinea (PNG) of Acacia auriculifonn is was conducted. Alloyzmestudy employing the technique of starch gel electrophoresis of nine enzymes (i.e. aspartate amino transferase (AAT), glucose dehydrogenase (GHD), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), isocitrate dehydrogerase (IDH), malase dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), peroxidase (PER), phosphoglucose dehydrogenase (PGD) and Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) from the basis of analysis. These enzymes were interpreted to be coded by 12 loci with 30 alleles. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 25.00% in Reynolds Spring, NT (16162) to 58.33% in N. Bebsbach to Weam, PNG (16101). Levels of observed heterozygosity varied from 11.50% in Reynolds Spring, NT (16162) to 39.90% in Melville Island, NT (1 6187). Also, it is noteworthy to mention that particular provenances of A. auriculiformis could be identified using provenance specific enzyme markers, such as provenance Reynolds Spring, NT (16162) could be distincted using AAT- 1. The extent of genetic identity was found to be relatively high, ranging from 0.8060 between Mary River, NT (16151) and East Alligator River, NT (16152) to 0.09948 between N. Bensbach to Weam, PNG (16101) and Balamuk on Bensbach, PNG (16105). Genetic dendrogram of the 18 provenances forms its natural distributional range, but each grouping consisted of a mixture of the NT and PNG provenances except for the last group which contains all 4 of the NT provenan provenan Bensbac (16105), Territory (16156).

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 24935

Genetic variation and relationships of plantation species


Nor Aini, AS
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
Many problems in plant evolution and systematics are centred on the levels of genetic variability. Most studies of genetic variation show that it is strongly correlated with life history characteristics, breeding systems and population dynamics. The occurrence of genetic variation is a necessary platform for the action of natural selection. This variation is important to the functioning and future evolution of regenerated forest and developing the breeding population for economic objectives. Genetic variation of plantation species, e.g. Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis and their F, and F, hybrids, Shorea curtisii and S. leprosula have been assessed using different techniques including electrophoresis, cytogenetics and cutting experiments. The objectives of the study were to examine their genetic variation and possibly to correlate any genetic diversity with ecological factors. Field and laboratory investigations were carried out to determine their population dynamics, systematics and phylogenetics. Overall results confirmed the presence of genetic variation in these species. Electrophoretic analysis on 8 enzymes was found to be coded by 16 loci with 39 allelesina auriculiformis. Both species have indicated the difference in terms of the average polymorphic loci and heterozigosity. Particular population of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis could be identified by using population and provenance specific enzyme markers, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis on Shorea curtisii and S. leprosula is in progress. Cytogenetic study on the mitotic root tip has confirmed the somatic chromosome number ofA. curiculiformis, A. mangium and their hybrids F and F to be 2n = 26 (x = 13), and preliminary karyotyping showed that both species exhibited generally similar chromosome morphology (more metacentric than acrocentric chromosomes) but the variation can be revealed in the chromosome size (A. mangium produced bigger and longer chromosomes than A. auriculiformis). Cytogenetic investigation on S. leprosula and S. curtisii is in progress. Factors including concentrations of IBA, cutting position and age of the seedlings showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) on rootability of A. auriculiformis, S. curtisii and S. leprosula. The results exhibit indicate the presence of evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, gene flow and natural selection and are strongly correlated with the reproductive biology of the species. Estimation and assessment of genetic variation of species using appropriate techniques will provide optimum selection of specific superior genotypes to ensure a sustainable productive plantation.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 24936

Karyotypic comparison of Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis and their F, and F, hybrids


Nor Aini, AS
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
A cytological study was conducted on acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis and their F, and F, hybrids. The objective of this study was to analyse the karyotypic variation in these species. Cytological study could provide a basic taxonomic feature of a species in terms of chromosome number and morphology. Chromosome morphology differences can be determined on the basis of the position of centromere or kinetochore during metaphase stage. Observations showed that the somatic chromosome number of these species (including the hybrids F, and F,) is 2n = 26 (basic number x = 13). More metacentric than acrocentric chromosomes were observed .. Mean total chromosome length and volume based 6 cells ranged from 31.47 urn and 18.81 mm (in A. auriculiformis) to 64.14 urn and 44.39 mm (in A. mangium) respectively. Hybrids F, and f, produced intermediate values for both parameters. Among the conclusions derived from this study are: 1) Karyotypes based on chromosome length and volume are unique and specific in A. auriculiformis and their F, and F, hybrids. Thus these properties could be used as a tool in species identification. 2) The karyotypes of Fl and F 2 hybrids were intermediate and according to the Hardy Weinberg expectation. This further suggests that these hybrids contain a mixture of their parental genetic make-up and they are actually races belonging under the same genus.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 25041

The pest status of the termite Coptotermes curvignathus in Acacia mangium plantations: Incidence, mode of attack and inherent predisposing factors


Laurence, GK; Valerie, KB; Azmi, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia,Kepong;Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(4): 822-831 (1999)

Abstract:
The incidence and mode of attack by the termite Coptotermes curvignathus in Acacia mangium plantations were determined in 452 living trees sampled using random plots in one eight-year-old and two four year-old plantations. The overall incidence of infestations was 2.2%, while the highest infestation rate in a site was 4.5%. A few predisposing factors on the tree trunk of living A. mangium trees were observed to facilitate entry of C. curvignathus into the wood. These were large pruning wounds, abscission scars resulting from natural pruning and damage by an insect bark borer. Infestations restricted to such injuries were much more frequently encountered than severe attack by C. curvignathus, which is characterised by extensive soil cover constructed by the termite on the tree trunk. However, such localised external termite activity is thought to be an indication of heartwood infestations, which have been frequently reported to occur in A. mangium. Predisposition of trees to heartwood infestations of termites, as a result of heart rot infection caused by fungi, is examined. The pest status of C. curvignathus in A. mangium plantations is discussed, and recommendations are given for minimising losses in different end-uses of the wood.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25051

Field grown Acacia mangium: How intensive is root growth?


Wan Rasidah, K; Azizol, AK; Van Cleemput, O; Zaharah, AR
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10(3): 283 - 291 (1998)

Abstract:
Under rainfed conditions, root development of trees can be very unpredictable and variable, depending on the amount and distribution of rainfall received. This becomes more critical when the rainfall is seasonal and the soil has a high clay content. Our investigation dealt with tile root development of Acacia mangium established as plantation forest oil a soil with heavy clay texture in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Malaysia. The distribution of' active roots was measured at 9- and 21-month-old plantations using the radioactive 32P injection method. Growth at different distances from the tree base and at different soil depths was studied. After nine months of field planting, we found that roots were mostly concentrated at the surface within 1000 mill distance from the tree base. At one year after the first measurement, roots were traced as far as 6400 mm away. A large part of these roots, however, were detected within 3700 mm distance in the upper 300 mm soil. At this stage, roots still did not go deeper than 450 mm depth, probably due to the high clay content at lower depth and low pH. This rapid root growth indicates that below-ground competition can be very intense if this species is established as a mixed-species plantation.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25133

The relationship between growth and foliar nutrient concentrations in Acacia mangium seedlings


Bimal K.Paudyal; Nik Muhamad Majid
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 12 (l): 62-76 (2000)

Abstract:
A glasshouse study on Serdang soils (Ultisols) was conducted to examine the relationship between growth parameters and foliar nutrient levels in Acacia mangium Willd., a fast-growing species widely planted in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed a significant and positive relationship between growth parameters and foliar N and K concentrations. Height and diameter increments can be well predicted, separately, by foliar N, P, K concentrations and N:P ratio whereas dry matter production can be predicted by foliar N and K concentrations. The results demonstrated that the optimum foliar concentrations for satisfactory growth of the seedlings could lie within the following ranges: N(mg/kg)-23 500 to 24 700; P(mg/kg)-1400 to 1800; K (mg/kg)-6500 to 7500.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25145

Callus induction of Acacia crassicarpa


Griffin, A; Nor Aini, As
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

The Malaysian Forester 61 (4): 190-195 (1998)

Abstract:
A study to determine the possibility of inducing callus of Acacia crassicarpa via micro propagation was conducted. Six combinations of BAP and NAA were supplemented in Murashige and Skoog's basal medium. Two types of explants used in this study were leaf and stems segments. Both explants were successful in producing callus at every combinations of BAP and NAA. The callus produced were either friable and light green in colour or moist and brown in colour. The best combination in enhancing callus formation is 4 .0 mg/1 BAP + 4.0 mg/1 NAA.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25173

Termite resistance of potential forest plantation woods in Malaysia


Grace, Jk A. H. H. Wong C. H. M. Tome
Department of Entomology; University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3050 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, United States of America

Proceedings of the Fourth Conference; Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 1997; p 386-391

Abstract:
The resistance of selected Malaysian grown woods to attack by aggressive subterranean termites was evaluated in four-week, no-choice laboratory tests with Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and in an accelerated four-week, in ground field test at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). This is part of an on-going effort between FRIM and the University of Hawaii to document the termite resistance of timber species of potential value in plantation forestry in Malaysia. Several of these tree genera also occur in Hawaii, or could potentially be of value as well in forestry efforts in the Hawaiian island. Woods included in the first stage of the project reported here are the heartwood of acacia (Acacia mangium), batai (Albizia falcataria), casuarina pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), sentang (Azadirachta excelsa), Malaysian-grown teak (Tectona grandis), and sapwood of the susceptible species of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). Of these, casuarina pine proved most resistant to termite attack. Malaysian teak and sentang demonstrated somewhat less, but still significant termite resistance in the laboratory evaluations and a high degree of resistance in the field test. Sentang is a relatively pest-free tree of interest for plantation forestry, and was also quite toxic to termites. Acacia, batai and rubberwood were very susceptible to termite attack, and would require protection in the field and treatment of the resulting wood products.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25381

THE DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM AGE FOR FIRST THINNING IN ACACIA MANGIUM WILLD. PLANTATION IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA BASED ON BASAL AREA GROWTH


BIMAL K. PAUDYAL; NIK MUHAMAD, M; RUSLI, M
Institute of Forestry; Hetauda Campus; Hetauda; Nepal.

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p495-504

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the optimum age for first thinning of Acacia mangium plantation in Peninsular Malaysia. The study was conducted at three different sites : Rantau Panjang, Setul and Kemasul Forest Reserves in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, respectively. The optimum age for first thinning was determined on the basis of Current Annual Increment (CAI) and Mean Annual Increment(MAI) of basal area growth. The results indicated that in Kemasul, first thinning can be carried out at about 5 years of age. However, in Setul and Rantau Panjang, the growth trend was not distinct but the optimum age for thinning is estimated to range from 4 to 5 years on these sites. This may be attributed to the narrow range of stand age on these sites. The variability in optimum age for thinning may also be mainly due to site differences. Growth records for a longer period are necessary to substantiate these findings.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25379

AN EARLY GROWTH ASSESSMENT OF Acacia mangium Willd. AND Gmelina arborea Roxb. ON SUB-SOIL OF NYALAU SOIL SERIES IN BINTULU


HAMSAWI, BS; JUGAN, BK
Institute of Applied Sciences; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Bintulu Campus; P.O. Box 396, 97008 Bintulu; Sarawak

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p337-343

Abstract:
An early growth assessment study was carried out on an 18-month old Acacia mangium and 24-month old Gmelina arborea stands. Both species were grown an mechanically cleared, compacted subsoil of Nyalau series. Assessment on the early growth of both species was done on six plots, measuring 15m x 15m (0.02 ha) each. Tree height and diameter were measured. Soil physical properties were determined. Results of the study showed that the soil physical properties had improved over a period of time. The average survival rate of A. mangium was 76% while G. arborea was 97%. The average tree height and diameter of A. mangium varied between 3.8m to 5.Om and 5.25cm to 7.45cm, respectively while those of G. arborea varied between 2.70m to 4.30m to 4.30m and 5.90cm to 8.75cm, respectively. The performances of the two species were comparable to other location of better soil properties/conditions.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25378

Some timber tree species for afforestation of raised sand beaches (tanah beris)


Ang, LH; Yusof, M
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p262-279

Abstract:
The growth performance of various timber tree species planted on tanah beris was assessed. Species which are suitable for afforestation of tanah beris are Pinus caribaea, Pinus oocarpa, Acacia auriculiformis, Araucaria cunninghamii, Casuarina equisetifolia and Acacia mangium. Some tree plantations have improved some properties of tanah beris to that of heath forest's soil after 25 years of establishment.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25374

A review of the growth of Acacia mangium at the Bengkoka afforestation and settlement project North Sabah


Miller, RR; Hepburn, AJ
SAFODA; Kota Kinabalu; Sabah

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia; 5-9 June 1989; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Selangor; p 93-110

Abstract:
Although annual rainfall at over 2,500 mm in the Bengkoka/Kudat region of Sabah is considered adequate for Acacia mangium, tree growth is affected by seasonal drought. There is a need to investigate moisture retaining establishment practices such as contour ground ripping and planting to minimize the effect off drought. Growth rates are also affected by low nutrient levels characteristic of Bengkoka soils. Fertilizer trials have demonstrated that Acacia mangium responds very well to NPK treatment although Mead (1989) considers in the long term it is P application which will be most effective. Analysis of growth data from 1-7 year old stands at Bengkoka growth of Acacia mangium on lalang sites to be poorer than more fertile, converted forest sites such as at Brumas (Sabah Softwood); viz Total Height At Age 3.2 years 3.6 years 6.6 years Bengkoka 11.2m 19.3 m Brumas* 18.1 m 25.4 m *Source: Thomas and Kent (1986) Indications are that growth on the better belukar and old forest sites at Bengkoka will similarly be higher, but will not achieve Brumas levels because of moisture constraints.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25375

Validity of controlled crosses between Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium


Wickneswari, R
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p194-201

Abstract:
Seed was produced from manipulated inter-specific crosses of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis. As a basis for planning further work on hybridisation techniques, the yield of this hybrid seed was estimated by isozyme analysis in samples from four reciprocal pairs of crosses. Yields of hybrid Progeny varied between 0 and 10 depending upon parental genotypes and the direction of crossing. Crosses with A. auriculiformis as the female parent yielded 57% hybris progenies whereas only 20% of hybrids were produced with A. mangium as the female. The remaining seed was probably derived through fertilisation, though contamination and outcrossing cannot be discounted. A significant level of pollen contamination was also observed in some crosses. Variation between and within pairs of crosses indicate both intra-specific variation in self- fertility and cross-compatibility. One combination of parental trees fail produce any hybrid seed when crossed in either direction. Further research is required to confirm whether the use of A. auriculiformis as the female parent is the preferred procedure is hybridisation programmes and also to minimise self-pollination of the designated female flowers.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25377

EFFECT ON HORMONES AND CUTTING POSITIONS ONROOTING OF CUTTING OF Acacia mangium WILLD AND Shorea leprosula Miq


Kamis, A; Ng, AB
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p233-252

Abstract:
Rooting of cutting can be an effective means of raising planting stock, especially for species with irregular seed supply or in need of clonal propagation. This study examined the possibility of raising planting stock of Acacia mangium and Shorea leprosula from cuttings of different positions with and without hormone treatments. The cutting positions tested were coppice, basal, middle and upper stem and branches from seedlings of both species. Coppice from mature tree was also included for A. mangium. The hormones used were IBA at various concentrations, IAA, NAA, and mixtures of IAA or NAA with 10 ug of IBA. The results indicated that for .,both species, coppice cuttings gave the highest rooting percentage, followed by basal and upper stem cuttings. No survival and rooting was recorded in branch and mature tree coppice cuttings. A. mangium rooted best when treated with IBA at a concentration of 50 ug and S. leprosula at 100 ug. For both species, the highest rooting percentage recorded was 93.3%. Higher concentrations of hormones were toxic to A. mangium but not to S. leprosula cuttings. Root growth for both species followed a similar response. However, shoot growth for A. mangium was retarded by higher hormone concentrations.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25376

RAPID PRODUCTION OF Acacia mangium PLANTLETS USING MICROPROPAGATION TECHNIQUES


DARUS, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p202-216

Abstract:
A micropropagation technique for morphologically mature Acacia mangium seedlings was successfully developed. The optimum cytokinin concentration for multiple shoot induction was found to be 1.0 mg/l BAP, giving an average of 16.0 shoots per explant. Shoots which were > 0.5 cm in length rooted easily in humidified propagating chambers. It is theoretically estimated that after six culture cycles (2 months per cycle) could produce more than a million rooted shoots from a single nodal explant of 8-month-old seedlings.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25382

PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Acacia mangium Willd. OF SELECTED AGES GROWN IN MALAYSIA


Mohd Zin, J; JEWAN, D; Mohd Hamami, S
Department of Forest Production; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; 43400 Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p774-781

Abstract:
Physical and mechanical properties of 6, 8 and 9 years old Acacia mangium from plantations in Kemasul (Peninsular Malaysia), Sabah, (Sarawak), and Lahad Datu (Sabah), respectively were evaluated.Values of the properties tested ranged from 0.48 to 0.52 for specific gravity; 46.16 N/mm2 to 56.36 N/mm2 for fibre stress; 97.00 N/mm2 to 113.50 N/mm2 for MOR; 9544.00 N/mm2 to 10771.80 N/mm2 for MOE; 45.22 N/mm2 to 48.49 N/mm2 for maximum compression parallel to the grain and 15.81 N/mm2 to 17.28 N/mm2 for shear parallel to the grain. The results did not show any significant difference (P < 0.05) In the properties tested among age groups, except for the compressive stress parallel to the grain. Experimental results indicated that the physical and mechanical properties of Acacia mangium were not dependent upon the age of the trees. The study also showed that values of specific gravity, MOR, MOE and shear parallel to the grain were significantly different (P < 0.05) within trees of the same age. These characteristics suggest that the utilization of young Acacia mangium wood, where strength is the main criterion, should be equal to those of matured wood.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25383

CALORIFIC VALUE AND THE POTENTIAL OFSOME PLANTATION SPECIES FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION


MOHD. HAMMI, S; AHMAD AINUDDIN, N; LEE, CL
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of A Regional Symposium on Recent Development In Tree Plantations Of Humid/Subhumid Tropics of Asia;5-9 June 1989;Universiti Pertanian Malaysia;Selangor;p809-820

Abstract:
Five plantation species namely Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea (Yamane), Paraserianthes falcataria (Batai), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubberwood) and Elaeis guineesis (oil palm) were selected for caloric content study. Calorific values of these species were determined using Laboratory Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter. The experiments were carried out at equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and at oven dry condition. The wood samples were chipped, ground and pressed into pellet form. They were room temperature to reach EMC. Two sets of wood samples were prepared; extracted and unextracted samples. Results show that at oven dry condition, Gmelina arborea exhibited the highest calorific value of 4741 cal/g followed by Acacia mangium,4734 cal/g, and Hevea brasiliensis, 4271 cal/g. At EMC condition the calorific values of these species were significantly lower than at the oven dry condition. The unextracted samples exhibited higher calorific values compared to the extracted samples. The study also showed that the calorific values of these species were greatly influenced by moisture content, extractive content and, to a certain extent, the density. The density of wood was found to be an important factor influencing the period of combustion. Although these woods have lower calorific values compared to other commonly used fuel e.g., petroleum, it offers the most attractive alternative as the source for energy. The fact that wood is a renewable material and is available in abundance makes it prudent to consider wood as a supplement for energy resource.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25384

MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND NITROGEN RELEASE PATTERNS OF DECOMPOSING ACACIA MANGIUM LEAFLITTER FROM KEMASUL FOREST RESERVE, MALAYSIA


Wan Rasidah, K; Van Cleemput, O; Zaharah, AR
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong 52109; Kuala Lumpur

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 13(1): 1-12(2001)

Abstract:
Decomposition trials under laboratory and field conditions with Acacia mangium leaf litter were made over a period of 140 days and several possible factors influencing this process were examined. Resource quality of A. mangium litter varied significantly between plant ages (12, 18 and 24 months) at young stand. The nitrogen content in the leaf litter was lowest at the 18-month-oldstand, corresponding to the lower nitrogen concentration in the green leaves. Organic carbon was quite constant while litter production was highest in the drier period. The percentage of polyphenols decreased with increasing age, hemicellulose content remained constant and cellulose increased with the age of plantation. The addition of this litter to the soil enhanced the microbial respiration, measured as the rate of CO2 evolution under laboratory condition. The pattern of CO2 release proceeded through two phases, an initial rapid release followed by a slow release. This microbial activity resulted in immobilisation of mineral nitrogen in the litter and mineralisation in the soil. Release of mineral N from decomposing A. mangium litter under field condition followed three phases, i.e. leaching, immobilisation and mineralisation. The leaching period was rather short, producing a release of soluble nitrogen.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25265

SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF 14- YEAR-OLD ACACIA MANGIUM


Lim, SC; Gan, KS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Kuala Lumpur

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 6(2): 206-213 (2000)

Abstract:
Two trees of 14-y-old A. mangium were studied. Discs of about 5 cm in thickness were obtained at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% heights of the clear bole. Sapwood thickness was measured at four different positions of a disc and an average sapwood percentage was calculated. For the density determination, fibre morphology and anatomical studies, samples were obtained from the outer, intermediate and centre regions of the disc. The results showed that at 14 years of age, A. mangium had a density range of 467 to 675 kg m-3. In most cases, the density tended to increase from the pith to the intermediate region before decreasing towards the bark. In the longitudinal variation, however, the density tended to decrease from 10% height until about 50% height before increasing towards the top of the tree in most cases. The amount of sapwood present was considerable as the percentage ranged from 19.7 to 34.9%. Generally, die amount of sapwood tended to increase with height. The fibre length ranged from 958 to 1200 gm and the fibre length tended to increase &cm the centre to the intermediate regions before decreasing slightly towards the outer region in most cases.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24782

The effect of initial processing on the bonding index of Acacia mangium recycled paper


Rushdan, I
School of Industrial Technology; University Sains Malaysia; Minden; Penang

Proceedings of the International Pulp & Paper Conference; 10-11 November 1997; Kuching; p57-65

Abstract:
The effect of papermaking processes on the bonding index of Acacia mangium recycled paper was investigated. Acacia mangium recycled paper was prepared by subjecting the ð7?3 Š unbleached sulfate virgin pulp to various levels of energy input during refining, different pressures during wet pressing and different temperatures during drying. The initial processing was found to have an effect on the bonding index. The bonding index increased with the increase in the initial refining energy input and wet pressing pressure, but decreased when the initial drying temperature increased. The fluctuation of bonding index can be related to the degree of fibre hornification.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 90860

Survey on the indigenous pest control practices of farmers in Region 2


Ubiqa, CD
Philippine Tobacco Abstracts 9;1989-1990

Abstract:
Three provinces in Region 2, namely, Cagayan, Isabela, and Ifugao were surveyed to determine the actual farmers' use of botanical pesticides and other indigenous practices in pest control. Of the 106 farmer-respondents, only 19 (18%) were using botanical pesticides. Most of their reasons for not using botanicals were the lack of knowledge about it and the laborious preparation needed. However, those who used botanicals as a pest control method claimed it to be effective and a very good alternative for commercial pesticides. The plants used were kakawate, siling-labuyo, ipil-ipil, tobacco, dangla, red lauan, maratanong, lamut and water hyacinth + makahiya/acacia bark. These botanicals were used against pests of rice, corn, legumes, vegetable, and stored grains/seeds. The methods used in applying these plant materials were as follows: broadcasting/spreading the fresh leaves in the water surface until they decay; spraying; and mixing with the seeds. This survey also revealed that the use of commercial synthetic pesticides was still the most common and predominant method of pest control. Other pest control practices included handpicking, using tide for aphids, mixing wood ash with DDT, mixing oil with seeds, and other cultural practices like crop rotation, intercropping, roguing, and thorough sundrying/airdrying of grains/seeds.

Availability :
National Tobacco Administration; Scout Reyes St. Corner Panay Avenue; Quezon City




NO. 91658

Effects of site-preparation methods on the early growth and survival of Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn. ex Benth) on cogonal land


Cielo, MA; De Guzman, J; Soriano, Jr HM
TCA Research Journal 12 (4): 28 (1990)

Abstract:
It was found out that Acacia auriculiformis seedlings planted under the strip clearing method gave the highest total height growth with a mean of 24.19 cm followed in decreasing order by those seedlings planted through spot clearing method, control (pressing down of grasses) and clear brushing.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 91754

Survival and growth performance of selected fuel wood species as affected by weeding practices


Bagalihog, SD; Monteji, JF
Ecosystems Research Digest 4 (1): ?p (1994)

Abstract:
Annual ring weeding with cultivation could be adopted as one of the maintenance activities in the establishment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia auriculiformis plantation in different areas in the Philippines.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91777

Potential species for degraded uplands


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna

Highlights '96; p.25-26

Abstract:
Nasayao and Germano (DENR-ERDS Region 8) conducted field trials/planting of fast growing species in degraded lands in Ormoc and Matalom, Leyte. The species used were Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia leptocarpa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Pinus indicus and Swietenia macrophylla.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91994

Herbage yield of selected leguminous trees as hedgerows in an alley cropping agroforestry scheme


Soriano, Jr HM
TCA Research Journal 14 (1 & 2): 30-39 (1992)

Abstract:
A study on the herbage production of selected leguminous trees used as hedgerows in an alley cropping agroforestry scheme was conducted in 1989 and 1990 at the TCA Forest Reservation at Calao, Mayantoc, Tarlac. The experiment was laid out in RCBD in three replicates with Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena diversifolia, and Acacia villosa as the treatments. Two year data showed that G. sepium was the highest yielder of fresh herbage which compensated for its low percent dry matter. The legume herbages did not differ significantly in their nitrogen and phosphorus contents. However, G. sepium has the highest percent potassium content in its herbage. The equivalent commercial N fertilizer contributed by the hedgerows ranged from 6 to 9 bags of Ammonium sulfate/ha/year or 3 to 4 bags of urea/ha/year.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 91995

Litterfall production in Gliricidia sepium and Acacia auriculiformis plantation


Tomas, WG
Ecosystems Research and Development Service-Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Ecosystems Research Digest 4 (2): 1-8 (1994)

Abstract:
The annual total litter production of G. sepium and A. auriculiformis was 17,102.59kg/ha and 26,785.14 kg/ha respectively. Litter production was highest in May due to mass fruit falling. Maximum leaf shedding of A. auriculiformis was also highly attributed to hot weather. Phosphorus and Potassium content of the soil increased from 32 to 82 percent.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Service; Boy Scout Building, Aguila Road, San Fernando, La Union, Philippines




NO. 92024

Different tree farming schemes


Yao, CE
Greenfields 23 (1): 31-3_ (1995)

Abstract:
Because of the lumber shortage, conversion of agricultural land to tree farms is becoming more acceptable. However, it needs technology to become a success.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92033

Teaching tree farming to teachers: The Siquijor experience


Yao, CE
Greenfields 22 (8): 36-39 (1994)

Abstract:
Teachers in Siquijor established a project to produce an abundant nsupply (???) of tree seedlings and encourage more people to plant trees.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92434

Growth performance of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in the National Capital Region


Uriarte, MT
Sylvatrop [The Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources] 4(2): 7-27(1994)

Abstract:
The average annual stump diameter, diameter at breast height, merchantable height and total height growth aure are 3.07 cm,2.28 cm, 1.36 cm and 2.15 m, respectively. For mangium, these are 3.36 cm, 2.24 cm, 0.79 m and 2.00 m, respectively. At site index=20 m and age = 10 years, the total heights are 24.25 m and 24.57 m for A mangium and A. auriculiformis, respectively. The maximum mean annual increment for aure is 42.92 m3/ha/year attained 4 years after planting and 28.48 m3/ha/year attained 3 years after plantation establishment for mangium.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93537

Salt tolerant plant test, preliminary results


Rose, SA; Smith, FA
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.357-358

Abstract:
Brevard county has a coast line in excess of 70 miles. The strong prevailing winds plus the salt air has limited plant growth in this region. The only vegetation at the present time is native material-mostly low or shurb like. To increase kinds of plants material for these desolate areas, a Salt Tolerant Plant Test plot was set up in 1967 at Patrick Air Force Base, Cocoa Baech, Florida. These plots were located approximately one-half mile from the ocean, with no structures between the planting and the sand dunes. Plants that survived this test were included in a new test plot located directly on the dunes in Melbourne Beach. This paper is intended to give results obtained on sixty kinds of plants, replicated three times and exposed to strong ocean breeze and salt for one year

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 94872

A taxonomic database on acacias of South Asia


Kumar, S; Maheshwari, JK
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.379

Abstract:
A taxonomic database on legumes of eight South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and the Maldives) has been developed under the aegis of the International Legume database and Information Services (ILDIS). The database contains information on the following parameters: a) accepted name and synomyms, b)vernacular names, language, region and source reference;c)life form details, including life span and habit, etc.; d)conservation status; e)geography and status (native or introduced); f)uses; g)pointers for description, illustrations and distribution map; h) detailed taxonomic information; and i)bibiliography and source of reference for each dataset. In South Asia, Acacia is the third largest legume with 113 species, numbers one and two being Astragalus (179) and Crotalaria (131) species. The maximum number of taxa (native and introduced occur in India (109) followed by Pakistan (26), Sri Lanka (20), Myanmar (15), Nepal (13), Bangladaesh (11), Bhutan (6) and Maldives (1). The state and district-wise distribution of these taxa has also been analysed for the Indian region. The detailed analysis shoes following state-wise occurrence of the taxa: Tamilnadu (53), Karnataka (38), West Bengal (25), Maharashta (20), Madhaya Pradesh (19), Uttar Pradesh (19), and Rajasthan (18), etc. The district-wise analysis shows the occurrence of Acacia pennata in as many as 82 districts, followed by A.leucophlea (81), A. catechu (80) and A.tortilis (71). The data base has been developed by using an international format that is globally comparabale and can be utilised for developing research programs in the fields of biosystematics, biodiversity, conservation, plant genetics resources, phytochemistry and agroforestry of acacias, The Phase I database is being interlinked with Phse II modules on applied botanical data like taxonomic tool kit, uses, ecology, nodulation, phytochemistry and images, etc. A detailed analysis of acacias of South Asia, based on data gathered during the last 5 years under the ILDIS South Asia Programme, is available from the authors.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94873

Name changes impending for CSIRO seed lots of Acacaia aulacocarpa


Mc Doabnal, MW; Maslin, BR
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.376-378

Abstract:
This preliminary summary of our taxonomic revision of Acacia aulacocarpa Cunn. ex Benth. and its relatives is to make users of CSIRO seedlots aware of our impending new nomenclature for the group. Our revision substantially alters the present concept of A. aulacocarpa.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94874

the effect of wood:cement ratio and accelerators on the properties of wood-wool cement board made from Acacia mangium


Soriano, FP; Eusebio, DA; Cabangon, RJ; Alcachupas, PL; Evans, PD
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.353-358

Abstract:
Wood-wool cement boards (WWCBs) were produced using Acacia mangium and ordinary Portland cement as binder. The effects on WWCB strenght properties of three wood: cement ratios and three types of cement-setting accelerators were examined. The accelerators were aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3], calcium chloride (CaCl2), and Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Al2(So4)3 was the most effective, CaCl2 imparted better properties at higher wood: cement ratios, and Na2SiO3 did not significantly improve the strenght of boards. The mechanicla properties and thickness-swelling of boards increased at higher wood:cement ratios. The practical implications of these findings for the production of WWCB from A.mangium are discussed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94875

use of Acacias for wood-cement composites


Semple, KE; Evans, PD
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.347-352

Abstract:
composites of cement and wood-wool are widely used for building construction in many developing countries. They are simple to manufacture and can utilise relatively small diamter pulp logs and logging residues. Wood from the extensive acacia plantations in South east Asia may ebe suitable for the manufacture of wood-wool cement composites, but to date there have been relatively few studies that have examined their feasibility. In this paparer the use of acacias in wood-cement re presented. These results are compared wwith those using confreous wood species of very high and very low compatability with cement, and with an important tropical euclaypt species. heartwood samples from the tropical acacias were less compatible with cement than those of the temperate acacia species in that they greatly inhibited cement setting. The sapwood samples of the tropical acacias were generally compatible with cement, whereas those of the temperate species were not. Acacia heartwood (and sapwood of some species) probably contains soluble compounds which chemically inhibit the setting of cement. To overcome these effects, pre-soaking of wood-wool cement panels from acacias. Other possible means of improving the compatibility of acacia wood with cement are:selecting and growing acacias which contain less heartwood, and whose wood is more compatible with cement; using younger trees which contains less heartwood; and using a cement substitute (rice hull ash) which may be less susceptible to the inhibitory present in acacia heartwood.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94876

Morphological variation in Acacia tumida and implications for its utilization


Mc Donald, MW; Harwood, CE; Whitfeld, SJ
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.34-346]

Abstract:
Acacia tumida has a wide natural distribution in north west Australia over a wide range of sites and environmental conditions. The species exhibits considerable geographically-based morphological variation. It ranges from a low, sperading shrub in desert areas to small tree from in wtter environments, and there is geographic variation in phyllode size, shape and colour. Eighteen seedlots from accross the natural distribution were tested in a provenance trial at Kanunura, Western Australia, to assess the extent to which morphological variation was genetically controlled. Based on growth habit and phyllodo size and shape, three variants were recognised: a tree form (Variant 1); a multistemmed shrub for (Variant 2); and a narrow phyloode for (Variant 3). The variants are described and a botanical key for their identification presented. A summary of climate and soil data for the natural occurrence of the variants is given, and their significance in relation to domestification programs briefly discussed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94885

Clonal test and propagation options for natural hybrids between Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis


Kha, LD; Hai, ND; Vinh, HQ
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.203-210

Abstract:
Cuttings from selected clones of F1 natural hybrids between Acacia mangium (Daintree provenance, Queensland) and A. auriculiformis (Darwin Provenance, Northern Territory) together with seedlings of the F2 hybrid generation were included in a set of four trials planted at Ba Vi, northern Vietnam. At age 4 years a marked heterosis effect was observed for cuttings of F1 hybrids. Their growth was significantly higher than seedlings and cuttings of parental species and this tendency could be maintained for the next several years. Growth of F2 hybrid seedling after 2 years was intermeddiate between that of their arental species and segregation in their morphology was obvious. From the clonal test, some promising F1 hynrid clones that are fast growing, good in stem form and relatively high in wood density have been identified.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94877

Assimilation and resource allocation for growth in Acacia auriculiformis


Montagu, KD; Woo, KC
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.313-316

Abstract:
This examines the physilogical factors associated with the growth variations in eighteen seedlots of Acacia auriculiformis. 'Maximum net assimilation rate' (Amax) was determined 13 weeks after germination. Seedlings were then ahrvested and tree height, phyllode area and dry-weight of phyllodes, stems and roots were determined. In the fastest growing seedlot, height, phyllode area and total biomass were 78-137% greate than those in the slowest growing seedlot. Amax was 22.9-28.2 umol m-2 s-1, but this variation could not in itself account for the observed differences in gorwth between seedlots. Instead total phyloode area was found to account for more than 75% of the variation in total biomass. Changes in biomass partitioning within the plants could not account for differences in total phyloode area. Instead fast-growing seedlings were found to produce lower-cost phyllodes, i.e. phyllodes with a high 'specific leaf area' (SLA). As a result these were able to produce more foliage for a given amount of biomass. A high SLA was also associated with increase assimilation efficiency when expressed on a chlorophyll or dry-weight basis. As SLA can easily be measured, we proposed that it be used as a selection parameter in A. auriculiformis breeding programs.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94878

Genetic improvement and physiology of Acacia auriculiformis


Woo, KC; Montagu, KD; Metcalfe, AJ; Puangchit, L; Luangviriryasaeng, V; Jiwarawat, P; Changtragoon
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.292-298

Abstract:
This paper discusses aspects of ACIAR Project 9310 on the genetic improvement and physiology of Acacia auriculiformis Cunn.ex Benth. Controlled pollination of inter-provenance and intra-provenance crosses of A. auriculiformis, and inter-specific crosses between A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, was carried out in a breeding population of selected parent in 1995 and 1996. he hybrid seeds produced were to be planted in the following wet season in Asutralia and Thailand. The role of physiological parameters was also investigated. Total phyllode area was strongly correlated with total biomass (r2=0.78) and shoot dry weight (r2=0.89) in acacia seedlings, indicating that this is a useful selection parameter fro growth and performance in A. auriculiformis. However, it is difficult to determine the total leaf area of a ingle tree accurately, even though it is simple to determine the specific leaf area which is correlated with totla leaf area and which serves as a growth indicator for this species. The staple carbon isotope composition of phyllodes, which is used as an indicator of water-use efficiency, was determined for trees from a clonal seed orchard of A. auricoliformis growing in an irrigated and unirrigated site in Darwin. The values from the unirrigated site were significantly smaller than those from the irrigated site because plants use less water from growth (i.e. they are more water-efficient) in the unirrigated site. The ranking of genotypes was similar for both sites, suggesting that water-use efficiency may be under strong genetic contro in these clones.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94879

Segregation in putative F2 hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis


Metcalfe, AJ; Woo, KC
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.288-291

Abstract:
This study investigates the comparative growth performance of seedling populations of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis amd their putative F2 hybrids. The F2 population had intermediate phyllode morphology (lenght:width ratio) and showed large segregation in seedling plant height and photosynthetic activity compared with the A.mangium and A.auriculiformis populations. The population means for plant height, biomass production and phyllode photosynthetic activity of the F2 population were the lowest amongst the three seedling populations. When the tallest seedlings in the three populations were compared, the putative F2 hybrids were inferior in height but had intermediate internode length and branching density.It seems that putative F2 hybrids of A. mnagium and A.auriculiformis are unlikely to be a useful genetic resource in tropical forestry.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94880

Acacias and mine rehabilitation: the need for inoculating Acacias with mycorrhizal fungi


Ragupahty, S; Ashwath, N, Mahadevan, A
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.274-280

Abstract:
A field trial was conducted to determine the need for inoculating acacias with mycorrhizal fungi, and a pot experiment aimed to quantify the benefits of endomycorrhizal fungi to acacias. Results of the field trial suggested that little, if any, volunteer colonisation of mycorrhizal fungi occurrs on mine spoils, and the provision of even a thin layer of topsoil acts as an excellent source of mycorrhizal inocula. The pot trial with A. holosericea and A. nilotica showed marked growth improvement to inoculation with three mycorrhizal species (Glomus aggregatum, Gigaspora albida and Glomus mosseae); the latter was the most effective on acacias.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94881

Matching Rhizobia and template species of Acacia


Brockwell, J
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.264-273

Abstract:
The literature and unpublished reports relating to the symbiosis between Acacia and its root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) ahve been reviewed. The weight of evidence suggests that acacias fix useful quantities of nitrogen of nitrogen in the field, thereby conserving resources of soil nitrogen and perhaps acting as a source for other trees growing with them in mixed stands. Acacia species, and even provenances within species, are highly strain-specific in their requirement for effectively nitrogen fixing rhizobial strains. Therefore, acacias introduced inot new lands will require inoculation with effective rhizobia. Effective strains for acacias are probably most effectually selected on a species-by-species basis. Inoculation of acacias will be done most efficiently by sowing seed into rhizobia-rich nursery soil so that seedlings are well nodulated and fixing nitrogen when are outplanted into plantations. The implications of these matters for inoculant preparation are discussed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94882

Responses in Acacia to inoculation with Rhizobia


Lihua, K; Sucui, L
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.258-263

Abstract:
Temperate species of Acacia, A. melanoxylon, A. mearnsii, A. dealbata, inoculated with strains of the root-nodule bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium spp. ('rhizobia'), were grown in the nursery for 4-6 months in plastic containers of soil. Responses to inoculation (indices of nitrogeh fixation) were measured as nodule dry matter (DM), seedling height, seedling DM, nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction activity -ARA), and the nitrogen content of inoculated and uninoculated plants. Estimates were made of the amount and rate of nitrogen fixation. All 29 strains formed nodules on Acacia host plants and most fixed at least some nitrogen. The best-performing strains increased nodule DM, seedling height, seedling DM and ARA by up to 2.1,1.1,2.8 and 7.3 respectively, and the differences between the best and poorest strains were statistically significant. Significant differences also occurred between six provenanances of four Acacia species in their response to inoculation with selected strains. In A.melanoxylon, the rate of nitrogen fixation (the production of total plant nitrogen due to fixed nitrogen) for provenance 17263 was 72.4% but was only 10.5% for provenance 16358. A.implexa had a rate of 53.4%, but A.mearnsii had a rate of only 10.4%. The shoots of Acacia seedlings contained 76% of the total nitrogen fixed by the plant. It is concluded that, in choosing effective strains for inoculants for lines of Acacia, careful consideration must be given to symbiotic compatibility at both species and the provenance levels.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94883

Diagnosis of nutrient status of Acacia mangium


Simpson, JA; Dart, P; McCourt, G
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.252-257

Abstract:
Acacia mangium is an important commercial forest species of the tropics. Increasing attention is being paid to intensive management regimes, frequently involving the use of fertilisers, to maximise productivity. Foliar analysis techniques need to be developed for the species to diagnose nutrient deficiencies and to establish nutrient levels associated with maximum yield. Glasshouse investigations enabled descriptions of visual deficiency symptoms of N,P,K and the corresponding foliar nutrient concentrations. Pooled results from selected samplings of operational stands in number of Southeast Asia countries suggest that: problems exist with the N nutrition of A.mangium plantations in China and the Philippines; P deficiency in a major problem in Kalimantan and China; and K deficiency is a serious problem in the stands samples in Vietnam, Kalimantan and China. Problems with Mg and B are less frequent. A greater understanding of edaphic limitations and species nutritional requirements is urgently required, supported by further development of foliar analysis as a diagnostic and interpretative tool.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94884

Isoenzyme analysis of a breeding population of Acacia auriculiformis


Changtragoon, S
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.216-219

Abstract:
The genotypes of ten plus trees and their corresponding ramets in a breeding population of Acacia auriculiformisNakornratchsima province, Thailand were identified and confirmed by isoenzyme analysis. Eleven isoenzyme systems were used in the investigation. Twelve putative isoenzyme gene loci were identified. The results showed that four loci namely:PGM-A,PGM-B, IDH-A and DIA-A were putative polymorphic. The identity of the genotype of each plus tree and its ramets was confirmed for all plus trees, except one ramet that differed in its genotype from the corresponding plus tree and other remaining ramets. This disparate ramet was found 0.63 from this breeding population. The multilocus genotype at the PGM-A,PGM-B and IDH-A loci could be used to identify the selfed (versus outcrossed) progenies obtained in most of the controlled crosses. These crosses can be pollinated without emasculation and the selfed progenies identified at a later stage by isoenzyme analysis. Hence, the polymorphism described at these loci could simply controlled pollination for 90% of the parental combinations in this breeding population of A. auriculiformis in Thailand.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94886

Evaluation of clonal strategies for tropical acacias


Walker, SM; Haines, RJ
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.197-202

Abstract:
This paper undertakes a simple marginal benefit/cost analysis for an acacia clonal forestry strategy and examines the sensitivity of key performance measures to variation in parameters such as: size of plantation estate; rotation length; stumpage price; productivity gains;total clonal program cost, and plant propagation cost. This analysis indicates that at likely stumpage prices and realistic costs of producing cuttings, investment in a clonal program is highly profitable where such a program is properly conducted to ensure delivery of a significant productivity gain. Clonal program is very attractive for a plantation estate of P100,000 hectares of greater, yielding at high IRR, marginal wood cost which are well below market price, marginal plant cost that are likely to be acceptable, and large additional volumes of wood to meet mill demand. The outcome is not influenced greatly by rortation length within thee range 6 to 9 years, and is very favourable for stumpage prices for US$8 or greater. The outcomes of the analysis are quite sensitive to the size of the planting program, with investment in a well designed and conducted clonal program unlikely to be justified for small plantation programs. Similarly, exceptionally high plant production costs could render investment in a clonal program unattractive unless gains achieved are much higher than those which can presently be predicted with confidence over a large plantation estate.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94887

Domestification of exotic Acacia species in Bukidnon province, Philippines


Arnold, RJ; Gonzales, A; Abarquez, A
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.136-142

Abstract:
In the Philippines large areas of degraded uplands, now dominated by cocogn grass (Imperata cylindrica) are in need of reforestation. On the island of Mindanao, Bukidnon Forest Incorporated (BFI) has become a model project in the domestification of exotic tropical acacias in the effort to restore the productivity to those degraded uplands. BFI has been planting Acacia mangium as on one its main species and has been conducting trials to evaluate the performance of this and other acacia species since its founding in 1988. Results from one of BFI's species evaluation trials and a species-provenance trial of promising exotic acacias are summarized. Results of a small A. mangium provenance trial in Bukidnon are also presented. A mangium has generally shown superior growth compared to A. auriculiformis, A. aulococarpa and A. crassicarpa. Within A. mangium, PNG provenances generally showed faster growth while seedlots collected from two local stands were consistently inferior from growth in the trials. However, A. aulacocarpa is being considered for large scale deployment due to superior stem form relative to A.mangium and other acacias.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94888

Potential of selected acacia species in Cebu province, Philippines


Baggayan, JL; Baggayan, RL
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.125-129

Abstract:
There is a lack of species suitable for planting in different reforestation sites in Cebu Provinces, Philippines, and hence this trial was established at two sites, Tabuelan and Talisay, to test Australian hardwood species not previously grown in Cebu. The soil at Tabuelan wasa derived from coralline limetone, and was very shallow, while the Talisay site soils were dereived from basaltic parent material and were deeper. Both soils are representative of large tracts in Cebu Provinces. Eleven Acacia species (13 seedlots) were screened for suitability for the region. The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design with three replicates each with seven plants per seedlot, and a spacing of 4 m between rows and 2 m within row. Growth was assessed in terms of height and diameter. Diameter was measured 1 cm above the ground using a vernier caliper. Survival counts were taken a year after planting. Based on the 2- and 4-year growth and 1-year survival data, A. neurocarpa (SL 18170), A. crassicarpa (SL 17604, SL 17948), A. leptocarpa (SL 18003) and A. oraria (SL 16140) were found to have potential for areas of Cebu Provinces where soils of coralline orogin, very susceptible to erosion and marginally suitable for tree planting.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94889

Tropical Acacias planted in Asia: an overview


Trunbull, JW; Midgley, SJ; Cossalter, C
Proceedings;International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting;Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research Proceedings 82;1998;pp.14-28

Abstract:
Australian acacias are planted in over 70 countries and cover about 2 million ha. This area si dominated by Acacia mearnsii, A.saligna and A. mangium. In the past five years there has been a massive increase in the area of A.mangium plantations in Indonesia for pulpwood, and modest increases in China, India, Malaysia and Vietnam. The area now totals 600,000 ha. Recent development of plantations of tropical acacias is related to the profitability of growing acacia plantation due to the decreasing availability and higher costs of wood from natural forests, the opportunity to increase productivity of degraded sites, and the suitability of fast-grown wood for paper and reconstituted boards. Furthermore, research in genetics and breeding has identified superior provenances, developed seed orchards, and cloned fast growing hybrids. Molecular biology techniques have enabled rapid characterisation of genotypes and the detection of genetic variation. Nutrition research has demostrated the value of phosporus fertilisation on most sites and the benefits of inoculation with selected rhizobia and mycorrhizas. Surveys have identified potentially damaging pathogens and insects. All these have contributed greatly to reducing costs and increasing the potential returns from acacia plantations. There is increased market acceptance of tropical acacia wood but research on wood properties and development of new products is a priority. Sa the large area of first-rotation plantation is harvested there is an increasing priority to develop management options to ensure minimal decline in site productivity and yield in successive rotations.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94917

Seed biology of selected multipurpose tree species


Gamboa-Lapitan, P
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 119-123

Abstract:
This paper discusses the seed biology of eight multipurpose tree species commonly grown in the Philippines: Paraserianthes falcataria, Albizia (formerly Samanea) saman, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia auriculiformis, Anthocephalus chinensis, Pinus kesiya, Casuarina equsetifolia, and Koordersiodendron pinnatum. Appropriate timing of seed collection and germination and storage requirements are emphasized. In some cases, an assessment of exisiting seed technology is presented.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93868

Growth performance of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in the National Capital Region


Uriarte, MT
Sylvatrop 4(2): 7-27(1994)

Abstract:
Sixty-one temporary sample plots were established to determine the effects of various site factors on the growth, and yield of aure (acacia auriculiformis) and mangium (A. mangium) in the National Capital Region (NCR). The average annual stump diameter, diameter at breast height, merchantable height and total height growth for aure are 3.07 cm, 2.28 cm, 1.36 m and 2.15 m, respectively. For mangium, these are 3.36 cm, 2.24 cm, 0.79 m and 2.00 m respectively. At site index = 20 m and age=10 years, the total height are 24.25 m and 24.57 m for A. mangium and A. auriculiformis, respectively.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93874

Germination test standards for Acacia mangium


Dayan, MP; Reaviles, RS
Sylvatrop 4(2): 1-6(1994)

Abstract:
Standardization of germination test procedures for Acacia mangium was conducted using seven seedlots of the species namely: four from the Asean-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre, two from Indonesia and one from the Philippines. Four pretreatment methods and two light condition were tested. Soaking seeds in boiling water until the water turns cold for 24 hours increased seed germination percentage from 54 to 87% compared to 43-76% germination of seeds placed in boiling water for only 3 to 4 minutes and soaking in tap water for 24 hours. Untreated seeds had 5.3-28% germination. Seeds exposed to light (16 hours photoperiod) and total darkness had no significant effect on germination percentage of all seedlots tested. Concentrated sulfuric acid broke seedcoat dormancy but caused abnormality to some seedlings. The age of the seedlots and temperature conditions where the seed were stored also affected the viability of the seedlots.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93883

Strength and related properties of three species of Acacia (Mimosoideae-Leguminosae)


Alipon, MA; Floresca, AR
Forest Products REsearch and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 20(1-2): 67-72(1991)

Abstract:
This article presents the results of tests on the strength and related properties of Acacia mangium, A. cincinnata and A. crassicarpa at 7, 5, and 5 years old, respectively. Strength classification and comparison with properties of other species were made based on average values of the species and for which their possible end uses are recommended.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93887

The effect of wood/cement ratio and accelerators on the properties of wood wool cement boards made from Acacia mangium


Soriano, FP; Eusebio, DA; Cabangon, RJ; Alcachupas, PL; Evans, PD
Forest Products Research and Development Institute(FPRDI) Journal 23(1): 67-74(1997)

Abstract:
Wood wool cement boards (WWCBs) were produced using Acacia mangium and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as binder. The effects of three types of cement-setting accelerators namely: calcium chloride (CaCl2), aluminum sulfate (Al2 (SO4)3 and sodium silicate (Na2 SiO3) and three wood/cement ratios on WWCB strength properties were examined. Results showed that Al2 (S4)3 was the most effective cement-setting accelerator. The use of CaCl2 imparted better properties at higher wood/cement ratios, while Na2SiO3 did not significantly improve the strength of boards. The mechanical properties and thickness swelling of boards increased at higher wood/cement ratios. The practical implications of these findings for A. mangium WWCB production are discussed.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 94513

Comparative study on the effects of ipil-ipil, acacia and cassava leaf meals added to broiler ration


Quiday, JB; Abaya, AQ
ASIST Research Journal 35-43(1987)

Abstract:
This study was conducted primarily to compare the effects of the different leaf meals added to commercial feeds on the performance of broilers. It was conducted at the Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology, Lagangilang Abra from May 28 to July 4,1985. Eighty-four birds were used on the study which were divided into four treatments. Birds in Treatment A were fed with commercial feeds plus 5% ipil-ipil leaf meals. Those in Treatment B and C were given acacia and cassava leaf meals as feed supplements. Birds in treatment D which served as the control were fed with pure commercial feeds. There was no mortality in any of the treatments. Based on the results of the study, those given ipil-ipil as fed supplement were the heaviest among the other treatments. It was followed by birds given with acacia and the control group in the same order. Birds with cassava leaf meal as feed supplement were the lightest at the end of the study.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 93705

Resistance of seedlings of four plantation tree species to white Grube, Leucophalis irrorata (Chevrolat) (Coleoptera:Scarabidae)


Braza, RD
Sylvatrop 12(1&2): 1-8(1987)

Abstract:
Seedlings of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume, E. urophylla S.J. Blake, Acacia mangium Willd, and Pinus caribaea (Royle ex Gordon) were studied for their resistance to white grubs (Leucopholis irrorate (chevrolat.) (Coleoptera; Scarabidae). The study was conducted from September to November, 1987 at the Forest Research Laboratory of the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP), Surigao del Sur, showed that the four species were as highly susceptible to the pest as Albizia falcataria (control) is. Like A. falcataria all the roots of 100% of the seedlings of the four species were eaten by white grubs after a two-week exposure to the pest. The mortality rate among the four species ranged from 50 to 80% and was also not significantly different from the 80% mortality rate for A. falcataria.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 94741

Growth and yield of Acacia auriculiformis in Region I


Tomas, WG
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region I Ecosystems Research Digest 4(5): 1-8(1996)

Abstract:
In terms of height growth and increment, auriculiformis planted in totally brushed area in Vintar, Ilocos Norte and Sinait, Ilocos Sur were significantly taller by 50% and 25%, respectively, than those planted in partially brushed area. In general, seedlings planted in totally brushed area exhibited higher growth increment than those in partially brushed area. However, it is noteworthy to observe that seedlings planted in Sison, Pangasinan had a slight margin above with partially brushed area. The same trend is observed in diameter growth and increment both in Ilocos Norte and Pangasinan site. Moreover, it could be noted that the growth performance of auriculiformis in Ilocos Norte is more favorable than in Pangasinan.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94096

Survival and growth performance of selected fuelwood species as affected by weeding practices


Bagalihog, SD; Montejo, JF
Ecosystems Research Digest;ERDS-DENR R7 4(1): 1-10(1994)

Abstract:
The experiment evaluated the effects of weeding method(mainplot) and the weeding frequency(subplot) on the field survival and growth of four fuelwood species. It also determines the appropriate weeding method and frequency. The study was conducted at Buenavista, Bohol and Montalongan, Dalaquete, Cebu. It was found out that annual ring weeding with cultivation could be adapted as one of the maintenance activities in the establishment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia auriculliformis the frequency of weeding and the interaction effects among the treatments showed no significant effect.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 93681

Tropical Australian acacia trials on Hainan island people's Republic of China


Minquan, Y; Jiayu, B; Yutian, Z
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agriculture Research;Canberra;1989;chap.8,pp.89-96

Abstract:
Difference between species and provenances of acacias in trials on Hainan Island,China, are described. Acacia crassicarpa (two provenances, S13682, S13683 from Papua New Guinea) grew fasted while A.mangium, A. auriculiformis, A.cincinnata, and A. aulacocarpa also appear suitable for reforestation on poor soils on the east coast of Hainan. One serious limiting factor for some species of tropical acaciac is their apparent susceptibility to typhoon damage because of their large dense crowns. Other species such as A. cincinnata and A. aulacocarpa grow rapidly and produce straight trees. Superior individual trees of these species offer great potential for vegetative propagation.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93675

Growth and survival of Australian tree species in field trials Zimbabwe


Gwaze, DP
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ. (eds.);Australian Center for International Agriculture Research;Canberra;1989;Chap.12,pp.129-138

Abstract:
Six species trials located on five sites in Zimbabawe were assessed for height, diameter at ground level and survival 1.5-2 years after planting. Three of the trials were established at the beginning of 1985, with Eucalyptus camaldulensis being used as a check species. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Casuarina cunninghamina, C.glauca, Grevillea glauca and Acacia holoserices were showing most promise in these trials. The other three trials were established between Decenber 1985 and January 1986. Promising species in two of these trials include E. camaldulensis, A.curculiformis, A. Crassicarpa, A.cowleana, A.torulosa, A.podalyrifolia and A. leptocarpa. On the driest site that had alkaline soils, the central America species Senna atomaria, Leucaena shannonii, Parkinsonia aculeata and Leucaena diversifolia were superior to the Australian species planted.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93677

Statistical analysis of tree species trials and seedlot: site interaction in Thailand


Williams, ER; Luangviriyasaeng, V
Trees for Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed);Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research;CAnberra;1989;Chap.14,pp.145-152

Abstract:
This paper describes the statistical analysis of a series of species trials. Height data from the 24 month measure of 1985 trials are used. Various aspects of the analysis are discussed including the preprocessing of individual tree data, analysis of variance for separate trials and amodel for the combination of information over several trials. Genotype x emviroment interaction was investigated and results on the behaviour of different species are discussed.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93678

Vegetative propagation of Casuarina and Acacia: potential for success


Pryor, LD
Trees for the Tropic;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agricultural Research;Canberra;1989;Chap.15,pp.155-157

Abstract:
Australian species of Casuarina and Acacia have been little explored for their capacity to respond to vegetative propagation. Available evidence suggests that this will be possible by a variety of methods, some of which will be suitable for clonal silviculture. Variations must be expected in the response from various species, but this cannot be assessed adequately until more studies of the two genera are undertaken. A vigorous research program is merited to further evaluated full potential of these two genera for vegetative propagation.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93664

Pathological problems of multipurpose trees in India


Dargan, JS
Proceedings;International Worjshop on Research on Multi-porpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños,Philippines;19-23 November,1990;Taylor,DA And Mc Dicken KG(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agriculture Develpment;1991;pp.225-235

Abstract:
With the increase in population and changing socioeconomic condition in India, fuel fodder, and timber are becoming scarce and expensive. To meet the needs of rural people, about forty multipurpose tree species have been recommended for various regions in India, including Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. In thier natural enviroments, these trees suffer from pathological problems caused by biotic agents such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. In this paper, common diseases caused by fungi in nurseries and on standing trees are discussed. Damping off disease is quite common in conifers, Eucalyptus and Dalbergia nurseries. Root-rot is prevalent in several tress species often caused by members of Basidiomycotina. Decay is the most important cause of loss to standing crop;fungi associated with heart rot generally belong to Hymenomycetes and some higher ascomcetes. Canker diseases appear on many trees used in agroforrestry and social forestry. Powdery mildews and rust are also reported on several multipurpose tree species. Management practices adopted in India for controlling these diseases are discuaaed.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93673

Acacia mangium-rhizobium symbiosis selection and propose rating of the host plant and the microorganism


Souvannavong, O; Galiana, A
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños,Philippines;19-23 November,1990;Taylor,DA And MC Dicken KG.(ed.) Winrock International Institute for Agriculture Development;1991;pp.216-222

Abstract:
Acacia mangium has become a popular plantation species in the lowland humid tropics due to its rapid growth and ability to colonize degraded lands. This ability is due to a symbiosis with Rhizobium that allows the plant to fix nitrogen. A. mangium planttationare being developed in Southeast Asia and other regions for wood production and restoration of soil fertilising of family farmlands and commercial agricultural plantations. This paper persents research iniatiated to improved A. mangium perperformance in plantations by selection of both host plant and Rhizabinna symbiont Forty two Rhizobium isolates were obtained from collection in mangium 's natural range and in ares where it has been introduces. Affectivity tests showed that the modulating A. mangium belong to the Bradrhizobium group. In vitro and greenhouse tests showed that the efficiency of the difference strain is quite variable. Nursery and field trials cross evaluating provennaces and strain have been established in Benin coted'... and the cook Islands. Fruits results are consistent with those obtained in vitro and in greenhouse.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93676

Response of Australian tree species to nitrogen and phosphorus in Thailand


Croner, RN
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,Dj.(ed.);Australian Center for Internationa Agricultural Research;Canberra;1988;Chap.13,pp.139-143

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis and Casuarina equisetifolia responded to applications of phosphorus fertiliser at Huai Bong in northerb Thailand, but not at Ratchaburi, near .Growth was generally poor at Huai Bong compared with Ratchaburi(height of E. camaldulensis less than 4 m amd approximately 8 m, respectively, in 24 months). No response to nitrogen fertiliser was evident at either site. Growth responses to phophorus occured at Huai Bong, despite high levels of available soil phophorus and lack of ageneral increase in foliar concentration of phospuros following fertiliser application. However, foliar nitrogen concentration in Acacia and Casuarina increased in phosphorus treated plots, suggesting that nitrogen fixation was enhanced by fertilisation with phophorus. Site characteristics other than phosphorus nutrition probably limited growth ratesw at Huai Bong. Application of phophorus fertiliser at Ratchburi resulted in substantial and significant increase in foliar phosphorus concentration in all speciea despite lack a (significant) respones in growth. Better growth rates at Ratchaburi were probably due to more favourable hpysical and chemical (other than phophorus)soil properties and potential access to groundwater. Result from these experiments demonstrate taht soil characteristic of potential plantation sites in Thailand vary considerbly, resulting in variable growth rates and response to applied nutrients. Nutrition should areceive greater attention when planning research projects with Australian tree in Thailand.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93682

Acacia mearnsii provenace trials in the Peoples Republic of China


Chuanbi, G
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agriculture Research;Canberra;1989;chap.9,pp.97-101

Abstract:
Provenace trials Acacia mearnsii were establish in the central and southern districts of subtropical zones in the People's Republic of China. Imported seed from Australia, South Africa and Brazil were compared with a number of local provennaces. Some of the trials suffered heavy loss due to drought or disease. Available early results have shown marked differences amongst provennace in many growth characteristics. Several newly introduced seedlots have performed better tahn the local seedlots in height and diameter. Surprisingly all local pervennaces had first flowering at 18 months after planting but none of the newly introduced provennaces did so at the same age.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93679

Fuelwood evaluation of four Australian-grown tree species


Groves, KW; Chivuya, AM
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agriculture Research;Canberra;1989;Chap.16,pp.159-169

Abstract:
This chapter consists of a review of standard fuelwood tests and attempt to define what constitutes a good domestic fuelwood in a manner relevant to Third World countries.Four Australian-grown species. Eucalyptus melliodora, E. blakelyi. Acacia melanoxyton and Pinus radiata, were examined. For each of these, calorific value, density, moisture content and chemical composition were investigated. Burning testa were also carried out by boiling a fixed mass of water using a known mass of fuelwood under standardised conditions. While calorofic value of oven-dry wood is important in defining wood as a fuel our result show little difference between species. The most important factors were density (either basic or air-dry) and moisture content. In the burning tests, only air-dry samples gave satisfactory results, emphasising that wood should be dried before being used as afuel. The air-dry saples of the lower density species ignited more readily, burnt more rapidly without producing embers, and boiled the water more quickly. The higher density species took longer to ignite, burned more slowly, but produced hot embers, which continued to give off a steady heat long after the flames had died down. Overall the tests indicated that no one species had all the desirable characteristics of a fuelwood. For quick cooking or heating the less dense species may be preferred. Where cooking must be done slowly over a longish period, dense species which maintain a steady haet by producing quantities of hot embers, may be better.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93683

Growth and survival of Australian tree species in field trials in kenya


Milimo, PB
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agricultural Research;Canberra;1989;chap.10,pp.10-108

Abstract:
Field trials with Australian tree species, mainly eucalypts and acacia, were establish in semi-arid to humid areas in Kenya . Early result showed that Eucalyptus saligana and E.grandis had best growth anf survival in the humid area, whereas Acacia crassicarpa did well in semi humid to semi-arid areas. The trials planted in semi-arid areas failed, and possible factors responsible for the failure are discussed.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93684

Growth and survival of Australian tree species in field trials in Thailand


Pinyopusarerk, K
Trees for Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed.);Australian Center for International Agricultural Research; Canberran;1989;chap.11,pp.109-128

Abstract:
Field trials of Australain tree species of the genere Acacia, Eucalyptus and Melaleuca were planted at different sites across Thailand during the period 1985 to 1987. Early results obtained for the trials planted in 1985 and 1986 have shown marked differences between species in growth and survival. Several acacias a(e.g. Acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. torulosa and A. julifera) and eucalyptus (e.g. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora and E. urophylla) were amongst the fastest-growing while most melaleucas and casuarinas were slow growing. Some species (e.g. A.oraria, Albizia procera and most melaleucas) grew slowly but survived well. A little known species (Grevillea pteridifolia) has grown well with a dense crown, and has maintained a healthy appearance throughout the year. Provennace variation has been noted for some species. Northern provennaces of A. crassicarpa and A. aulacocarpa grew faster than souther provenneces. Some species were also found to differ in tree form between different site (e.g. trees of A. polystachya and A. holosericea, normally multistemmed with heavy branching at dry sites, were single-stemmed and had light branching patterns at two wet sites)

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93727

Screening for effectiveness of four Va mycorrhizal fungi on Acacia auriculiformis in infertile soil


Agganan, NS; Lorilla, EB
Sylvatrop 12(3&4): 133-140(1987)

Abstract:
Four species of VA mycorrhizal fungi namely: Glomus etunicatum, Gl. macrocarpum, Gl fasciculatum and Gl, mosseae were tested for their effectiveness in improving growth of acacia auriculiformis in soil collected from a marginal grassland. Glomus etunicatum and Gl. macrocarpum were more effective than Gl. fasciculatum and Gl. mosseae in increasing height, diameter, biomass and phosporus uptake of A. auriculiformis. Height growth was increased by 1, 112% if seedlings were inoculated with the former and by 1,104% if inoculated with the latter fungus. Glomus mosseae and Gl. fasciculatum gave height increases of 749% and 549%, respectively, relative to the uninoculated seedlings.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93736

Acacia mearnsii: its past and potential use with reference to the development of plantations in the People's Republic of China


Hillis, WE
Trees for the Tropics;Buland,DJ.(ed);Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra;1989;chap.2,pp.21-26

Abstract:
A brief history is given of the use of Acacia mearnsii, to serve as a general background for the ACIAR forestry program development. The program involves number of multidisciplinary studies to improve the yield and utilisation of the species in the People's Republic of China. Past research in the Republic of South Africa on A. mearnsii has already led to one of the most significant developments in contemporary forestry. Requirements for the selection of plantation species to provide the utilisation needs of different countries will increasingly involve versatile species such as A. mearnsii. The coordination of recent developments may again lead to other significant developments in forestry through the planting and use of this species. Brief details are provided of the ACIAR program on A. mearnsii in China.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94188

Species trial of nitrogen-fixing trees suitable for reforestation under various environmental conditions in selected areas in the Cordillera


Bato, LC; Baldo, HS
Ecosystems Research Digest(Region I) 8(2): 1-8(1998)

Abstract:
The study was conducted to find out the performance of different nitrogen-fixing trees in terms of survival percentage height growth for reforestation in specific sites in the Cordillera. After three years of outplanting survival percentages of the four species used were statistically analyzed namely:Alnus,Narra,Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, Narra and Alnus registered survival percentages 72%.69%,67% and 53%,respectively. In Lamut,Ifugao the survival percentages of the three species were quite high, but Alnus survival was only 20%. In terms of height growth, in Derot,Tublay,Benguet Alnus exhibited the highest, In Lamut,Ifugao-Acacia mangium. Analysis of variance showed significant variation among species in the three sites for percentage survival and height growth.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 94194

Effects of gibberellic acid on the growth of benguet pine, alnus and Acacia mangium seedlings


Ronquillo, SPD
Ecosystems Research Digest(Region I) 2(1): 21-26(1992)

Abstract:
The study was undertaken to assess the ability of the plant growth regular giberellic acid in promoting the growth performance of seedlings to attain the required plantable size(height) in a short period of time. Overall result of the study indicated different responses to various level of concentration. In terms of survival, Benguet pine had 100,Alnus ranges from 50-53%(with treatments) and 90%(for control). Acacia mangium did not respond to gibberellic acid application but high mortality was observed. In terms of height growth, both Benguet pine and Alnus produced encouraging growth responses at 150ppm.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 94195

Survival and growth of six fuelwood species in five grassland soils at Ilocos Norte


Calacal, LP
Ecosystems Research Digest(Region I) 1(3): 1-30(1993)

Abstract:
Correlation analysis were run to determine the relationship of rainfall soil moisture and soil temperature with species growth and survival of fuelwood species. Results revealed that soil type significantly affected soil moisture content on the other hand a negative correlation exist between soil temperature and soil moisture, diameter growth of seedlings were highly significant for all specie while interaction between soil type and species showed no significant differences. Generally, soil moisture for all soil tested was inversely correlated with that of species diameter. Heights and diameter growth were positively correlated with soil temperature within 15cm and 30 cm depths. The positive correlation between variables imply that a decrease in soil moisture which mean an increase in soil temperature as well as increase in growth. Furthermore, survival in all species, except Pithecellobium dulce, was 100%.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 95050

Growth performance of Acacia mangium and A.auriculiformis in the National Capital Region


Uriarte, MT
Sylvatrop 4(2): 7-27(1994)

Abstract:
The average annual stump diameter, diameter at breast height, merchantable height and total height growth for acre are 3.07cm, 2.28cm, 1.36cm and 2.15m respectively. For mangium, these are 3.36cm,2.24cm,0.79m and 2.00m, respectively. At site index=20m and age=10 years, the total heights are 24.25m and 24.57m for A.mangium and A.auriculiformis, respectively. The maximum mean annual increment for acre is 42.92m3/ha/year attained 4 years after planting and 28.48m3/ha/year attained 3 years after plnatation established for mangium.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 95076

Drying and burning properties of the wood of some Australian tree species


Gough, DK; Bell, RE; Ryan, PA; Bragg, CT
Trees for Tropics; Buland, DJ.(ed); Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research; Canberra; 1989; pp 177-186

Abstract:
Material 2.5 years old, from 15 species established in trial plots in southeast Queensland, was sampled for drying and burning studies. For the drying studies, 0.6 m lengths were dried under cover and weighed periodically until their weight approached stability. Each of the species was then tested as a fuel in the burning studies, using standardised simulated cooking fires. Drying models were derived in which initial moisture content, basic density, piece diameter and a developed drying factor were included as variables. The drying factor was found to have the greatest influence on drying rate. Data are presented on the initial moisture content, green density and computed drying time to 24% moisture content for each species. In each burning study, 800 g of air-dried fuel was burnt in a 20-l fire bucket to heat 4 l of water. The rate of fuel consumption, rate of temperature rise of the water and the heat energy used by the water were obtained for each species. The burning trials revealed that all species tested should be acceptable as fuelwood. It was concluded that the emphasis in future studies should be on the drying behaviour of species rather than on the development of detailed quantitative information on burning properties. These properties are more appropriately described in terms of qualitative attributes such as the capacity of the wood to burn evenly, without smoke, crackling or sparkling.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95077

Fodder value of selected Australian tree and shrub species


Vercoe, TK
Trees for Tropics; Buland, DJ.(ed); Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research; Canberra; 1989; pp 187-192

Abstract:
Foliage from 39 Australian tree and shrub species cultivated in field trials near Gympie in Queensland, Australia, were analysed for digestibility, protein content, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese concentrations. TWenty-five are recommended for further study.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95079

Susceptibility to termite attack of various tree species planted in Zimbabwe


Mitchell, MR
Trees for Tropics; Buland, DJ. (ed); Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research; Canberra; 1989; pp 215-226

Abstract:
A trial containing 52 seedlots from 41 species of Australian, Central American and Zimbabwean trees at Kadoma, Zimbabwe gave results showing major differences in over all survival and susceptibility to the fungus growing termites Ancistrotermes latinotus and Macrotermes michaelseni. Species with better than 80% survival and less than 10% termite deaths were: Acacia holosericea, A.albida, A. salicina, A.plectocarpa, A.leptocarpa, A.difficilis, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Senna atomaria. The survival of the standard species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, was 34% with all deaths due to termite attack. The basal area per tree, at 30 cm, of one provenance of the Asutralian species A.holosericea was significantly better than that of E.camaldulensis at the 5% level.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95082

Acacia species and provenance in Southwest Victoria, Australia


Bird, PR; Raleigh, R; Kearney, GA; Aldridge, EK
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 148-154

Abstract:
Trial were undertaken to identify Australian acacias with potential for planting in areas perhaps marginal for plantation forestry. Sites in southwest Victoria at Gringegalgona (near Coleraine) and Dunkeld were used to test 36 acacia seedlots, in a cool-temperate climate with an annual rainfall of 700 mm and a drier 3-4 month summer-autumn. The Grigegalgona site is a sloping bank near a creek, on laterised Tertiary sediments (sndy loam over clay). The topsoil is mildly acidic and infertile but well drained. The Dunkeld site is on basaltic soil that becomes waterlogged in late winter. The soil is gravelly clay-loam over clay, mildly acid and infertile. Seedlings were planted in September 1994. At 34 months, the poorest survival was 65% at Gringegalgona and 77.5% at Dunkeld. A.mearnsii (Tuross River), A.dealbata (Errinundra) and A.decurrens (Picton-Mittagong) were the tallest at Gringegalgona (510, 495 and 483 cm, respectively). In terms of stem volume, the best at Gringegalgona was A.mearnsii from Tuross River (ranked thrid at Dunkeld). The best at Dunkeld was A.decurrens from Picton-Mittagong (ranked eight at Gringegalgona). Only A.mearnsii (Tuross River) and A.delabata (errinundra) ranked in the first six at both sites.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95083

Acacia species and provenance trials in Central Northern Vietnam


Nhan, HD; Duc, NQ
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 143-147

Abstract:
In 1990, 32 forest and agroforestry tree species/provenances were tested at three sites-Ham Yen (Tuyen Quang province), Phong Chau (Phu Tho province) and Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc province). Tree growth was best at Ham Yen, where A. crassicarpa reach a growth rate of 17.7 m3/ha/year, while A.mnagium, A.aulacocarpa and A.auriculiformis reached more than 12 m3/ha/year. In phong Chau A.aulacocarpa grew best (13.8 m3/ha/year) and in Tam Dao, A.crassicarpa (13.2m3/ha/year). Other species of the Fabaceae family and two indigenous species, Manglietia and Melia, were all unsuccessful.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95084

Selection of Acacia species and provenances for planting in Vietnam


Nahia, NH; Kha, LD
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 130-135

Abstract:
Among the five main Acacia species tested in the whole country, three species - A.auricyuliformis, A.mangium and A.crassicarpa- have performed best. For A.auriculiformis, the most promising provenances are Coen River, Manton River, Old Tonda Village, Morehead River, Mabini and Elizabeth River. The provenance Kings Plains is outsatanding at Da Chong, however it has grown poorly in other trials. The best provenances of A.mangium are Cardwell, Kuranda and Kennedy in the early trials and Pongaki, Gubam, Iron Range in later trials. Derideri and Pascoe are also promising, however, they need more trials in the future. The best provenances of A. crassicarpa are Dimisisi, Guban, Oriomo, Derideri and Mata. For A. aulacocarpa, the best provenance is Keru to Mata.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95085

An ex-ante evaluation of temperate acacia forestry research: some estimates of the potential impacts of an ACIAR-supported project


Lubulwa, GA; Searle, SD; McMeniman, SL
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 106-124

Abstract:
The paper reports on an economic evaluation of the ACIAR project that undertook research to identify suitable Australian acacias for sustainable development in China, Vietnam and Australia (FST/92/27). Two categories of benefit recognized-one derived from marketable commodities, the other is an environmental benefit from acacia planting-nitrogen fixation and carbon sequestration. The evaluation derived estimates over a 30-year time horizon; project PN9227 is estimated to generate research benefits ranging from $A1.07 million under pessimistic assumptions about adoption to $A3.00 million under optimistic assumptions about adoption and the realised cost savings. The rate of return to funds invested in PN9227 could range from 7 to 14%, depending on assumptions about the research impact and the level of adoption of the identified species of acacia. The most likely benefits, as estimated in the base case scenario, are about $A1.39 million over a 30-year time horizon, with a rate of return of about 9%.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95086

Acacia mangium:potential species for commercial plantations in Lao PDR


Samountry, Y
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 102-105

Abstract:
Acacia mangium has been grown in Lao PDR since 1985. From practical experience and the result gained from species and provenance trials at Namsouang Silviculture Research Centre the species has proved promising for sustainable plantation development.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95087

Prospects for commercial plantations of Acacia melanoxylon and A. dealbata in Tasmania


Neilsen, WA; Kube, PD; Elliot, HJ
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 94-101

Abstract:
Provenance and stand silviculture research trials and operational plantations established in Tasmania testify the potential of the temperate acacias Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood) and A.dealbata (silver wattle) as commercial plantation species. Height and diameter of A.melanoxylon at age 9 years were 9mm and 11 cm respectively. In young trials of A.dealbata, the height of the best performing provenance was 1.7m at age 16 months. A silvicultural regime for growing blackwood in combination with a nurse crop of Pinus radiata is being implemented in commercial plantation. This regime involves establishing 500 blackwood and 800 P. radiata per hectare, form-pruning the blackwood to remove any branches greater than 30mm in diameter and then lift-pruning both blackwood and P. radiata to produce sawlogs, thus improving the economics of the blackwood plantation.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95088

Harris-Daishowa's acacia species trials at Eden,NSW


Mitchell, P
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 90-93

Abstract:
Results from a planting of Acacia mearnsii, A.dealbata, and A.silvestri in southern NSW, Australia indicate that A.mearnsii is displaying superior early growth to E.nitens, the main commercial species planted by Harris-Daishowa (Aust) Pyt Ltd, but this early growth advanatage may not be maintained. Growth of individual trees within pilots was very variable due to dry conditions and insect attack. A mearnsii has very favourable pulpwood properties when compared to E.nitens plantation material and natural eucalypt regrowth currently harvested by Harris-Daishowa. Future trials will include mixed plantings of eucalypts and acacias.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95089

Frost tolerance of 25 temperate Acacia species in two field trials near Canberra,Australia


Seale, SD
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 80-89

Abstract:
This paper describes the relative frost tolerance of 25 Acacias species grown in two field trials near Canberra. Frost limit tree growth in the region it was important to identify tjose species which are best adapted this aspect of the climate. Observations of damage caused by frost were made over the first two winters after planting. A number of Acacia species/provenances were minimally damaged by winter temperates as low as - 6degree C and would therefore be suitable candidates for commercial planting in the Canberra region. These were Acacia dealbata, A.decurrens, A.filicifolia, A.leucoclada, A.parramattensis, A.mearnsii, A.nano-dealbata and A.trachyphloia. Irrespective of provenance, A. dealbata was the most frost-tolerant species in trial. There were significant differences in frost tolerance between provenances of a number of species including A.decurrence, A.fulva, A.implexa, A.glaucocarpa, A.mearnsii, A.melonoxylon, A.silvestris and A.trachyphloia.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95090

Growth and form of 25 temperate Acacia species in two trials near Canberra, Australia


Searle, SD; Jamieson, DT; Cooper, NK
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 66-79

Abstract:
This paper presents results from two field trials at Kowen and Uriarra near Canberra, Australia for the growth (height, diameter, volume, stem number, stem form, branching characteristics, root suckering and impact of bird attack) of 25 acacia species at 32 months after planting. Frost, with minimum temperatures falling to 6degree C, was the most limiting factor at these sites, and seriously affected the survival and growth of provenances of A.binervata, A.cangaiensis, A.elata, A.falciformis,A.implexa and A.melanoxylon. The largest trees in the trial at Kowen, based on a volume index using diameter at ground level (10cm), were provenances of A.decurrens (from Picton-Mittagong and Goulbourn NSW and A.mearnsii (Tarpeena South Australia, Kyneton Victoria, and Bodalla NSW). At Uriarra the largest trees were the same provenances of A.mearnsii that had performed well at Kowen as well as a provenance from Bungendore NSW, Eucalyptus nitens (Badja State FOrest NSW), A.dealbata from Errinundera Plateau, Victoria and A.fulva from Mt. Yengo NSW.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95091

Acacias for saltland in Southern Pakistan


Ansari, R; Marcar, NE; Khan, MA; Shirazi, MU; Khanzada, AN; Crawford, DF
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 60-65

Abstract:
Salinity is a serious threat to agricultural production in Pakistan. Engineering efforts to lower ground water and reduce salinity have not been very successful. However, salt-affected farmland may be productively utilised and even reclaimed under certain conditions by growing trees and shrubs. This paper summarizes early (21 and 36 months) results from a species evaluation trial conducted on moderately to severely saline land near Hyderabad (Sindh province) in Pakistan. Some acacias, including Acacia ampliceps and A.stenophylla, were found to be more salt-tolerant than several Causarina and Eucalyptus species. A.stenophylla and A.nilotica survived well and continued to grow after two months of flooding and thus demonstrated their tolerance of combined waterlogging and salinity.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95092

Performance of Australian temperate acacias on subtropical highlands of Vietnam


Thinh, HH; Kha, LD; Searle, SD; Tung, HV
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 51-59

Abstract:
Twenty-four Acacia species originating southeastern Australia represented by a total of 67 seedlots, were tested in two trials located in the subtropical highlands of Vietnam. The Bavi site is located in the north of Vietnam and the Dalat site in the south of Vietnam. The objective of the study was to identify and characterise acacia species with potential for soil improvement and commercial planting on the highly degraded, low fertility soils of the subtropical highlands. Trial assessment carried out at age 16 months showed that several species were growing significantly better than the control A.auriculiformis at the high elevation. Marked differences in survival and growth rate between species and provenances of A.irrorata and A.leucoclada then A.dealbata, A.binervata and A.melanoxylon. The last three species performed well only at the Dalat trial.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95093

The performance of Acacia angustissima, A.auriculiformis and A.mangium as potential agroforestry tree species in the highlands of Papua New Guinea


Bino, B
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 45-50

Abstract:
In this study Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., Acacia mangium wild. and Acacia angustissima Mill. were evaluated for their growth performance at three sites (Tabibuga, 1300 m above sea level (asl); Aiyura 1700 m asl; and Gumine 1950 m asl) in the highlands of Papua NEw Guinea (PNG). Nased on the early results of this study, A.angustissima was tested in a hedgerow intercropping system at Aiyura to determine the optimum alley spacing and to assess the sustainability of growing sweet potato, the main highland staple crop. The evaluation trial used a randomised complete block design at all sites. The hedgerow intercropping study used systematic design and the treatments were replicated four times. The treatments were arranged in decreasing order down the slope in one replicate, while the other replicate the prder was reversed. In the growth evaluation study, A.angustissima had early vigorious growth at all sites and at 11 months, it had a height range of 1.0-3.0 m at all sites. Growth rates at Gumine and Aiyura were initially very slow for A.auriculiformis and A.mangium. However, later assessment shows the performance of these species was better at Tabibuga followed by Aiyura. A.auriculiformis never recovered at Gumine was either static or dying. The hedgerow intercropping study showed that a 5 m alley was a better prospect because the hedges produced more biomass (20 t/ha) and returned more nutrients to the soil; 5 m alleys also yielded more sweet potato tubers (14 t/ha). This study shows that A.angustissima, due to its vigorous growth and higher biomass production, ma be suitable for intercropping/agroforestry systems where biomass can be cut back and applied as mulch A.auriculiformis and A.mangium could be more suitable at lower altitudes.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95094

Temperate Australian acacia species elimination trials in Southern China


Fanggiu, Z; Zuyu, C; Searle, SD; Xiaomei, L; Junji, Z; Qiang, L
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 36-44

Abstract:
This paper present preliminary results from three acacia species/provenance elimination trilas planted in two provenances in southern China in 1994. These trials aimed to identify the most productive woody legumes from soil amelioration and wood production in the cool subtropics of southern china on low fertility soils subject to limiting cold temperatures. At 30 months of age, provenance of eight species (Acacia flicifolia, A. glaucocarpa, A.implexa, A.leucoclada, A.meransii, A.melanoxylon, A.parramattensis and A.parvipinnula) performed well in terms of survival, volume and form.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95095

Performance of Australian dry-zone Acacia species on white sandy soil in dry, Southeastern Vietnam


Harwood, CE; Kha, LD; Dien, PQ; Thang, LV
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 29-35

Abstract:
Eleven Acacia species native to Australia's tropical dry zone and a local control, Cassia siamea, were tested in a species trial at Tuy Phong in coastal southeastern Vietnam. The aim of the trial was to find species suitable for site rehabilitation and wood production under dry tropical conditions (mean annual rainfall 700 mm, mean temperature 27 degree C) on infertile white sands where other tree species had performed poorly. Assessments of height and diameter growth and survival were made 6, 10, 26 and 41 months after planting. Initial establishments was successful with survival at 6 months good (over 60%) to excellent (over 90%). Significant differences between species in growth traits were evident at 6 months and in subsequent measures. By age 41 months, Acacia difficilis was clearly the fastest-growing species with mean height of 5.6 m, mean dbh of largest stem of 6.5 cm and survival of 60%. Acacia tumida (height 4.6 m dbh 5.1 cm, survival at 41 months 68%) and A. torulosa (height 3.6 m, dbh 3.9 cm and survival 84%) also performed well. A.auriculiformis, A.elachantha, A.longispicata and Cassia siamea were poorly adpated to the site conditions , with less than 30% survival at 41 months. Inoculation in the nursery with selected strains of Bradirhizobium produced an improvement in nursery growth for some Acacia species but this effect was not sustained in the field. The trial results suggest that successful plantations for fuelwood production, dune stabilisation and site amelioration could be established under semi-arid conditions on the white sands by planting A.difficilis, A.tumida and A.torulosa.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95096

Selected wood properties of Acacia auriculiformis and A.crassicarpa provenances in Malaysia


Shukor, NAA; Nang, AN; Awang, K
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 155-160

Abstract:
A study on genetic variation of some selected physical and mechanical properties of Acacia auriculiformis and A. crassicarpa provenances was carried out. Nine provenances of A. auriculiformis and six provenances of A. crassicarpa from Australia (North Territory, Queensland), Papua New Guinea and Indonesia (Irian Jaya) were selected and further classified into best, medium and poor performer classes based on growth performance. Provenances of A. auriculiformis showed significant differences at p<=0.05 for specific gravity but not for tangential and radial shrinkage. Provenances of A. crassicarpa also differed markedly at p<=0.01 for tangential and radial shrinkage but not for specific gravity. Similar significant differences at p<=0.01 were obtained for compression parallel to the grain and shear parallel to the grain but not for static bending. Heritability estimates for A. crassicarpa varied from 0.06 for specific gravity to 0.81 for shear parallel to the grain. The A. auriculiformis provenances from Wenlock River, Queensland and East Alligator and Howard Springs, Northern Territory, and the A. crassicarpa from Samlleberr, Irian Jaya and Olive River, Queensland were identified as the most promising in terms of growth and wood properties for industrial purposes.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95099

Variation in growth traits of a six-year Acacia aulacocarpa progeny trial in Thailand


Luangviriyasaeng, V; Pinyopusarerk, K; Thai-ngam, R
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 173-177

Abstract:
Variation in growth and stem form of 169 open-pollinated families from 15 natural provenances of A. aulococarpa distributed in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was assessed at 6 years of age. The 15 provenances came from three broad regions, namely PNG north of the Fly River (PNG-N), PNG southwest of the Fly River (PNG-SW) and PNG southeast of the Fly River (PNG-SE). There were marked differences between provenances in height, diameter, stem volume and stem form with provenances from PNG-SE, especially those distributed along the Oriomo River, being more productive. Trees of all provenances were typically single-boled up to 75 of total height, although stem straightness varied substantially between families. The results indicate a great potential for selection of the best families as well as the best individuals within each family for next generation breeding populations.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95109

Provenance variation in water relations of Acacia auriculiformis grown in Thailand


Puangchit, L; Rochanamethakul, P; Thongchet, W
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 305-312

Abstract:
Stomatal conductance, phyllode water potential and total phyllode area were measured in provenance trials of Acacia auriculiformis in Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The data were collected daily and seasonally from 7-year-old trees. Provenances and trees selected for the measurement originated from three regions, i.e., Northern Territory (NT), Queensland (Qld) and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Physiological differences among the three provenances were small and not significantly significant. The Queensland provenance had the smallest tree phyllode area and the Papua New Guinea provenance the largest. Stomatal conductance and phyllode water potential were high during the wet season, and the low in the dry season.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95097

Results from an Acacia ampliceps provenance-family trial on saltland in Pakistan


Marcar, N; Naqui, M; Iqbal, S; Crawford, D; Arnold, R; Mahmood, K; Hossain, A
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 161-166

Abstract:
Salinity is a serious threat to agricultural production in Pakistan. Several tree and shrub species have been evaluated for survival and growth on salt-affected land in Pakistan, particularly over the last ten years or so, and Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle) has been proven to be one of the best performing species. This paper summarises results from a provenance-family trial of A. ampliceps conducted on moderately saline-sodic land near Faisalabad (Punjab province) in Pakistan. Significant differences were found both between provenances and between families within provenances for height, crown diameter and crown volume (calculated) at 28 months of age. In addition, there were differences between families within provenances in frost susceptibility. These results indicate significant potential for improving growth traits by selection and breeding. Good agreement was found between ranking of provenances at seedling stages (glasshouse), 9 months and 28 months (field). This suggests that glasshouse screening is a useful means for selecting potential candidates for field evaluation.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95098

Performance of Acacia auriculiformis in second-generation progeny trials in Thailand


Pinyopusarerk, K; Luangviriyasaeng, V; Pransilpa, S; Meekeo, P
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 167-172

Abstract:
Two progeny trials of Acacia auriculiformis were established using open-pollinated seed from selected trees in first-generation seedling seed orchards. In total there were 106 families of which 13 came from three original Thai land races, 47 from four original Papua New Guinea provenances, 25 from six original Queensland provenances and 21 from seven original Northern Territory provenances. In addition, two local unimproved seed trees were included. Height and diameter assessed 24 months after planting confirmed the very poor growth rate of all Thai selections compared with families from Papua New Guinea and from Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Families from the Queensland provenance region were generally more productive that their counterparts from Papua New Guinea and Northern Territory. On the basis of these results it is proposed to focus on selected genetic material from Australia and Papua New Guinea for the improvement program of this species in Thailand.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95100

Approaches to breeding Acacias for growth and form: the experience at PT. Musi Hutan Persada (Barito Pacific Group)


Hardiyonto, EB
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 178-183

Abstract:
This paper describes approaches to breeding acacias at PT Musi Hutan Persada (Barito Pacific Group) - a forestry company producing wood materials for a pulp mill in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Breeding programs have been developed with Acacia mangium as principal species. Seed production area and seedling seed orchards are established to obtain genetically improved seed for interim and long-term seed sources, respectively. The breeding population (progeny test) of A. mangium is grouped into 11 sublines containing more than 650 families;each subline is gradually converted into a seedling seed orchard. A composite seed orchard using the best tree from each subline is being planned. Programs on interspecific hybrids, clonal forestry and other acacias are also discussed.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95103

Tree improvement of Acacias:what about the people?


Buchy, M; Cahalan, CM; Gillespie, TL; Wright, D
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 220-223

Abstract:
In this paper we describe a participatory approach to tree improvement programs for acacias in Vietnam. Farmers and communities would be involved in the evaluation of provenance tests, the establishment, management and evaluation of on-farm progeny tests, and the management of some kinds of production population. Tree breeders would act mainly as facilitators who combine sets of knowledge and expertise to work within the constraints of farmers, and would be responsible for drawing up breeding strategies and managing breeding populations. This approach would empower farmers by enabling them to choose the trees that make up the breeding populations. Technology transfer would also be easier, since farmers involved in selection and testing would understand the advantages of tree improvement.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95101

Management and use of ex situ genetic resources of some tropical Acacia species in Queensland


Nikles, DG; Harwood, CE; Robson, KJ; Pomroy, PC; Keenan, RJ
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 184-196

Abstract:
Genetic advancement of tropical Acacia species can be undertaken quickly with only limited resource inputs. Open-pollinated seedling seed orchards constituting conservation/breeding populations of Acacia aulacocarpa and A. mangium in north Queensland have been cycled within 6 years. Even after heavy phenotypic thinning, the first generation seed orchards remain genetically diverse and constitute a valuable source of genetic material for several purposes. Realised genetic gain is already apparent for A. mangium, especially in reduced incidence of low forking. Promising A. aulacocarpa clones have been identified and are to be further evaluated; their ranking are stable across two very different trial environments. The genetic resources accumulated have also enabled exploratory production and testing of interspecific hybrid of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium. Alternative strategies for hybrid development are outlined. The methods developed for population improvement and use of hybridisation could be applied in all countries planting these species. Suggestions are made on measures required to ensure long-term conservation of genetic diversity ex situ.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95102

Use of molecular markers in domestication and breeding programs for Acacias


Butcher, PA; Moran, GF; DeCroocq
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 211-215

Abstract:
The development of DNA markers for acacias has provided the tools to more efficiently resolve genetic questions related to breeding. The higher variability of DNA markers compared with allozymes has provided insights into some deficiencies in existing breeding programs and opportunities for their improvement. In Acacia mangium, a species with low levels of allozyme variation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were used to assess the proportion of variation in natural populations present in seed production stands. Only 56% of genetic variation detected in the natural populations was represented in the seed production area at Subanjeriji, Indonesia. The majority of trees originated from a region characterised by low levels of diversity, indicating that the breeding program could be improved by expanding the genetic base. The higher variability of molecular markers also increases the power to genetically discriminate between individuals, allowing improved quality control in breeding programs and seed orchard management. In A. mangium, full-sib pedigrees have been screened using RFLP markers to remove progeny derived from foreign pollen or selfing. The effect of different pollination techniques has also been investigated with these markers. A genetic linkage map is also being developed in A. mangium using RFLPs and microsatellites. Markers in chromosomal regions linked to quantitative traits such as pulp yield and disease resistance can then be used to select progeny at the nursery stage, thereby improving the efficiency of breeding programs.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95104

Diseases of tropical Acacias


Old, KM
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 224-233

Abstract:
Survey of disease of four species of tropical acacias important for industrial plantations are summarised, recording occurrence and impact of the most significant diseases. The surveys, carried out in northern Australia, India, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia, indicate that canker diseases (including pink disease), phyllode rust, root-rot fungi and heart-rot have the potential to reduce the productivity of acacia plantations in the tropics.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95120

Rhizobium inoculants for Australian acacia species


Bowen, D; Dart, PJ; Ryan, P; Harwood, CE
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 368-370

Abstract:
Several studies have shown that Australian Acacia species vary in their relationship with Rhizobium/Bradyrhizobium. Some species nodulate readily with a range of strains, others are quite specific in their requirements. This note describes the development of inoculants for Australian acacias adapted to ASALs. The first phase of the work was concerned with isolating and testing Rhizobium strains for their suitability as inoculants, for the plant species under test, and potentially useful for ASAL plantings. The second phase involved the use of these inoculants in the nursery.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95105

Insect pests of tropical Acacias:a new project in South East Asia or Northern Australia


Wylie, R; Floyd, R; Elliott, H; Khen, CV; Intachat, V; Hutacharern, C; Tubtim, N; Kha, LD; Do, NV
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 234-239

Abstract:
While a wide range of insect pests has been recorded in acacia plantations in Asia, there have been few major problems to date; the exception is termites. However, the pest situation may be changing rapidly with the massive expansion of plantations into new areas, and adaptation by indigenous insects to these exotic trees as hosts. There are recent indications of emerging serious problems such as mirid bugs (Helopeltis spp.) on A. mangium in Suamtra and a shoot and twig boring tortricid moth (Crytophlebia spp.) on A. mangium in Queensland. A lack of quantitative data on pest impacts and the difficulty in obtaining up-to-date pest information are major hindrances to recognising problems. To begin addressing some of these issues, a project involving systematised survey of current insect pest occurrence and severity in Acacia plantations has recently commenced in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and tropical Australia. The information obtained should help forest managers to identify, assess and handle pest risks, and set priorities for further research. Systems developed in this initial phase may form the basis for on-going pest assessment and information exchange in the region.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95106

Insect damage on Acacia mearnsii in China


Haojie, W; Floyd, R; Farrow, R; Changfu, H; Chuanbi, G; Changchun, L; Huadong, R; Farrell, G; Tiansen, Y
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 240-245

Abstract:
Herbivore exclusion trials of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. were established in Fujian Province, China from 1994-1996. Exclusion was effected by spraying half the trees with insecticide. The incidence and damage of insect and growth performance of the trees were assessed at fixed intervals. Surveys for insects in plantations were also conducted. Over 70 insect species were found on A. mearnsii, all of which were indigenous except the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi Maskell). This study identified a number of potentially serious pests of A. mearnsii and presented some evidence for effective natural biological control. Although insect pest numbers were generally low in the trials, which may have been partly due to natural biological control, serious effects of herbivore damage on tree survival and productivity were detected.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95107

Insect feeding on Acacia mearnsii in Southeastern Mainland Australia


Floyd, RB; Farrow, RA; Farrell, GB; Court, MM
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 246-251

Abstract:
The geographic extent and severity of damage of outbreaks of Acacicola orphana (Erichson) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) on Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in south-east mainland Australia were surveyed annually from 1994-1996. There was a marked increase in both area and severity. Outbreaks of A. orphana were found in western, central and eastern Victoria. The main insects causing damage to A. mearnsii in a series of experimental plantations in south-east Australia were Maconellicoccus australiensis (Green & Lidgett) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and several wood borers including a platy podine beetle and a root-feeding weevil. Various species of herbivorous insects, dominated by species of Coleoptera and Hemiptera, were found in beating samples from A. mearnsii. Beating samples also revealed a large number of spider and coccinelid predators which may be contributing to the relatively low levels of herbivory.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95113

Silviculture of Acacia mangium in Papua New Guinea


Yelu, W
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 326-331

Abstract:
Acacia mangium, although native to Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya, has not traditionally been of interest for use in silviculture in PNG. This paper discusses the reasons for recent interest in greater utilisation of the species, rreviews development arising from trials of A.mangium on selected sites throughout PNG, and records the results of testing different techniques for seeds collection, germination, nursery culture and plantation establishment. Recommendations regarding research priorities and future programs activities are also listed.

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Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95114

Progress in silviculture, improvement and market prospects for tropical acacias in Southern China


Jiayu, B; Fanggiu, Z; Zuxu, C
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 332-334

Abstract:
Research and development on tropical acacia have advanced rapidly in the past 20 years. Tree improvement as the first step has made great progress. Species have been selected and genetic variation between provenances/families of the main species has been identified. Superior provenances, families and clones are playing an important role in large-scale plantation. Intensive tree farming has been quickly accepted in southern China based on early results of silvicultural experiments including spacing, species mixtures, fertilising, and nutrient cycling. The wood is now being used for many different products.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95108

Contribution of Acacias to the growth and nutrient status of eucalypts in mixed-species stands at Ratchaburi, Thailand


Wichiennopparat, W; Khanna, PK; Snowdon, P
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 281-287

Abstract:
The long-term sustainability of eucalypt and acacia plantations (monocultures) is being questioned because of possible adverse effects on nutrient cycling and nutrition of trees leading to decreased productivity. To test whether plantations with mixed species may offer an alternative, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia auriculiformis were planted in mixtures of Ratchaburi Experimental Station, Thailand. The plantation contained five treatments at two tree densities. Above-ground growth was monitored periodically for four years. Height of eucalypts was not affected by acacia in mixtures. Acacia had higher tree sectional area at breast height and stem volume than eucalypts, pointing to greater competition for soil resources by acacia. Despite this, mean sectional area, annual increments in the sectional area and stem volume of eucalypts 48 months after planting showed major differences when growing in combination with acacia. Higher values of the above parameters were observed when the proportions of eucalypt and acacia were equal. Above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation of other nutrients depended more on the species and their relative growth rate (i.e. the amount of biomass produced). The approximate amount of N fixed by acacia after 48 months (calculated by using total difference method) ranged from 57% (25% acacia) to 201 kg/ha (75% acacia). The positive effect of acacia on the growth of eucalypts was probably related to improved N nutrition. The merits of growing acacia in mixtures on the growth of eucalypts are discussed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95110

Growth marcottability and photosynthetic rate of Acacia crassicarpa provenances at Serdang, Malaysia


Awang, K; Jamahari, S; Zulkifli, AA; Shukor, NAA
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 299-304

Abstract:
The trial of eight provenances of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. Ex Benth. was assessed for survival and growth at the age of two years. Three provenances were from Queensland, Australia, four from Papua New Guinea, and one from Irian Jaya, Indonesia. In addition, the marcottability and photosynthetic rate of four selected provenances were also studied. All provenances survived well (>94%), but they differed significantly (p<0.01) in their growth performance. All provenances had more than 43% of their trees with single stems. For timber production, the provenance from Irian Jaya (Samlleberr) and two provenances from Queensland (Olive River and Jardine River-Bamaga) were identified as promising. The success of marcotting of four of the provenances was high (>73%), with the more vigorous provenances giving higher rates. Significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates of the four selected provenances. However, the rate did not appear to correlate with the vigor of the provenance.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95111

The growth of Acacia auriculiformis provenances and seed orchard progeny in Vietnam and Australia


Montagu, KD; Nghia, NH; Woo, KC; Kha, LD
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 317-321

Abstract:
The growth of Acacia auriculiformis provenances (first generation) and seed orchards (second generation) progeny was examined in trials in Vietnam and Australia. After three years, tree growth was 30-50% greater in the southern Vietnam site (Song May), compared with sites in central (Dong Ha) and northern Vietnam (Ba Vi). The South Coen provenance was the best seedlot; tree growth was 10% and 21% faster than progeny from the Melville Island (Australia) and and Dong Nai (Vietnam) seed orchards, respectively. In Katherine, Australia tree height was 5.6 +- 0.3 and 5.4 +-0.3 m for progeny from the Melville Island (Australia) and Sakaerat (Thailand) seed orchards, respectively, after five years. Trials at Darwin, Australia, compared the growth of first and second generation open-pollinated Sakaerat seed orchard progeny from the Queensland provenances. The second generation progeny showed a 13-21% increase in growth compared with that of the first generation. The relative importance of tree selection compared with outcrossing vigour could not be determined in this trial. Current plantings of controlled intra- and inter-provenance crosses will address these questions and assist in the design of subsequent A. auriculiformis seed orchards.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95121

Vegetative propagation of acacia species at the forest tree seed enterprise in Nghia Binh, Vietnam


Dinh, TV
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 371-372

Abstract:
The vegetative propagation of Acacia species are influenced by cutting material, rooting medium, planting out, hormones and water regime. At the Forest Tree Seed Enterprise of Nghia Binh the existing facilities have enabled the first steps towards acacia improvement but results are still poor. More effort is needed to meet the demand for forest planting in the region. It is hoped the centre will achieve this with the cooperation and support of others in future activities.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95112

Morphology and growth performance of natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Thailand


Royampeng, S; Woo, KC; Kijkar, S; Montagul, KD
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 322-325

Abstract:
This study examined the morphology and growth performance of putative natural hybrids of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. and A.mangium Wiil. growing at the ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre (AFTSC), and their parental species growing at the AFTSC field station in Thailand. The hybrids, planted at three different sites, were 4.5, 6.5 and 9.5 years old. The two older groups were grown from seed while the younger consisted of clones of selected hybrids. The morphological characteristics of the hybrids were found to be intermediate between A.auriculiformis and A.mangium. The mean phyllode length, width and length: width ratio of the hybrids were 16.0-20.4 cm, 3.5-4.1 cm and 4.7-4.8, respectively. Large variations in growth were observed between the three groups of hybrids and their parental species. The hybrids grew faster than the parental species and the hybrid clones outperformed the hybrid seedlings.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95115

Social and technical considerations in establishing large-scale acacia plantations on grassland and bushland in West Kalimantan, Indonesia


Vuokko, R; Otsamo, A
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 335-340

Abstract:
Possibilities of establishing large-scale pulp plantations using tropical acacias are being tested in a humid tropical climate on heavily degraded Imperata grassland and abandoned shifting cultivation areas in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The ultimate aim is to establish a plantation of about 100,000 ha to feed a pulp mill. A gross area of 300,000 ha has been allocated for the purposse. There are 60,000 people living within these boundaried. The plantations are established in close cooperation with the local population through land-use agreements and a carefully designed benefit system. The benefit system aims to ensure balanced social development, sufficient land availability and, finally, development of a productive plantation. Currently, the established plantation area covers 8,600 ha which consist of 86% Acacia mangium, 6% A.crassicarpa, 3% indigenous species (over 80 species), 3% rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and 2% Eucalyptus pellita. Intensive site preparation and NPK fertilisation are standard. The initial growth of the plantations has mostly met expectations. However, occasional probelms with pest, diseases and nutritional disorders have been recorded during the first two years of practical plantation activities. Long-term availability of sufficient land-area for continous growth of plantations on a socially sustainable basis will determine the technical success of the project.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95116

Growth and performance of Acacia crassicarpa seedling seed orchards in South Sumatra, Indonesia


Nirsatmonto, A
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 359-362

Abstract:
Seedlings seed orchards of Acacia crassicarpa were established at South Sumatra and initally laid out as a provenance /progeny test for 134 open-pollinated families from 10 seedlots collected from natural provenances in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Queensland, Australia (Qld). The families are classified into three groups: groups A amd B are from PNG, and group C from Qld. Data on height, dbh and multi-stemming were collected at 4-16 months after planting. Analysis of variance and covariance were made using plot mean, and the value of heritability was estimated as family mean heritability. The survival rates for all seedlots within each group are high (>90%). The average growth rates of PNG seedlots for all periodic measurements were better than those from Qld; however the highest proportion of trees which needed no singling was found in Qld seedlots (mostly >50%). Family variation in height and dbh within each group was highly significant; mean family heritability is 0.44-0.62 for height, and 0.27-0.58 for dbh.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95117

Molecular genetics research on Acacia species in Indonesia


Rimbawanto, A
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 363-365

Abstract:
The tree improvement program of Acacia species in Indonesia is beginning to incorporate molecular genetic techniques. These offer the potential to increase genetic gains by way of accurate characterisation of genotypes and genotyping, detection, of genetic variation, and early selection using molecular markers. Molecular genetics research of tree species in Indonesia began in 1996, and is carried out by the Forest Tree Improvement R & D Institute. At the current stage of the program, the need for genotyping and examination of genetic variation is a priority. Using RAPD markers we found that genetic diversity of Acacia mangium is the lowest of the four acacias. We also found an indication that A. aulacocarpa of PNG and Queensland may in fact be two different species.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95118

Effectiveness of symbiotic associations involving native rhizobia and temperate Australian acacias


Burdon, JJ; Gibson, AH; Searle, SD; Brockwell, J; Woods, M
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 366

Abstract:
Australian acacias represent a major resource for use in forestry, sustainable agriculture and mine-site rehabilitation throughout the world. Despite this, very little is known about their interaction with nitrogen-fixing symbionts (rhizobia) particularly with respect to: (i) the degree to which the effectiveness of the interactions formed varies between rhizobial isolates; (ii) the extent to which the performance of individual isolates on different host provenances is correlated; and (iii) the extent of host-based variation in the ability to form effective associations. Our study aimed to answer these questions. Collection of seed and rhizobia were made from 67 populations of 22 species of Acacia across southeastern Australia. Standard isolation techniques were used to produce pure cultures of the 700 rhizobial isolates made. These materials were then used in a series of trials assessing the effectiveness of particular symbiotic associations. All trials assessed aerial dry matter production of young Acacia seedlings after 12-16 week's growth in 50:50 sterilised mix of vermiculite and river sand inoculated with the appropriate cultures. For the Acacia species tested, marked within-provenance variation in seedling growth occurred as a result of inoculation with different strains of rhizobia isolated from those sites. In several instances, the growth response of the least effective combination was less than 10% of that of the most effective combination.Significant differences in the mean performances of isolates taken from different sites were only detected in A. dealbata. Significant variation was detected in the mean response of provenances of A. dealbata, A. implexa and A. mearnsii to a range of "elite" rhizobial isolates and in the ability of those isolates to form effective associations across all provenances. However, there was evidence of a differential provenance x isolate interaction only in A. implexa. An extensive trial involving reciprocal inoculation of isolates of varying effectiveness (two elite, one moderate and one poorly effective) between provenances of each of A. dealbata, A. implexa, A. irrorata, A. mearnsii and A. melanoxylon again detected significant provenance and isolate variation. With the exception of A. dealbata, there was no evidence of provenance x rhizobial origin interaction effect. Trials involving 10 half-sib families of A. dealbata, A. mearnsii and A. melanoxylon detected significant host-based variation in growth response. A particularly dramatic effect was seen in A. dealbata where the interaction between ineffective isolate 1801 and half-sib 1292 produced plants with a dry weight more than 10 times greater than the mean of the interaction of the same rhizobial isolate and the nine other half-sib families.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95119

Australian acacias for sustainable development in China:rhizobia and nitrogen fixation


Lihua, K; Sucui, L; Bing, S; Brockwell, J; Gibson, AH; Searle, SD
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 367

Abstract:
An investigation was conducted in the laboratory and nursery at the Research Institute of Tropical Forestry to define characteristics of the symbiotic association between species of Acacia and their root-nodule bacteria. It was found that: (i) inoculation of Acacia with rhizobia often leads to high levels of nitrogen fixation; (ii) different Acacias species and different provenances within species respond differently to inoculation with the same sets of Rhizobium strains, (iii) Chinese Rhizobium strain LL026 is highly effective in nitrogen fixation for several Acacia provenances, and Australia strain CC1563 is also useful especially for A. mearnsii; (iv) it is most improbable that a single Rhizobium strain highly effective for all Acacia provenances will ever be found; (v) peat is the best carrier for Acacia inoculant; (vi) Acacia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the nursery are improved when clay soils are amended with organic matter; (vii) most Acacia rhizobia are sensitive to acidity but strongly acid-tolerant strains do exist; (viii) calcium phosphate should not be used to correct acidity in nursery soil; and (ix) soil rhizobia in Acacia plantations increase in number as time progresses. It was concluded that: (i) in preparing inoculants for use in forest nurseries, it will be prudent to use a specific inoculant for each different species of Acacia, each inoculant containing several effective Rhizobium strains; (ii) inoculant should be peat-based; and (iii) light-textured nursery soils promote nodulation and nitrogen fixation. This investigation has provided a microbiological background for the preparation of preinoculated, Rhizobium-rich nursery soils that will deliver well-nodulated Acacia seedlings ready for outplanting.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95122

Preliminary evaluation of the suitability of Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium in the North of Central Vietnam


Que, ND
Proceedings; International Workshop on Recent Developments in Acacia Planting; Hanoi, Vietnam; 27-30 October 1997; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 82; 1998; pp 373-375

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis is planted in areas concentrating on low hills, in plot and lot boundaries of Pinus merkusii plantations, in bands in inland sandy areas. This is an important species planted for revegetation and soil improvement everywhere. The greatest weakness of A. auriculiformis is poor wind resistance. Each year storms bring down many trees and damage the foliage. The coppicing ability of these trees is poor, and thus attention must be paid to devising a suitable layout when planting trees. Acacia mangium, like A. auriculiformis, can grow on many different soil types. Over the past4-5 years it has been planted on a small scale in parts of the region. Trees showed that growth in the first 2 years, bearing large phyllodes and producing a large crown. The species has been planted for protection and soil improvement, as well as for fuel and green manure supply. A. mangium, however, has a higher requirement in depth of soil and soil moisture. When planted under favourable conditions the growth increments of A. mangum are higher than A. auriculiformis. In Huong tra on sandstone soil with added fertilizer, 2-year-old trees attained 5 m in height and 7 cm diameter, while in Phu Loc 18-month-old trees have a mean diameter of 4.4 cm. This is a species with great promise for future plantings. However, until more is known about uses for the timber it will only be planted on a limited scale. More research and more extended trials are needed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95176

Potential of exotic and indigenous multipurpose tree species for agriculture and forestry in Papua New Guinea


Howcroft, NHS; Saulei, S
Proceedings; International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia; Los Baños, Philippines; 19-23 November, 1990; Taylor, DA and Mc Dicken , KG.(eds); Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development; 1991; pp. 102-107

Abstract:
Exotic and indigenous multipurpose tree species have potential for sustaining agriculture and forestry in Papua New Guinea. At present, however, knowledge of indigenous species for these uses is very limited. Research needs for native species and other requirements for developing potentials of MPTS are discussed in this paper.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95249

Rehabilitation of mine tailing and denuded areas


Balagas
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Lorica, MV; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; p 26-27

Abstract:
Rehabilitation of mine tailings and denuded areas. Balagas (DENR-ERDS-Region 4) established mangrove plantation to rehabilitate Calancan Bay, north of Marinduque which was a discharge point of the tialings resulting from the Marcopper Mining Corporation. A total of seven beach and mangrove species, namely: Acacia auriculiformis, talisal, agoho, dapdap, bakauan , kamachile, and aroma were planted in the eastern and western portions of mine tailings dump site in Calancan, Marinduque. Performance of the species was assessed over a 5-year period.|Findings 1. Abrupt increase in seedlings height and diameter is observed during the 1st year of planting. However, the rate gradually ceased on the succeeding 4 years. Growth becomes stunted for dapdap, aroma, kamachile, and talisal. The same growth pattern is observed on A. auriculiformis, but on the 4th year, there is dying back and drying of the whole plant. 2. Bakauans, which are planted on the stable stratum, exhibit significant performance after 18 months of planting and are able to bear propagules. 3. Agoho seedlings directly planted on mine tailings increase growth rate after 1 1/2 years of planting and are considered a promising species. 4. In the faunal survey, 39 species of birds belonging to 24 families and 11 orders are identified. Four species of mammals under one family and one species of reptile are also identified.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 95258

Potential species for degraded uplands


Nasayao, E; Germano, E
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Lorica, MV; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; p 25-26

Abstract:
Potential species for degrated uplands. Nasayao and Germano (DENR-ERDS-Region 8) conducted field trials/planting of fast-growing species is degraded lands in Ormoc and Matalom, Leyte. The species used were: Acacia auriculiformis, A. leptocarpa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Pinus indicus and Swietenia macropylla. Complete fertilizer at 180 g/tree was applied 2 weeks after planting and muriate of potash at 90 g/tree applied after 6 months.|Findings 1. The Acacia species planted in Matalom have the highest mean height and diameter, while in Ormoc, Eucalyptus species performs better.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 95295

Predicting bark volume of mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.)


Lapitan, FG
FPRDI (Forest Products Research and Development Institute) Journal 24(1): 25-32(1998)

Abstract:
Ninety-three trees of Acacia mangium Willd. were measured and evaluated for bark volume (BV). Using a stepwise procedure, seven models were tested and the final regression equation BV = 0.00009105 D2 - 0.00000392 D2H + 0.00000527 DH2 was generated with coefficient of determination (R-square) of 96%.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 23349

Which canopy tier should be sampled to determine the fertility (nutritional) status of Acacia mangium on BRIS soils?


Amir Husni; MS; Suhaimi; WC; Adzmi, Y; Mohd Ghazali, H
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Journal Tropical Forest Science 6(1): 48-55(1994)

Abstract:
Foliar elemental levels, determined in different canopy tiers of Acacia mangium growing on two different soil types, were compared with soil textural and chemical data. Foliage of trees growing on relatively fertile Jambu soils had higher elemental concentrations than those growing on nutrient impoverished Rhudua soils. On both soil types, foliar elemental levels differed in the different canopy tiers, but their distributions among tiers did not conform with observed patterns in other taxa. It is recommended that for an evaluation of the fertility status of A. mangium, the lower tier of sun-exposed foliage should be sampled for N and P levels and the top tier for other elemental levels. Key words: BRIS soils - canopy tier of Acacia mangium - fertility evaluation

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23188

Insect defoliaters of forest platation trees in Sabah


Chey, VK
Forest Research Centre Publication No. 32; 1987

Abstract:
The paper describes gross morphology, life cycle, habitat, feeding habit of defoliators and visible symptoms on the damaged leaves of five tree species. Defoliators found on Acacia mangium throughout Sabah are: Hypomeces squamosus (Coleoptera), Ericeia sp. (Lepidoptera), Dasychira sp. ?basinigra (Lepidoptera), ?Calliteara horsfieldii (Lepidoptera), Botyodes asialis (Lepidoptera), Eusceltania immodica (Lepidoptera), Eumeta sp. (Lepidoptera), Eurema becabe (Lepidoptera), Misitra vittata (Orthoptera), Polyrhachis sp. (Hymenoptera). A list with other recorded Acarcia mangium defoliators in Malaysia is included. The references are mentioned. Photographs on different stages of life cycle for each insect are given.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23165


A report on soil survey of part of Kemasul Forest Reserve Pahang

Amir Husni, MS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Research Pamphlet; 1983; p.95

Abstract:
A survey was made in a 2,400 ha interilowland area on Triassic and Jurassic strata. The site requirements of the principal fast growing species are summarize (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, Acaia mangium, Albizia falcata, Gmelina arborea and Maesopsis eminii). Planting Eucalyptus deglupta was not recommended owing to its extre susceptibility to insect pests and an unknown heart rot.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24489

A note on Acacia hybrids in a forest plantation in Peninsular Malaysia


Darus, A; Ab. Rasip, AG
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2 (2): 170-171 (1989)

Abstract:
Total height, DBH and clear bole length were recorded. There were 34 hybrids out of 448 Acacia trees planted in the studied compartment. In general, Acacia hybrids have predominant and dominant crowns and smaller branches with wider angle compare with A.mangium.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 95718

Properties of particleboards made from lesser-used species in the Philippines and Japan


Sakuno, T; Mallari, VC, Jr.; Mari, EL
Proceedings;2nd Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference;Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), College, Laguna;15-21 October 1989;FPRDI, College, Laguna, Philippines;1989;pp.67-76

Abstract:
The properties of particleboard produced from fast-growing, lesser-used wood species in the Philippines and japan were determined and evaluated. Boards produced from the Philippines' giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) with specific gravity (SG) of 0.64 exhibited mechanical strength and dimensional stability far superior than boards made from japan's niseakashia (Robinia pseudoacacia Linn., SG 0.72). The other Philippine species, kaatoan bangkal (Anthocephalus chinensi (Lamk.) Rich. ex walp.), SG 0.38 had aremarkably different characteristics board dimensional stability. This is related to the large difference in board compaction ratio resulting from raw material density.|In another experiment, giant ipil-ipil particles with nitric acid at 3% level were produced into particleboard by bonding with furfuryl alcohol and a small amount of isocyanate resin adhesive. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of these boards were found superior to boards produced from untreated wood with isocyanate resin as binder. The treated boards also showed encouraging results in the decay resistance test.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95745

Growth improvement of two forest tree legumes by VA mycorrhizal inoculations


Aggangan, NS; dela Cruz, RE
The Philippine Journal of Biotechnology 2(1): 72-80(1991)

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala were inoculated separately with Gigaspora margarita, Scutellispora persica and Scleocystis clavispora in an autoclaved P-deficient soil collected in a degraded grassland. G.margarita and S.persica were equally effective in promoting growth if the Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala. Height, diameter and dry matter yield of both hosts inoculated with G.margarita and S,persica were significantly greater than uninoculated seedlings. Sclerocystis clavispora was ineffective such that growth obtained through inoculation with this fungus was comparable with that of the uninoculated ones.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 91998

Growth and yield of Acacia auriculiformis in Region 1


Tomas, WG
Ecosystems Reserach and Development Service-Department of Environment and Natural Resources 1

Ecosystems Reserach Digest (5): 1-8 (1996)

Abstract:
Generally, A. auriculiformis exhibits better growth and yield performance in totally brushed area than in partially brushed area. The performance of this species in the former is attributed to its tolerance to shading under the partially brushed area. Hence, it is recommended that the species should be planted in areas devoid of tall vegetation. Likewise, regular weeding and liberation cutting should be done during the first two years of establishments.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Service; Boy Scout Building, Aguila Road, San Fernando, La Union, Philippines




NO. 95807

Trial planting of selected reforestation species in abandoned mining areas


Casidsid, LA; Baustista, EC
Abstracts of Researches on Environment and Natural Resources in Region XI; Ecosystems Research and Development Service, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region XI, Davao City; 1999; pp.13

Abstract:
A study on the trial planting of selected reforestation species namely:mangium (Acacia mangium), yemane (Gmelina arborea), ayangile (Acacia confusa Merr) Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta) was conducted at the abandoned mining area of Camanlangan, New Bataan, Campostela Valley Province on September 1995 until April 1996. Among the five reforestation species planted, it was found that ayangile excelled in terms of percentage survival, diameter and height growth, while mahogany was the poorest in terms of percentage survival, diameter and growth.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95824

Reforestation with fast-growing exotics versus rehabilitation of forest ecosystems with nateri tree species in Southeast Asia


Schulte, A
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiveristy Protection and Economic Progress; Palo Leyte; 3-6 March 1997; Visayas State College of Agriculture-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Applied Tropical Ecology Program; 1997; pp.106-132

Abstract:
Following a theory developed by Ulrich (1987,1992 and 1994) a definition of forest ecoystem is given and explained based on the irreversibility of fluxes. The steady state of a forest ecosystem is defined by equal rates of primary production (photosynthesis) and secondary production (respiration including mineralization. Deviations from steady state can be assessed by measuring input and output of bioelements and changes in biodiversity (Schulte, 1996).|According to this forest ecosystem theory both selective logging and conversion of Dipterocarp forest to plantations are discussed using data from case studies in Southeast Asia. The conversion of natural logged over Dipterocarp forest ecosystems into monocultures of fast-growing tree species cannot be considered a sustainable management for due to nutrient deficiencies often as early as second generation as well as the eradication of species. Under special conditions sustainability might be possible applying selective logging of Dipterocarp forest ecosystems in it's reduced impact form.|Nevertheless the Southeast Asian government establish more than one million ha of planting forest with fast-growing trees per year-manly after conversion of logged over low volumes forests. As a consequence, the chemical and biological soil amelioration, or better ecosystem rehabilitation, on millions of ha will be the main task for forestry in Southeast Asia during the coming decades.|Despite adverse conditions, it has been shown that seedlings of some native tree species can survive and grow fast even on log landings and trails if soil amelioration treatments are used (Nussbaum and Hoe, 1996). In addition, experiments in Kalimantan Indonesia clearly indicate good prospects for enrichment planting of native trees even in heavily logged-over low volume forests (Adjers et al. 1994). With the observed increment of 8-17 m3 ha-1 year-1 and current high prices of "red meranti" timber, rehabilitation seems to be much more profitable than the commonly applied practice of converting low-volume Dipterocarp forest ecosystems to monocultures of fast-growing exotic tree species.|Forest ecosystem rehabilitation experiences with native tree species in Southeast Asia will be presented and summarized in form of a review. Suggestions for generalized rehabilitation management of unproductive wasteland and logged over forests will be discussed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95835

The state-of-the-art in clonal propagation of Philippine reforestation species: prospects and limitations


Amparado, RF; Cali, NC; Mero, DC
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiveristy Protection and Economic Progress; Palo Leyte; 3-6 March 1997; Visayas State College of Agriculture-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Applied Tropical Ecology Program; 1997; pp.366-373

Abstract:
The dwindling Philippine Forest reserves brought about by rapid exploitation and extraction of these invaluable resources at unprecedented phase demands immediate replenishment and regeneration. Related to this, forest biodiversity which encompasses the flora and fauna within these reserves is getting close to becoming endangered. A vigorous reforestation program should remedy the sad state of our forest. However, the massive reforestation effort of the government as envisioned in the Forestry Master Plan for Philippines 2000 demands as enormous amount of planting stocks.|This paper focuses on the current trends in planting stock production. The drawbacks in the conventional way of producing planting materials from seeds are presented. Emerging alternative technologies and the prospects of which in keeping pace with the demand of planting materials are discussed. As a matter of fact, we are now on the threshold of witnessing a whole new horizon of exciting innovations in seedling production. On the other hand, the limitations of the application of clonal propagation technology in the Philippines are also outlined and the remedies proposed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 26844

Relationship of apparent density and light scattering coefficient to bonding index of two hardwood pulps


Rushdan, I
Pulp & paper Section; Wood Chemistry Program; Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Kepong; 52109; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p89

Abstract:
Paper mechanical properties are effected by fibre strength and interfibre bonding strength. Fibres bonding area and bonding specific strength control the interfibre bonding strength. Image analyzer can be used to measure the fibre bonding area. The measurement by image analyzer need special apparatus and trained operator. The easier method to measure bonding area is by measuring the apparent density and light scattering coefficient. The apparent density measured the fibre flexibility indirectly. Flexibility will increase the contact area among fibres. Light scattering coefficient measured the contact area of fibres network in paper. Bonding specific strength is difficult to measure but can be measured indirectly by Page's simplified equation. No workers have attempted to relate bonding index to apparent density and light scattering coefficient of hardwood pulp. In this work, the hardwood plantation kraft pulps were used. The species were Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus plobulus. The pulps were refined at different degree and the fines were retained at different quantites in the stock prior handsheets making. All handsheets were prepared and tested according to TAPPI Standard. The bonding index was calculated using Page's simplified equation. It is found that the interfibre bonding strength index is in the range of20 - 300 Nm/g, the apparent density is in the range of 0.4 - 0.95 kg/m3 and the light scattering coefficient is in the range of 10 - 43 m3 /kg. The result shown that the bonding index is directly proportional to apparent density but inversely proportional to light scattering coefficient. The coefficient of determination (r2) for apparent density and scattering coefficient were 0.93 and 0.86 respectively. From the result is showed that the interfibre bonding strength index of two hardwood pulps as measured by Page's simplified equation is significantly related to paper apparent density and light scattering coefficient.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 26853

Producing acacia hybrids through controlled pollination technique: an experience


Nor Azurawati, MS; Mohd Zaki, A; Ab Rasip, AG; Norwati, M; Mohd Jaffar, S
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong 52109; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p133

Abstract:
Pollination is the transfer of male gametophytes (pollen) from the ripe anther to the receptive stigma of a flower. In forestry it is often desirable to obtain seeds of known parentage. Controlled pollination was carried out on Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium planted in tin tailing area at FRIM sub-station Bidor, Perak to produce Acacia hybrid with desired traits (chemical properties and wood properties). This paper highlights development and optimization of controlled pollination technique especially in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium in tin tailing area.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 95855

Pollution uptake of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis


Ramallosa, L
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1996; 192p.; Lantican,CM and Cabangbang,MVDF(eds); pp.74

Abstract:
Ramallosa et al. (DENR) studied the amount/extent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and lead (Pb) pollution uptake of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium. Leaves of the two Acacia species collected from trees planted along highways and busy intersections of greater Manila area were compared with those collected from tree in La Mesa dam watershed in Novaliches, Quezon City, and UPLB.|High levels of Pb(11.94-26.08 ppm) are noted in leaves of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium collected from trees planted along EDSA corner Ayala Avenue, Makati, Metro Manila;Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City;South Superhighway corner Buendia, Makati;EDSA Cubao, Quezon City; and R.Papa corner Rizal Avenue, Caloocan City. These are the areas where most cars, taxis, jeepneys, and vans using leaded-gasoline pass by.|High So2 levels (17.87-55.81 ppm) are observed in the leaves of the two Acacia species collected along Lerma corner Espa¤a, Sampaloc Manila;Roxas Boulevard in front of Manila Hotel;Claro M. Recto corner Evangelista, Quiapo, Manila;and Wacat Street corner A.Bonifacio, Caloocan City. Most vehicles that pass by along these areas are jeepneys, buses, and taxis that use diesel-fed fuel and emit highly visible black smoke which contains gaseous waste of SO2.|Leaf samples of the two Acacia species collected in polluted areas are high in SO2 and Pb contents, compared with those from nonpollutive areas.|Data show suitability of the two Acacia species as efficient absorbers of SO2 and Pb pollutants in the atmosphere.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 95856

Plantation technology for Acacia crassicarp and Eucalyptus citriodora


Lustica, A
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1996; 192p.; Lantican,CM and Cabangbang,MVDF(eds); pp.140-141

Abstract:
Seeds of these exotic reforestation species were germinated in seedboxes and potted in plastic bags at Burias Sattelite Office, Mambusao, Capiz. Lustica (DENR-ERDS-Region 6) determined the survival, growth performance (height and diameter), vegetation, and litterfall of A. crassicarp and E.citriodora for 5 years.|Nursery practices, both species do not need pregermination treatments. Germination occurs from 7 to 18 days and 5 to 14 days for A.crassicarp and E.citriodora, respectively;sowing:spread the seeds thinly over well-watered sterilized sandy loam soil in seedboxes. Cover the seeds with the same soil 1-2 cm deep. Place the seedboxes under a shed to germinate. Water the seedboxe everyday with a fine sprinkler.Pot the seeds in a"4x6" plastic bags when the second pair of leaves is fully developed. Apply 4-6g of complete fertilizer. After leaf wilting has been completely dispelled, transfer the potted seedlings into an open area for hardening. One month before outplanting, prune all the protruding roots at the bottom of the bag. The plantable size for both species is when they reach a height of 20-40 cm.|Plantation establishment: areas suitable for planting A. crassicarp and E.citriodora include upland plains, hillylands, grasslands, degraded lands, and secondary forest provided there is enough sunlight to sustain their minimum requirements. Outplanted the seeds 2 to 3 months after potting, preferably at the start of the rainy season. For site preparation, compeletely remove of vegetation or spot 1m in diameter. Spacing: the spacing varies from 2mx2m, 3mx3m, 2mx4m, and 4mx4m, depending on the site quality and objective of planting. For poor quality sites, adopt closer spacing to minimize replanting. On areas with favorable site conditions, wider spacing may be adopted. Apply 20g of complete fertilizer per plant during outplanting. Subsequent applications must be done 6 months after for 1 year at the rate of 30-60g/tree.|Investemnt on A. crasicarp and E. citriodora will triple after 5 years. The annual profit for A. crassicarp is 73.4%, while that for E. citriodora is 67.6% of the capital.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 25494

Degraded lands as an alternative for forest plantation development in Peninsular Malaysia


Zakaria, I; Ang, LH
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Economics of Forest Plantation; 24-26 February 1992; Petaling Jaya; p37- 48

Abstract:
Lacking of suitable areas in the Permanent Format Estate (PFZ) in one of the constraints that slows down the physical development of forest plantation in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper aims to highlight the potential of degraded lands (tin tailings and bris soil) for future development of industrial forest plantations in the peninsula. Potential of afforestation on these degraded lands with Acacia mangium for production of pulpwood, chipwood and reconstituted products in discussed. Approach of format plantation development is also examined.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25469

Large scale production of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrid plantlets by micropropagation techniques


Darus, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Recent Advances in Mass Clonal Multiplication of Forest Trees for Plantation Programmes; 1-8 December 1992; Bogor; Indonesia; p262

Abstract:
Acacia hybrid plantlets can be vegetatively propagated by using nodal explants of aseptically germinated seedlings and mature trees. The maximum shoot formation for nodal explants of aseptically germinated seedlings, is obtained in MS basal medium with 3 percent (w/v) sucrose, 0.6 percent (w/v) bacteriological agar and 0.5 percent mg/1 BAP. For nodal explants of mature trees, the maximum number of shoots per explant is obtained in cultures containing 1.0 mg/l BAP. For root formation, the excised shoots need to be treated with a commercial rooting powder, Seradix 3, before planting into a rooting chamber, containing a 100 per cent unsterilized river sand. The rooted propagules can be planted in the field about five to six months after potting.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25493

Potential of forest plantation species for pulp and paper and reconstituted products industries


Mohd Nor, MY; Salleh, MN
Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kepong; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Economics of Forest Plantation; 24-26 February 1992; Petaling Jaya; p145- 159

Abstract:
The establishment of a format plantation will provide a steady source of fibrous raw material to the wood-based industries when the supply of existing raw materials faces depletion or becomes more expensive. The suitability of format plantation species for pulp and paper and reconstituted products has been established but their commercial utilization potential has yet to be realized. Before considering setting up a pulp and paper mill several factors need to be considered such as the availability of fibrous raw material to sustain its continuous operation and the scale of operation required depending on the investment capability and market demand. A comparison of the scale of operation between the pulp and paper and reconstituted products industries is presented to illustrate the investment required for a given production capacity.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25507

Nitrogen input-output budget in an Acacia mangium plantation at young stand age


Wan Rashidah, K
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

International Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR 2001); "Tropical Forestry Research in the New Millenium: Meeting Demands and Challenges"; 1-3 October 2001; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Nitrogen transformation processes were studied in a young Acacia mangium stand at the age of 4 months to 24 months old. The parameters studied were mineral nitrogen dynamics, biomass production, nitrogen mineralization and biological nitrogen fixation. Measurements were carried out at four stand ages. The data obtained were used to calculate the nitrogen input output balance of the system. The nitrogen balance calculated for this ecosystem showed a high unaccounted for N in the first 12 months, but it was reduced in the second year. This unaccounted for N was probably immobilized, denitrified or fixed by soil clay minerals. With heavy clay soil texture, ammonium-N fixation is very favourable.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25508

Establishment of a high value timber production area on tin tailings


Ang, LH; Ho, WM; Ang, TB; Baskaran, K
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

International Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR 2001); "Tropical Forestry Research in the New Millenium: Meeting Demands and Challenges"; 1-3 October 2001; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Peninsular Malaysia has approximately 113,700 ha of ex- mining land resulting from tin mining activities since the 1930s. Large tracts of these degraded former lowland dipterocarp forests remain idle to this day. Only about 9.7% of ex-mining land have been converted into housing estates, fruit orchards, vegetable farms, recreational parks and golf courses. Ex-mining land consists of sand and slime tailings. The sand is infertile and has a harsh microclimate, whereas slime which is more fertile, is normally water-logged. Both types of tin tailings require further improvement before they can be used as high value timber production sites. The Forest Research Institute Malaysia has leased a piece of ex-mining land from the Perak State Government for rehabilitation with high value timber tree species. The extent of the tin tailings at the site is 121.4 ha and about 58% of the area have been planted with high value timber tree species. Hopea odorata, Swietenia macrophylla, Acacia hybrid and Acacia crassicarpa have been successfully grown on sand tailings. Other high value timber species such as Dyera costulata, H. odorata, Fragraea crenulata and Khaya ivorensis have grown well on slime tailings. In addition to the high-value timber species, other pulpwood species such as Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis have been planted on both types of tailings. The timber species had a survival rate of 40-90% and a mean annual height increment of 0.3-2.5 m y-l. Some of the A. mangium stands have been under-planted with high value medicinal herbs, such as Eurycoma longipinnata. This paper discusses: 1) the techniques employed to improve the physical and chemical properties of tin tailings for the establishment of high value timber species, 2) the survival and growth of the timber species grown on tin tailings, and 3) highlights the benefits of tin tailings is a timber production area.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25549

Stand growth response to the crown thinning of even-aged Acacia mangium Willd in compensatory plantation, Peninsular Malaysia


Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Thesis (MSc) - University of Aberdeen, 1991

Abstract:
The growth response of Acacia mangium stands to various weights of crown thinning is discussed with special reference to the recently revised guidelines for plantation programme in Peninsular Malaysia. The trial consists of three thinning treatments i.e. unthinned control, moderate thinning and heavy thinning with removal of 0%, 25% and 50% of the standing basal area respectively. The current annual diameter increment of the potential crop trees (ds) and 300 biggest trees (do ) is 3.0 cm and 3.1cm which is obtained from the heavily thinned plots. Meanwhile the current annual diameter increment of the stand (dg ) in the unthinned control is 1.3 cm, moderate thinning 1.9 cm and the heavily thinned of 2.9cm. In order to achieve the goal of 45 cm diameter in a 15 year rotation, is it necessary to maintain the growth of the potential crop trees in an almost competition free condition. The immediate response of Acacia mangium stands to canopy openings shows high flexibility at least as a young tree. It seems to be able to change leaves from shade status to sun status without delay. It is thus able to increase growth rates immediately. The importance of long crowns for maximum diameter growth is also discussed. Higher live crown ratio is achieved in the heavily thinned stands than in the unthinned stands.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25551

Effects of periodic drought on Acacia mangium Willd and Acacia auriculiformis A Cun ex Benth growing and sand tailings in Malaysia.


Ang, LH
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Thesis (Ph.D) - University of Aberdeen, 1996

Abstract:
Peninsular Malaysia has large tracts of sand tailings as a result of mining activities since the 1930s which remain unproductive until this day. Water deficit is identified to be one of the main constraint factors in limiting tree establishment on high sand tailings. High sand tailings which is situated more than 4m above standing water table level (a.s.w.l.), is constantly subjected to water deficit. Other studies have shown that A. auriculiformis and A. mangium are potential nitrogen fixing tree species for rehabilitation of sand tailings at <1.5m a.s.w.l. However, A. auriculiformis had been reported to have greater diameter and height growth than A. mangium on sand dunes at 8m a.s.w.l. Little is known on the fluctuations of water status and its effect on the early growth and adaptability of the two acacia species on high sand tailings. This study aims to: 1). To quantify the factors affecting the changes of site water status of the high sand tailings, 2). To investigate the growth and physiological responses of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis to the fluctuations of site water status on high sand dunes, and 3). To identify characteristics which may allow the trees to adapt to and survive on high sand tailings. In both shade and open plots on sand tailings, diurnal air water deficits would be anticipated particularly in sunny days and late afternoon in cloudy days. The results from dipwell showed that the main source of soil water supply to the sand tailings is solely dependent on the rainfall and not from the surrounding mining pool. Furthermore, at 6 d after rainfall <37mm, sand tailings at 0-15cm depth had low sand suction showing soil water deficit to plant uptake. Hence, the rainfall distribution would determine the growth of acacias in sand tailings. Dry periods significantly reduced (P<0.05) the shoot length and stem diameter growth rates and leaf area of both acacias. Dry period also significantly increased leaf and branch number shedding rates of both acacias. Generally, shading did not improve the growth rates of both acacias in dry periods but significantly delayed leaf shedding of the two acacias in dry periods. A. auriculiformis had significantly higher shoot length and stem diameter growth rates as the result of higher leaf and shoot numbers., The superiority of A. auriculiformis compared to A. mangium in adapting to high sand tailings was explained by its growth patterns that had characteristics of drought avoidance, and/or tolerance. Greater vegetative growth, was observed in A. auriculiformis than A. mangium in the wet periods. The effects of atmospheric and soil water fluctuations on some physiological responses of the two species were also examined. The two acacia species in open and shade plots reduced their diurnal gas exchange activities following dry periods and in response to atmospheric drought. Shading significantly (P<0.05) reduced the net photosynthesis (Anet) and (water use efficiency=net photosynthesis/transpiration) WUE but not (transpiration) E of both species. In addition, in the open plots only, drought significantly reduced the WUE of both species at full capacity by reducing the Anet in the subsequent wet days. The reduction of Anet was possibly due to the damage of photosynthetic machinery during drought. A auriculiformis had significantly higher Anet at full capacity and WUE than A. mangium in the wet periods. Furthermore, A. auriculiformis showed a higher soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance than A. mangium at 6 months after planting in a wet sunny day. The A. auriculiformis was significantly having higher net photosynthesis and water use efficiency but lower leaf temperature than A. mangium at similar range of leaf water potential on wet sunny days. Hence, A. auriculiformis has significantly better physiological responses than A. mangium to the fluctuations of site and atmospheric water status on the sand tailings. This partly explains the better growth of A. auriculiformis than A. auriculiformis than A. mangium in drought prone sand tailings. A comparison between the leaf temperature characteristics of both acacia species showed that A. mangium had significantly higher leaf temperature than A. auriculiformis in wet or drier sand tailings. This is confirmed by the higher Idso's index of A. mangium during when approaching solar noon during the sunny day. However, A. auriculiformis developed a similar water stress as A. mangium the period of mild soil drought coupled with high air vapour pressure deficit (VPD). High leaf temperature was also closely related to the size of leaf area exposed to the irradiance. The irradiance interception of the leaves depended on leaf

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25570

Nitrogen budget in an Acacia mangium Willd. plantation in Peninsular Malaysia


Wan Rasidah, WAK
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Thesis (Ph.D)- University of Ghent, 1995.

Abstract:
A shrinking forest supply coupled to an ever increasing demand for forest produce has rationalized the importance of establishing forest plantation. According to the projection from the Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia, if the current reforestation and afforestation in this country continue as scheduled, plantation forest will contribute to about 0.73 million m3 of timber supply by the year 2000 (Anon, 1988). The establishment of forest plantations in Malaysia is mainly executed through reforestation. For preparing the site, the whole area is cleared and burnt before replanting. In this context, the extraction of logs carries along some nutrients and burning to some extent leads to loss of nitrogen. It takes quite some time for remediation. According to Hilton (1987), the species richness and the apparent luxuriant characteristics of tropical rainforests do not represent the infinite supply of nutrients. In fact, they are occupying very fragile and infertile soils. The efficient and continuous process of nutrient cycling in these forests helps in maintaining the supply of nutrients to trees and small plants. Therefore, understanding the problems and processes of nutrient input and output at the initial stage of plantation establishment will support efficient and systematic management of the area without jeopardising the environment. The introduction of exotic species as a plantation forest tree can change their growth behaviour and nutritional need. The trees have to adjust for environmental differences. Experienced with the agricultural perennial crops such a rubber and oil palm shows that nitrogen is one of the growth limiting factors (Chew & Pushparaja, 1988). However, some of the tree species planted under forest plantation are known to fix nitrogen through biological fixation. The rate of fixation might differ greatly under different conditions and this process can have some influence on the nitrogen dynamics. Examples of nitrogen fixing tree species are Acacia mangium WILLD and Paraserianthes falcataria Back. The former species constitute more than 80% of the species planted under the Compensatory Forest Plantation Programme (CFPP). This is one of the reasons why A. mangium is selected for the current studies.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25629

Bonding performance of plywood manufactured from small diameter Acacia mangium


Nigel P. T. Lim; Siti Hanim, S; Pek, YK
Assistant Director of Forests; Timber Research and Technical Training Centre; Forest Department Sarawak; Sarawak

TRTTC/STA Forest Products Seminar; 12-14 October 1999; Kuching; Sarawak; p60-65

Abstract:
3-ply and 5-ply plywood test panels were produced from 15-year-old Acacia mangium with mean oven-dried density of 0.56 g/cm3. The test panels were fabricated using veneers of 1.3mrn and 2.4mm thickness and three types of adhesives, namely urea formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde as binders. Test specimens were subjected to different treatment conditions and subsequently tested for tensile shear strength. It was found that the tensile shear strength of almost all the test specimens exceeded the prescribed minimum strength requirement of 0.7 Nmm-2 stipulated in the Japanese Agricultural Standards. It has been interred that small diameter Acacia mangium is a suitable raw material for making plywood.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25631

Properties of MDF from 2-year old Acacia mangium


Mohd. Nor, MY
Chemistry Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

TRTTC/STA Forest Products Seminar; 12-14 October 1999; Kuching; Sarawak; p72-75

Abstract:
Currently, Malaysia has a total of ten MDF mills with a production capacity of approximately 1. 1 5 million rn3 per year. Rubberwood has been the raw material for the mills in Peninsular Malaysia. Recently, one rnill with a -capacity of 15,000 m3 per year has begun to use oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) as its raw material. For the two mills in Sarawak, the raw materials are in the form of wood residues from sawmills and plywood mills. In view of the impending dwindling supply of rubberwood and the associated problems of mixed hardwoods, alternative raw materials need to be explored. In this study, 2-year-old Acacia mangium wood was obtained from a plantation in Kemasul Forest, Mentakab, Pahang. The wood samples were divided into two lots i.e. one with bark and the other without bark. Wood chips of dimensions 2.0 by 2.5 by 0.2 cm were produced using a pilot plant Taihei Disc Chipper. Wood chips containing bark and without bark was steamed separately in a digester at a pressure of 5.63 kg/cm2 for 5 min and subsequently defibrated in the Sprout- Bauer refiner using a refining clearance of 0.33 mm. The design of the refining plate used was D2A505 type. The fibres obtained were air-dried overnight and then dried in the oven at 60'C for 24 hr to obtain a moisture content of 3 to 4%. For board making, urea formaldehyde resin and wax emulsion were used to mix with the dry fibres in the rectangular MDF blender. Board forming was carried out by spreading the resinated fibres manually into a wooden mold of dimensions 32 by 32 by 25 cm. The fibre mat was cold pressed at a pressure of 10 kg/cm2 for 1 min. The consolidated mat was hot pressed between two stainless steel caul plates in a Taihei Oil heated Hydraulic Press at a temperature of 190'C for 4 min. The MDF boards of 12 mm thickness were produced at a density of 600 and 700 kg/M3 and resin content of 9 and 11 %. Thus a total of 24 boards were produced at different conditions. The boards were then conditioned for 24 hr at a temperature of 23'C and relative humidity of 55%. The boards were evaluated for their mechanical and dimensional properties. The average wood density of the samples determined was 490 kg/M3. It was observed that MDF boards made from samples without bark gave a slightly darker colour compared to commercial rubberwood MDF. Boards containing bark gave darker colour than those without bark. Interestingly, the presence of bark in the samples did not seem to affect the thickness swelling and water absorption of the boards. However the MOR and IB were lower in boards made from samples with bark compared to boards without bark. The MDF boards made at a density of about 700 kg/m3 could satisfy the requirements of the European Standard for general purpose boards for use in dry conditions in terms of MOR, MOE and thickness swelling with the exception of IB which was below 0.6 MPa.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25633

Properties of oriented strand board manufacture from Acacia mangium


Rahim, S; Mohd. Nor, MY; Suffian, M; Saimin, B; Jalali, S; Ahmad Sharafi, O
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; FRIM; Kepong; Kuala Lumpur

TRTTC/STA Forest Products Seminar; 12-14 October 1999; Kuching; Sarawak; p90-92

Abstract:
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is a new type of wood composite, which is yet to be commercially produced in Malaysia or South East Asia region. It is made from long, thin and narrow wood strands bonded by a synthetic resin and converted into a solid panel during the hot pressing operation. In this study, the wood strands of dimensions 75 mm in length, 35 mm width and 0.5 to 0.8 mm thickness are oriented parallel to each other in each layer. Standard OSB normally consists of three layers in which each layer is perpendicular to another. In some cases the OSB can also be produced in five or seven layers depending on type of application. Unlike plywood, OSB normally manufactured using small diameter logs regardless of any wood species. This type of board is considered an engineered product with great strength and dimensionally stables. This paper discusses the feasibility of using 12-year-old Acacia mangium obtained from thinning operation at Batu Arang Forest Plantation in Rawang. The study showed that the OSB made at density about 650 kg/m3 comply with the minimum specification of base particleboard as specified by the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS A5908:1994). The resin content used was in the range of 3, 5 and 7% based on oven- dded weight of wood strands. Based on the physical and mechanical strength of OSB, it is expected that this new type of wood based panel product may have a good potential to supplement the current shortage of plywood application in the near future.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25635

Finishing properties of Acacia mangium grown in Sarawak compared to Nyatoh Rian and Ramin


Kandau, J; Makoto, K; Jiro, K
Senior Forest Officer; Timber Research and Technical Training Centre; Forest Department Sarawak; Sarawak

TRTTC/STA Forest Products Seminar; 12-14 October 1999; Kuching; Sarawak; 105-117

Abstract:
The ever increasing demand for the supply and choice of affordable raw materials by the furniture and joinery industries makes ft necessary to assess the finishing properties of all potential species including a locally grown Acacia mangium to ascertain their suitability. Finishing properties of Acacia mangium grown in Sarawak were assessed based on dimensional stability, contact angle, extractives content, colour and gloss change, adhesion and hardness tests of polyurethane and NC lacquer-coated samples. Comparison of these properties with Nyatoh rian (Palaquium gutta) and Ramin (Gonystylus spp.) indicated that the finishing properties of Acacia mangium have many similarities with Nyatoh rian but slightly less similar to Ramin.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25638

Strength properties of Acaciia mangium grown in Sarawak


Alik, D
Research Officer; Timber Research and Technical Training Centre; Forest Department Sarawak; Sarawak

TRTTC/STA Forest Products Seminar; 12-14 October 1999; Kuching; Sarawak; p158-164

Abstract:
Ten 13-year-old Acacia mangium trees were obtained and a total of fifty-four small clear specimens were tested. The British Standard (BS 373.1957) method of testing small clear specimens of timber was adopted to test the strength properties of the species. It was found that the mean values of modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength tested at green condition were 86.4 MPa, 10900 MPa and 36.8 MPa respectively. The average moisture content was 114% and their basic density was 0.51 g/cm3. Based on their compressive strength, the timber was classified under Strength Group C. The study revealed that the strength properties and basic density were higher at outer portion compared to the inner portion of the wood.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25666

Introduction of Acacia species to Peninsular Malaysia.


Yap, SK
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

ACIAR No. 16; Proceedings of the International Workshop on Australian Acacia for Developing countries, Gympie, Queensland, Australia; 4-7 August 1986; p151 -153

Abstract:
An account of the introduction of tropical Acacia species into Peninsular Malaysia since the early 1930s. In 1959 A. aulacocarpa (Queensland origin) was included in trials to afforest burnt and cleared areas which were covered by Imperata cylindrica and to rehabilitate mined lands. Acacia aulacocarpa plants grew slowly reaching about 3 m after 30 months at a site in Sg. Buloh. This area had been temporarily cultivated before being abandoned. High mortality (31%) of A. aulacocarpa plants was observed in the first year of a trial planting on coarse sands (tin mining residue) near Kepong. Height growth was slow with plants attaining about 2 m after 30 months. In recent years A. mangium has been selected as the main species for the Compensatory Plantation Program of the Department of Forestry. Acacia auriculiformis is recorded as a popular species in soil improvement trials and for amenity plantings.

Availability :
Farid Ahmad




NO. 25664

Growth of acacias on a logged-over forest in Sabah.


Anuar Mohamad
Forest Research Centre; Sandakan; Sabah

ACIAR No. 16; Proceedings of the International Workshop on Australian Acacia for Developing countries, Gympie, Queensland, Australia; 4-7 August 1986; p167- 169

Abstract:
A trial of Acacia cincinnata, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium was established in 1982 by the Sabah Forestry Department, Malaysia near Kolapis (5o5'N, 117o42'E, altitude 15 m, annual rainfall 2579-3400 nim, mean temperature 27'C). Seedlings were planted on a logged-over forest site and assessed 4 yr after planting. Acacia mangium (two local seedlots) had the best height (16.9-17.3 m) and diameter growth (14.1-14.9 cm), followed by A. cincinnata (13 km SSE Mossman, North Queensland; 16.4 in and 12 cm dbh) then A. auriculiformis (Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; 11.4 m and 8.7 cm dbh). The author suggests that A. cincinnata may have potential as a plantation species in Sabah. It exhibited good bole form and height growth comparable to that of A. mangium, but diameter growth and survival (77% cf. 97%) was inferior.

Availability :
Farid Ahmad




NO. 25667

Acacia species planting trial at Segaliud Lokan, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia


Ajik, M
Forest Research Centre; Forestry Department; P 0. Box 1407, 90715 Sandakan; Sabah, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 14(3): 421-424 (2002)

Abstract:
This paper describes a species-provenance trial involving five species of Acacia and one hybrid, A.mangium X A. auriculiformis. The results showed significant difference between species and provenances in height,dbh, tree persistence, straightness and survival at 20 months. Survival ranged from 63.9% (A. cincinnata) to 94.4% (Acacia hybrid) and A. mangium. In general A.mangium performed the best in all traits.A.crassicarpa performeda lmost as well but the were significantly poorer.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25665

Overview of Acacia research in Sabah


Sim, BL
Sabah Forest Industries Sdn.Bhd.; WDT 31, Sipitang, Sabah

Proceedings of a first meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA); Phuket, Thailand; June 1-3; p28-33

Abstract:
The paper provides an overview of research and experience with Acacia species in Sabah, Malaysia. Different sections describe the domestication of Acacia mangium, species-site matching trials including A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa, tree improvement, hybridization, growth and yield monitoring and estimates, silviculture and future research. Sabah Forest Industries Sdn. Bhd. (SFI) has tested over 300 provenances of 40 tree species in replicated trials across six distinctive site conditions, ranging in altitude from 100-1000 m, in mean annual rainfall from 2500-3100 mm, and in soil pH from 4.1-5.6. The results of these trials show that no single species is best for all sites. The tropical acacias are preferable for tropical lowland areas (below 800 m), with A.aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium producing more fibre per unit A. area than other species tested. The growth of A. crassicarpa is comparable to that of A. mangium in lowlands on deeper, clayey soils, with clean ground conditions. A. crassicarpa is outstanding on poor shallow and sandy soils, and has been recorded growing twice as fast as A. m a n g i u m on such sites. On good sites, A. aulacocarpa (PNG) grows more slowly than A. mangium although the two are comparable on shallow and sandy soils. Due to its higher wood density and better pulping quality, A. aulacocarpa (PNG) offers good potential for pulp. It is mentioned that A. mangium is not commercially viable on poor sites. A.crassicarpa is much better on poorer sites, although it suffers crown die- back. SFI reports that its wood quality is better than A. mangium, although pulping qualities are not as good. Pinhole borer has been a problem in some A. crassicarpa stands, but this does not significantly affect pulping quality. Acacia crassicarpa is more vulnerable to wind than A. mangium and other Acacia species.

Availability :
Farid Ahmad




NO. 25669

Effects of intercropping Acacia mangium with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on tree/crop growth and some chemical properties of two Malaysian soils


Abdelhai Mohammed Sharief
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MS thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
Malaysian soils are of low fertility because they are highly weathered soils. Large scale clearance of natural forests and mining activities have resulted in increased erosion and leaching of nutrients thus aggravating this problem of low soil fertility. The field experiments were conducted in 1989 at Universiti Pertanian Malaysia to determine the effects of inter-cropping Acacia mangium with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on chemical properties of two types of soils; a normal mineral soil and a desolated ex-tin mining soil. A. mangium seedlings were planted in each study site at four different planting distances namely; 2x2, 2x4, 3x3 and 4x4 meters, with uniform spacing for peanut (50 cm x 10 cm). Each of the plots in the respective spacing distance was divided into two subplots. In one subplot A. mangium seedlings were left to grow alone. Separate sole cropping plots of peanut were used as control in each of the two study sites. Soil chemical properties and the growth performance of the two plant species were compared under sole and inter- cropped plots of A. mangium. Data were analysed using the Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The experiments were conducted in a split-plot-design with 2x4x3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two cropping systems (mixed and sole cropping), four spacing levels and three replicates. During a period of 11 months (July 1990 to May 1991 most of the 11 elements analysed showed pronounced increase under the inter-cropped plots. In the mineral soil (Site A) total C increased from an initial value of 1.5 percent to a maximum of 2.18 percent; pH from 4.4 to 5.2; total N from 0. 14 to 0.69 percent; available P from 23.4 to 31.5 mg/g; soil Ca from 0. 16 to 1.41 meq/ 1OO g soil and soil Mg from 0.09 to 0. 15 meq/ lOOg soil. Soil K however did not show significant increase under the intercropped plots, indicating its high mobility and tendency to be leached from the surface soil. The soil micronutrients also increased at the end of the experiment, but the increase was insignificant. In mining soil there was also an increase in most of the above elements as a result of inter-cropping A. mangium with peanut. The increase was lower compared to that of the mineral soil, particularly for total C, total N and available P. However, soil pH, soil Ca, Mg and soil micronutrients showed a higher increase. The growth of the plants was significantly affected by inter-cropping. Comparison between spacings revealed that on mineral soil, the growth of plants decreased with both closer (2x2 in) and wider (4x4 in) distances of the trees. The spacing distance of 2x4 in was found to be most favourable for increasing soil nutrients and plant growth. Conversely, on the mining land the growth of plants and soil nutrients were significantly increased in the closer spaced plots. This indicates that the choice of tree density and arrangement in inter- cropping practices is an important factor to consider.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25671

Nutritional aspects of Acacia mangium Willd. Plantation in Peninsular Malaysia


Bimal, K Paudyal
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

PhD thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
Acacia mangium Willd. is One Of the fast-growing timber species planted widely in Malaysia to overcome the expected timber deficit for the domestic consumption purposes. However, nutrient requirements of this species are not adequately known. There is also no proper foliar sampling guideline although foliar diagnosis is the most widely used method to determine nutrient deficiencies in trees in temperate and subtropical countries. There are few studies conducted on these aspects in the tropics and research guidelines are lacking in the case of A. mangium plantation in Malaysia. The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional aspects of A. mangium stands. Three methods were used for this purpose: soil analysis, pot culture and foliar analysis. The results of soil analysis showed that phosphorus was the element highly deficient on all the three sites chosen, followed by nitrogen. In the pot trial, 800 kg/ha of urea and 800 kg/ha of R20, with I 00 kg/ha of K 20 was effective in promoting the growth of A. mangium seedlings. The results showed that the optimum foliar nutrient concentration in the pot culture should be between 2.35-2-46 percent for nitrogen, 0.20-0.26 percent for phosphorus and 0.70-0.73 percent for potassium. Under field conditions, the optimum foliar concentrations of these nutrients could range between 1.84-2.10 percent for N, 0.11 - 0.16 percent for P and 0.80-0.88 percent for K. The results of the present study clearly indicate that the combined effects of N, P and K, P on height and diameter growth in the field were comparatively higher than the effects of P alone. The highly significant synergistic relationship observed between foliar N, K; P, K; P, Mg and N, P in Kemasul; between N, K; P, K and N, P in Puchong and between N, Ca; K, Ca with antagonistic relationship between N and Mg in Kerling shows the necessity of further research on P, N, Mg and Ca nutrition. The results also indicate that 800 kg/ha of P.0, and 100 kg/ha of KO should be sufficient for increasing tree growth. The foliar sampling experiment demonstrated that foliar nutrient concentrations and nutrient variability were influenced by season and sample position in the crown. Minimum nutrient variability was observed during the dry season and maximum during the wet season. The case for foliar nutrient concentration was otherwise. Thus, the dry season is the most appropriate time for foliar sampling purposes. On the basis of low nutrient variability, sampling should be carried out from the lower crown for N, K, Ca, Fe and Cu and from the upper crown for P, Mg, Zn and Mn. Both field fertilizer trials showed a significant relationship between tree height, diameter and foliar P levels and P:K ratio. However, the results showed that tree growth parameters were highly related to P:K ratio than to foliar P level alone on all the three sites. The present study showed no correlation between height, diameter and most of the soil properties measured. However, there was significant and positive interaction between N, P, K and Mg in the soil and trees. The present study demonstrated that the combination of soil analysis, pot culture and foliar analysis from field fertilizer trials could be a useful technique for asses .sing nutritional aspects of A. mangium stands in Peninsular Malaysia and should serve as a guideline for evaluating nutritional status of other fast- growing plantation species in the tropics.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25672

The potential of utilizing arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in the rehabilitation of sandy tailings with Acacia mangium Willd


Hasnah,MJ
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

PhD thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
This study examined the potential of utilising the AM fungi and an organic fertiliser in improving the plant growth and soil fertility status of sandy tailings. The AM fungal spore and Most Probable Number (MPN) count and root infection ratings were determined in barren sandy tailings and sandy tailings under a five and seven year old A. mangium stands. The results indicate very slow build up of the AM propagules over a seven year period of rehabilitation. Glomus spp. was more widely distributed as compared to Gigaspora spp. Under the propagation trials, the pot culture method using Setaria spp. as the host was found to be most suitable for production of large scale inoculum. S. calaspora, an introduced species was found to be the most effective with maximum 55% infection in the A. mangium roots. In a subsequent glasshouse trial, inoculation using S. calls in combination with a chemical fertiliser(O.15g NPK 15:15:15/kg soil)vs four levels(O.5,1.0,1.5 and 2 g/kg soil) of an organic fertiliser resulted in superior growth from AM inoculated plants at low level of organic fertiliser application. The higher increase in tissue P as compared to soil P indicates the importance of AM in direct P uptake. Increased P uptake was found to parallel uptake of N, K, Ca and Mg. Other effects include higher rate of photosynthesis, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance and the leaf area index and lower stomatal resistance. The increase in mycorrhizosphere bacteria] population may be the key factor in enhancing soil NO,-N and NH4-N. Using the image analyser, there was also significant improvement in organic matter and pore diameter size of < 1.2 µm distribution. Utilisation of effective AM at low level of organic fertilizer therefore, could have a great potential in the rehabilitation of marginal lands such as the sandy tailings.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25674

Three year growth performance of Acacia crassicarpa provenances at Serdang, Malaysia


Bounhom Thepphavong
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

PhD thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
A trial at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Serdang, Malaysia consisting of eight provenances of A. crassicarpa Cunn. ex Benth. was measured at three years for survival, height, diameter, tree form, specific gravity, biomass of components, volume, form factor, and leaf area. One provenance was from Irian Jaya, Indonesia, four were from Papua New Guinea and three were from northern Queensland. All provenances survived well (>94.7 0/t,), but they differed significantly (P<0.05) in their growth performance. Provenances from Smalleberr, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Olive River, Queensland, Limal Malam, Papua New Guinea were found to be most promising in terms of mean height, diameter. tree form, biomass, volume, and leaf area growth. Equations to predict total biomass (both over and under bark) of eight provenances of A. crassicarpa were derived using data from 30 trees from each provenance. Regressions based on logarithmic transformations of both dependent and independent variables were found to give the best estimates of biomass components. Log Dbh was found to be a good predictor of biomass components and was used as the independent variable. log TI =-0.76749+2.30116. log Dbh ; log T2 =-0.87307+2.30627. log Dbh The highest dry total biomass over and under bark of 66.1 and 50.8 tonnes/ha was recorded by the Smalleberr provenance from Iran Jaya, Indonesia. Equations to predict total volume (both over and under bark) of eight provenances of A. crassicarpa were derived using data from 30 trees from each p provenance. Regressions using (Dbh)2.14 as the independent variables were found to give the best estimate of volume. VOB = 0.001708 + 0.357034.(Dbh)2.H ; VUB = 0.007400 + 0.302753.(Dbh)2.H. Samlleberr Iran Jaya, Indonesia provenance recorded the highest volume over and under bark of 95.5 and 80.2 MI/ha, form factor of 0.47 and leaf area of 33,551 ml/ha. For further plantation trials, the provenances from Smalleberr Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Olive River, Queensland and Limal Malam, Papua New Guinea have been identified to be promising for further testing in the different environmental conditions.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25676

Genetic variation of growth and selected wood properties of four years old Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang Selangor


Mohd Noor,M
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSC thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
A trial at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Serdang, Malaysia consisting of twenty eight provenances of Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn.ex. Benth was assessed at four years for total height, diameter at breast height, specific gravity and fibre length. Of these provenances, 7 were from Queensland (QLD), 15 from the Northern Territory (NT) and 6 from Papua New Guinea (PNG). The provenances and geographic regions differed significantly at p < 0.05 in their growth performance. Generally the Queensland provenances recorded the best growth in both height and diameter followed by the Northern Territory and Papua New Guinea Provenances. The mean total heights for provenances from Queensland, Northern Territory and Papua New Guinea were 13.3 8 in, 12.3 7 m and 11.89 in respectively. The mean diameters at breast height for provenances from Queensland, Northern Territory and Papua New Guinea were 12.67 cm, 11.04 cm and 10.69 cm respectively. A similar pattern of variation was found in the wood properties except for wood specific gravity where there was no significant difference encountered between the three geographic regions. However, there were significant variations between provenances on both wood properties studied. The mean specific gravity ranged from 0.53 for the provenance from Balamuk on Bensbach (PNG) to 0.61 for the provenance from South Balamuk (PNG). The mean fibre length ranged from 0.865 mm for the provenance from Balamuk on Bensback (PNG) to 0.993 mm for the provenance from Coen River (QLD). Generally, the percentages of variance components due to between and within provenances for both growth and wood properties were high. Most of he genetic variation was contributed by the variation of the traits between individuals within provenances. This was shown in the residual variance components of all traits that ranged from 31.82 to 71.08%. Based on the basic information obtained on the genetic variation of this species, the alternative selection strategy recommended for the species is via selecting more individuals within provenance levels form all geographic regions. Most of the correlations between traits were low except for the phenotypic (r- O. 75) and genetic (rG= 0.88) correlations between total height and diameter at breast height. The results showed that there was no genetic correlation (RG= 0) between the growth traits and wood properties. Thus, there would be little scope of using growth traits for selecting wood properties. The broad-sense heritabilities of the traits were generally high. The heritabilities of the growth traits were, however, higher (H2= 0.85 - total height; H2 = 0.82 - diameter at breast height) than those of the wood properties (H2 = 0.37 - specific gravity; H2 = 0.22 - fibre length). Predicted gains on the provenance selection were generally favourable except for the fibre length which was slightly low. The predicted gains for total height, diameter at breast height, specific gravity and fibre length were 13.3, 20.7, 2.6 and 1.9% respectively. The finding showed that both intra and inter provenances as well as geographic region variations are important in the initial selection in the breeding programmes of this species. It is recommended that selection involving a large number of individuals within provenances could ensure the capturing of maximum genetic variation for the purpose of germplasm collection in a breeding population.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25677

Growth performance and economic evaluation of Acacia mangium Willd. Planted at different spacings


Sinhsamouth Phouthavong
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSC thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
Acacia mangium Willd. is one of the fast-growing timber species planted widely in Malaysia to overcome the expected timber deficit for the wood based industries. However, comprehensive studies on planting distance and economic evaluation of A. mangium planted at different spacings have not been well documented. A trial plot at Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Malaysia planted with A. mangium at five different spacings; namely S, (2.0 in x 2.0 in), S2 (2.5 in x 2.5 in), S3 (3.0 in x 3.0 in), s4 (3.5 in x 3.5 m) and S, (4.0 in x 4.0 in) was investigated to determine specifically the survival percentage, total height, diameter at breast height, volume, growth and yield prediction up to 15 years, soil physical and chemical properties, and relationship between tree growth and soil properties. Economic analysis of each spacing (with project) vs. 3.0 in x 3.7 in spacing (without project) was also conducted. The experimental results indicate that spacing S, achieved the best survival percentage (81%) and the best mean total height growth (20.40 in). The biggest mean diameter at breast height growth (21.46 cm) was recorded for spacing S The analysis of variance indicated that spacing does not affect total height growth, but affects diameter at breast height. The highest mean volume (0.407 m3) was found in spacing S5 and the highest wood volume per hectare (585.12 ml) was for spacing S1 at 70 months old. The growth prediction using Gompertz model showed that spacing S2 recorded the highest mean total height value (24.77 in) and spacing S5 had the biggest mean diameter at breast height (26.20 cm). The highest predicted mean merchantable volume (0.581 ml) was for spacing S,. The yield prediction showed that spacing S, produced the highest wood volume (211.44m3) per hectare at year 15. The analysis of variance showed that the soil chemical properties only differed significantly in carbon and iron. The correlation analysis showed that tree growth was not significantly correlated with most of the soil properties. The results of economic analysis indicated that spacing SI was the most viable and profitable activities using IRR (14.01%). The sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in costs and benefits have low impact on the NPV, B/C ratio and IRR of S1. Therefore, S, (2.0 in x 2.0 in) could be the most promising spacing in terms of wood production and economic returns.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25680

Genetic diversity of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth plus trees of provenance trial in Serdang Malaysia


John Keen,C
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSC thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
In the selection of the best species for forest plantation, few criteria have to be considered including morphological and genetic diversity. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of Acacia crassicarpa plus trees using morphological and genetic markers. The genetic structure and mating system of the species were also studied. Plus trees were selected from a provenance trial in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang based on 8 qualitative and 2 quantitative parameters from 2 regions i.e. Queensland (8 plus trees) and Papua New Guinea (23 plus trees). Leaf samples were collected from these trees and were analysed using 20 isozyme and 15 RAPD markers. The morphological study observed higher variation and better growth performance of trees from Papua New Guinea. However, trees from Queensland have higher retention towards strong wind contradictory to trees from Papua New Guinea. The isozyme analysis observed 36 loci with 24 loci being polymorphic. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.2316 and 0.2675 for Queensland and Papua New Guinea respectively. The proportions of polymorphic loci for both regions were found to be similar. In the RAPD analysis a total of 87 loci were scored ranging from O.10 kb to more than 2.10kb. Generally, provenances from Papua New Guinea were found to produce higher polymorphism levels as compared to the Queensland provenances. Life history and the ecological characteristics of the species were believed to be the possible reasons for such conditions. Cluster analyses produced three different dendrogram patterns with a tendency of similarity to a certain extent. The effect of different approaches was suggested to have caused these differences. Relationships of clusters according to number of parent trees, altitudes and longitudes were also observed. The species was found to be highly outcrossing with rates ranging from 0.69 and 0.94. Genetic differentiation in the species observed 60 to 70% of the total diversity to be within provenances. Factors such as reproductive biology, seed dispersal, history and gene flow were suggested to be some of the possible causes for such phenomena.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25681

Properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from Acacia mangium thinnings and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)


Wong,ED
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSC thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
This study attempts to assess the Properties of structural laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from low grade raw materials and produced on commercial plywood and LVL lines. Ten-year old Acacia mangium (Mangium) thinnings and old- growth Hevea brasiliensis (Rubberwood) were peeled to 3.6 mm thick veneers and processed into 15- ply LVL. Two different veneer configurations were used in the LVL fabrication, with melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) as binders. The LVL were subsequently finger- jointed and the bending strength evaluated. The properties of LVL with different proportions of mangium and Rubberwood were also evaluated. Total green veneer recoveries of about 70% were recorded for both Mangium and Rubberwood, using a 4-ft Meinan Aristo-lathe. In general, Rubberwood demonstrated good compatibility with UF resin, whilst MUF performed better than PF. Veneer configuration did not have significant (P>0.05) effect on the mechanical properties of the LVL. Evaluation of the LVL based on the Japanese Agricultural Standard for Structural LVL (I 993) showed that besides having negligible delamination and fulfilling the shear requirements for various LVL grades, MUF and PF bonded Rubberwood LVL met the 80E Special Grade, whilst Rubberwood LVL with UF, and all of the Mangium LVL met the minimum modulus of elasticity (MOE) requirement for 120E Special Grade Structural LVL. The MOR values were exceedingly high in all cases. TIC laminating process resulted in about 30% reduction in modulus of rupture (MOR), but a pronounced improvement in MOE by up to 86%, compared to small clear solid wood. Finger-jointing resulted in 79 to 88% joint efficiency in terms of MOR, with no reduction in MOE. Combination of ten Mangium plies with five Rubberwood plies (core) passed the 1OOE. Special Grade, whereas pure Rubberwood and combination of six Mangium plies with nine Rubberwood plies (core) only met the requirements for 80E Special Grade. Both physical and mechanical properties of the LVL evaluated showed high uniformity as indicated by their low coefficient of variation (<10%). The results obtained are positive indications for both Mangium thinnings and Rubberwood to be upgraded for structural uses through processing into LVL.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25682

Acetylation of Acacia mangium wood fibres and its application in the medium density fibreboard


Sining Unchi
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

PhD thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
The effective utilisation of low quality wood of Acacia mangium Willd. would be for the production of medium density fibreboard (MDF). However, MDF is susceptible to biodegradation and dimensionally unstable when in contact with water, which is also associated with the deterioration of the mechanical and physical properties of the board. Nonetheless, research on wood has shown that it is possible to eliminate the biodegradation and dimensional instability through chemical modification. This study was therefore conducted with the aim of evaluating the acetylation characteristics of Acacia mangium wood fibres and the properties and performances of the board produced. Pilot acetylation was conducted to establish the optimum reaction conditions, which was subsequently used as a guide in the bulk acetylation of the fibres. Boards were manufactured from both the acetylated and unacetylated fibres and the properties and performances of the boards were evaluated. The pilot acetylation showed that the best reaction conditions was on wood fibres with 6.5% initial moisture content reacted at 1200C using pyridine as a catalyst. The bulk acetylation was successfully conducted to achieve the targeted weight gain. No problem was encountered in the manufacturing of board of both the unacetylated and acetylated fibres. The evaluation on the properties and performances of the boards showed that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the board of acetylated fibres (acetylated board) decreased. Dimensional stability of the acetylated boards was enhanced. Both reversible and irreversible thickness swelling reduced. The antiswelling efficiencies (ASE) of the 9.1% WG board ranges from 30.9% to 36.8%; for the 13.9% WG board, 51.6% to 57.6%; and for the 20.4% WG board, 67.1 % to 70.1%. The values of both the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the acetylated boards have slightly reduced. However, after aged test, the values of MOE and MOR of the acetylated boards were higher than that of the unacetylated board. The internal bond (IB) strength of the acetylated boards was slightly enhanced. After being boiled, only the IB strength of the unacetylated board reduced significantly. The acetylated boards were considerably resistant to Pycnoporus sanguineus fungal attack, but not much to the Coptotermes curvignathus termite attack. Comparatively, the 13.9% WG board showed the best performance. Further studies such as on the resistance of acetylated boards against other species of wood decaying fungi and termites would be necessary to add to the cost effectiveness of this process.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25670

The influence of management and silvicultural practices on the incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium plantations


Hashim,MN
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

MS thesis; Selangor, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Post- Graduate Theses 1990-2000

Abstract:
Acacia mangium Willd., a major exotic timber species used in the Compensatory Forest Plantation Program for the production of sawlogs, was found to be infected by heart rot. To evaluate the incidence and severity of heart rot in A. mangium plantations, a study consisted of laboratory investigations and field surveys was conducted. The laboratory studies include isolation of fungi from infected tree, determination of wood density, microscopic observations, and chemical wood analyses. Field surveys were conducted at five plantations, namely Rantau Panjang Forest Reserve (RPFR), Bukit Tarek Forest Reserve (13TFR), Kemasul Forest Reserve (KFR), Setul Forest Reserve (SFR), and Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve (USFR). Heart-rotted wood was lower in density and produced lower content of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin, pentosan, and extractives, but contained higher proportion of ash than the sound wood. The decay was identified as a white rot caused by a basidiomycete fungus from the family Polyporaceae. "Pick test" was found to be reliable in distinguishing sound heartwood from heart-rotted wood. Heart rot incidence was found higher in the bigger diameter trees. An average of 80.8 percent incidence was recorded in trees at all sites. However, its incidence varied among the sites ranging from 66.9 percent at SFR to 97.4 percent at RPFR. The incidence and severity of heart rot at all sites except for SFR showed no relationship with the stand age. Stands established from Malaysian seed source exhibited lower infection of heart rot than those of Australian seed sources. Silvicultural practices such as initial spacing, singling, pruning, and thinning have evidently influenced the incidence of heart rot. The susceptibility of the trees against heart rot varied among the provenances and sites. Provenances from Sidie, Indonesia and Abergrowrie S.F., Queensland recorded the lowest proportion of heart rot, whereas provenances from Claudie River and Broken Pole Creek, both from Queensland, Australia, recorded the highest heart rot proportions. In conclusion, the present management and silvicultural practices of A. mangium for sawlogs production have had predisposed the trees to heart rot infection. However, the incidence and severity of heart rot within the trees in these plantations could be minimized through efficient management and silvicultural practices.

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University Putra Malaysia




NO. 25704

Growth performance of four timber species under different fertilizer regimes


Rasmah, B
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc; Abstracts of Research Projects; Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Abstract:
Forest plantations are the key to Malaysia's timber needs. They will play a significant role in the development of Malaysian wood-based industries. A field experiment was established at Compartment 12, Air Hitam Forest Reserve to evaluate the growth performance of four timber species namely, Azadirachta excelsa, Octomeles sumatrana, Durio zibethinus and Acacia mangium. The experimental design was a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) with four treatments. The treatments were : 0 (control), 200, 400 and 600 g NPK/seedling. The results showed that the optimum height and base diameter for Azadirachta e excelsa and Octomeles sumatrana could be obtained with applications f400 - 600 g NPK/seedling. Treatment with 6OOg NPK/seedling gave the best growth rate results for Acacia mangium for both height and base diameter. Azadiratha excelsa shows the highest growth rate followed by Octomeles sumatrana, Acacia mangium and Durio zibethinus. There was slight increase in soil chemical properties after fertilization.

Availability :
Azarudin




NO. 25706

Deterioration and survive life of timbers of plantation species


Kamarul Azlan, M
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc; Abstracts of Research Projects; Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to evaluate the durability of timber of plantation species timber against fungi and termite. Four different plantation species (Acacia crassicarpa (acacia), Acacia auriculiformis(acacia), Gmelina arborea (yamane) & Azadirachta excelsa (sentang) were tested on the durability against decay fungi and the service life. For durability test ASTM block culture, sample blocks (1.4 cm x 1.4 cm x 1.4 cm) were used. The sample blocks were prepared from the heartwood of each species. Samples from different regions of inner and outer heartwood was subjected to decay fungi using ASTM soil block culture test. The white rot fungus (Pycnoporus sangui) was used for deterioration test. After 3 months of exposure the wood to the fungi, the percentage weight loss for Acacia crassicarpa is 13.75% and 8.35%, at the inner and outer regions respectively. Acacia auriculiformis 7.84% and 4.37%, Gmelina arborea 12.69% and 7.91% and Azadirachta excelsa 10.47% and 7.08%. Among the four species, the average percentage weight loss value was highest in Acacia crassicarpa 11.03%, followed by Acacia auriculiformis 6.11% Gmelina arborea 10.30% and Azadirachta excelsa 8.77%. The service life of each species was determined by a graveyard test in Hutan Simpan Air Hitam, Puchong, Selangor according to the ASTM D1758-74. The study is to establish service life of the timbers and recommendation their uses. Heartwood stakes of (2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 30 cm) were used in the test. The stakes were periodically examined and each stake was assigned 0 to 10 damage grades. After 2 and 3 months exposure in the ground, 25.8% and 32.5% of the stakes were attacked by the termite, respectively while 6% and 11.6% showed visual indication of fungi colonization. After 3 months exposure in the ground, the highest attacked by termite was noted in yamane, 12.5%, followed by Acacia auriculiformis 11.7%, Acacia crassicarpa 5% and Azadirachta excelsa 0.83%.

Availability :
Azarudin




NO. 25822

Comparative strength properties of six-year-old Acacia mangium and four-year- old Acacia Hybrid


Mohd. Shukari, M; Ab. Rasip, AG; Mohd. Lokman, N
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 8(1): 115-117 (2002)

Abstract:
Results showed that there were no significant differences between the strength properties in these species. However, the trend indicated that the overall strength of the hybrid timber were slightly higher than that of A. mangium.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25903

Genetic variation in isozyme analysis of Acacia Grassicarpa


Nor Aini Ab Shukor; J. K. Chubo
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 15(1): 74-81 (2003)

Abstract:
The pattern of genetic variation of Acacia crassicarpa among eight provenances (four from Papua New Guinea, one from Irian Jaya and three from Queensland) was assayed using the technique of starch gel electrophoresis. Twelve enzyme systems used in the analysis were coded by 23 loci, producing heterozygosity values ranging from 0.064 to 0.100. The proportion of polymorphic lico was found to vary from 56.5 to 60.9% with an average of two alleles per locus. Factors such as the historical and ecological background, selection and reproductive biology were suggested to explain the polymorphism and heterozygosity paradox. Genetic identity of the species varied from 0.9770 between Jardine River and Olive River of Queensland to 0.9955 between Limal- Malam and Samlleberr, both from Papua New Guinea. Clustering by altitude was also abserved. High values of genetic similarity showed that the provenances were closely related to each other in spite of coming from different regions.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25905

Five-year growth performance of Acacia Peregrinalis, A. Midgleyi and A. Celsa at Kolapis B in eastern Sabah, Malaysia


Ajik, M; Harwood, CE
Forest Research Centre; Forestry Deparment; P.O. Box 1407, 90715 Sandakan, Sabah

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 15(1): 214-220 (2003)

Abstract:
A provenance trial was planted at Kolapis B, in eastern Sabah, Malaysia in 1995, testing 21 Acacia provenances, at that time classified as A. aulacocarpa. Nineteen of the provenances, now classified as A. peregrinalis, were from the southern lowlands of New Guinea and the other two, one now classified as A.midgleyi and the other as A. celsa,were from north Queensland, Australia. The trial was assessed for survival and growth at five years of age. Survival was generally good, averaging 82% for the trial, with no significant differences among species or provenances. The three species differed significantly (p<0.001) in their growth performance of height and diameter at breast height (dbh), with all A. peregrinalis provenances clearly outperforming A. midgleyi and A. celsa. Species mean height for A. peregrinalis was 18.0 m (provenance means ranged from 16.4 to 19.1 m), and mean dbh was 16.2 cm (provenance means ranged from 14.9 to 17.7 cm) Provenance differences in height and dbh were not statistically significant. Acacia celsa, had a mean height of 15.2 m and dbh 11.9 cm, while the corresponding figures for A. midgleyi were 13.2 and 9.4 cm. Acacia peregrinalis was also significantly (p<0.05) superior to the other two species with respect to stem form and appears to have good prospects as a plantation species in eastern Sabah.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 96458

Tissue culture of selected dipterocarps and reforestation species


Faylon, PS; America, LC; Joven, JEA
R & D Highlights: Forest and Environment 4: 102-103 (2002)

Abstract:
Twelve reforestation species namely, 'mangium' (Acacia mangium), 'almaciga' (Agathis philippinensis) 'dagang' (Anisoptera aurea), 'palosapis' (A.thurifera), 'ilang-ilang' (Cananga odorata), 'apitong' (Diperocarpus grandiflorus), 'bagras' (Eucalyptus deglupta), 'yemane' (Gmelina arborea), 'dalingdingan' (Hopea foxworthyii), 'falcata' (Paraserianthes falcataria), 'malapapaya' (Polyscias nodosa) and 'white lauan' (Shorea contorta) were used as test species for tissue culture experiments.|Different sterilization procedures were used for the different tissues of the test species. These included two kinds of sterilant (Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite) at various concentrations and different time of immersion.|Thirty-four media with various concentrations of cytokinin (Benzyl amino ourine, kinetin) and auxin (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, napthalene acetic acid, indole acetic, indole acetic acid, indole butyric acid,and gibberelic acid) were used as culture media for the different tissues. The responses of each of the 12 test species per medium were determined by the formation of callus, shoots, and roots.|Plantlets were generated in tissues from seedlings of mangium, yemane, and falcata. Shoot formation were observed in tissues from standing trees of ilang-ilang and bagras while only callus formation was observed in all the tissues of almaciga, dagang, palosapis, apitong, dalingdingan, and white lauan.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 25940

Acacia hybrid: An alternatives raw material for wood composite industries


Rafaedah, R; Rahim, S; Koh, MP; Suffian, M; Razali, AK; Siti Noralakmam, Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 2003; Forestry for Society; 6-8 October 2003; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
A new alternative raw material for the wood composite industries has been introduced in Malaysia. Acacia hybrid is a fast-growing timber species that possesses superior silvicultural as well as outstanding strength characteristics compared to its parents, Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium. This study was undertaken to determine the basic properties of juvenile Acacia hybrid and the feasibility of its use in the manufacture of particleboard and medium density fibreboard (MDF). Four year-old trees from clones M2, M4, M5 and CI4 were obtained from Rantau, Negeri Sembilan. Preliminary studies on timber strength properties, density profiles, moisture content and diameter measurements were conducted. A total of 18 pieces of particleboard were manufactured using a combination of target densities of 650 and 750 kg/m3 and resin levels of6, 8 and 10%. Results indicated that all boards complied with the British Standard specifications for particleboard (BS EN 312-3:1996) except for MOR at 6% resin content and board density of 650 kg/m3. The mechanical and physical properties of the Acacia hybrid boards were compared with A. mangium particleboards. MDF were made using two types of resin, EI and E2 at resin levels of 16% and 10%, respectively and target density of 650 and 750 kg/m3. Only EI resin MDF with a resin level of 16% and density of 650 kg/m3 complied with the British Standard specifications for fibreboard- requirements for general purpose boards for use in dry conditions (type MDF) (BS EN 622-5: 1997). The properties of these boards were also compared with that of rubberwood MDF.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25947

Determination of desirable leaf nutrient levels for maximized growth of Acacia mangium


Guha, A
Agricultural Research & Advisory Bureau

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 2003; Forestry for Society; 6-8 October 2003; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The result obtained from this experiment indicates that the optimum 6th leaf nutrient levels for the various plant nutrients are P: 0.2-0.23%; Mg: 0.17-0.22%; Mn: 140-190 ppm. N and K levels fluctuated at two distinct ranges at different times, but were always above 2.6% N and 1 % K in plants where these nutrients were provided. Ca, S, Fe and B results are such that no inferences could be made with a reasonable degree of certainty. However, Ca levels mainly fluctuated between 0.35- 0.55%, S: 0.20-0.35% and Fe: 40-80 ppm. The Minus Boron treatment resulted in the leader shoots of the plant dying off and caused the deformation of new leaf buds to seriously affect growth. This may occur at levels of less than 10 ppm but will definitely occur at levels below 5 ppm. In treatments where Boron was provided, their levels generally fluctuated between 20-70 ppm. A linear growth rate pattern, as shown by Relative Volume calculation from height and girth measurements, was observed in plants treated with Complete Nutrient Solution (Control) once optimum nutrient status had been reached. Before reaching this nutritionally optimal status, the Relative Volume showed an exponential growth pattern. The growth pattern of the various Minus Nutrient Solution treatments was similar to the control, although in some cases, a slight deviation was observed for a short period, indicating a change in the growth rate.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25951

Properties of kraft pulp and paper from Acacia hybrid


Latifah, J; Mahmudin, S; Sharmiza, A; Mohd. Nor, MY; Zaitun, S; Azizi, AJ; Rosdi, K
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 2003; Forestry for Society; 6-8 October 2003; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The pulp and paper properties of 4 1/2 year-old Acacia hybrid obtained from a trial plot in Labu, Negeri Sembilan were investigated. Analysis of the chemical composition of the wood was also conducted. The fibres contained 78.1 % holocellulose, 23.64% lignin and 4.2% extractives. Handsheets were made from the unbleached kraft pulp with pulping conditions carried out at 12% active alkali and 25% sulphidity. The effect of beating on the physical and mechanical properties of handsheets was then evaluated. It was found that the handsheet strength properties increased with increasing beating time. The tear strength on the other hand, exhibited the opposite trend.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25962

Preliminary investigation on chemi-mechanical pulp and paper properties of Acacia hybrid


Sharmiza, A; Latifah, J; Mahmudin, S; Rosdi, K
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 2003; Forestry for Society; 6-8 October 2003; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
A selected clone of 4 1/2, year-old Acacia hybrid was pulped using the chemi-mechanical process (CMP). Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulphite (Na2S03) at 2% concentration and 30 minutes soaking time were used. The effect of chemical temperature used was also investigated. The resulting total yields were 69.2% for Na2S03 CMP pulp, 76.5% for NaOH CMP pulp at 70°C and 77.6% for NaOH CMP pulp at room temperature. Although the higher NaOH temperature gave lower pulp yield, the paper produced had higher strength with a burst index of 1.5 vs 1.0 kPa m2/g, tear index of 4.8 vs 2.7 mNm2/g and tensile index of 32 vs 23 Nm/g. The pulp obtained using Na2S03 had the lowest strength with a burst index of 0.8 kPa m2/g, tear index of 2 mNm2/g and tensile index of 14.6 Nm/g. The brightness of pulp produced was in the range of 42.8% to 49%, with the lowest brightness recorded for CMP pulp using NaOH at 70°C. The pulp showed opacity values of between 97.4% and 98.7%.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25960

Growth assessment of tissue culture raised Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis): preliminary results


Rosdi, K; Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y; Fadhilah, I; Haliza, I; Ab. Rasip, AG
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research 2003; Forestry for Society; 6-8 October 2003; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The growth performance of plantation grown Acacia hybrid four years after planting in Kirby Estate, Labu Sendayan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia is discussed. The Acacia hybrid used in this study is the natural hybrid between Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis. Seeds were collected from Malim Nawar, Perak and Ulu Sedili, Johor. Acacia mangium will be used as a benchmark for comparison between clones. Analysis was carried out on four plots of A. hybrid and one plot of A. mangium. The size of each plot is 0.1 ha. The mean annual diameter and total height increments of trees in the five plots ranged between 3.9 to 5.3 cm and 3.4 to 4.1 m respectively. The survival rate ranged from 86 to 95%. Clone C14 and M5 which show promising growth rates will be recommended for future large scale planting programmes.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25975

Wood anatomy and starch content of 8 year old Acacia mangium Wild


Ani, S; Salamah, S; Shaharuddin, H
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur

4th. Asian Science and Technology Congress 2002; 25-27 April 2002; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Starch is a compound that serves as food to fungi and microorganisms that infect wood. It is a product that is manufactured in the crown and stored in the parenchyma cells. The levels of starch in the timber contribute to the rate of decay in wood if not properly treated. This finding is very important since our tropical climate is very conducive to biodeteriorating agents. Starch content can be used as a susceptibility indicator to these agents where rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) best exemplify this. Rubberwood is known to contain high amount of starch and not naturally resistant to fungi and insects. In an earlier study on 25-year old rubberwood, the amount of starch was found to be 9.42 % w/w at the bottom and 7.53% w/w at the top position of tree. This shows that in rubberwood, starch content decreases with increasing height of tree. This is quite in contrast to Acacia mangium, where the trend of starch content increases with the increase in height and the same trend also occurs from pith to bark. The minimum and maximum content of starch varies from 3.9 % w/w to 6.8 % w/w respectively. The amount of starch at the bottom and top positions as well as from pith to bark in this species showed only a very slight difference. The starch content in sapwood is slightly higher than in heartwood. In sapwood, the starch is 6.3 % w/w at the bottom position of the stem and 6.5 % w/w at the top. Similar trend was observed for heartwood that is 5.0 % w/w and 5.5% w/w at the bottom and top positions of the tree respectively.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25991

The use of modified Acacia mangium wood flour in polypropylene (PP) composites


Abdul Khalil,HPS;Yap,YK; Ahmad, MN
School of Industrial Technology; Universiti Sains Malaysia;11800 ; Penang

Proceedings Wood-Based Panel Products in the 21st. Century; 2002; Kuala Lumpur; p52

Abstract:
The mechanical properties and water absorption of modified and unmodified Acacia Mangium wood flour (AMWF) polypropylene (PP) composites have been investigated. Four sizes of AMWF (35, 60, 80, and 100 mesh) at different filler loadings were compounded using a single screw compounder. By increasing the mesh number (35 to 100) of the modified and unmodified AMWF, the flexural and impact properties increased. Flexural modulus exhibited higher properties as the filler loading increased. However flexural and impact strength showed the opposite phenomenon. Due to the presence of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups of the filler, water absorption and thickness swelling increased with increasing mesh number and filler loading. Modified AMWF-PP composite exhibited higher mechanical properties and good water resistance as compared to unmodified AMWF-PP composite at 40% filler loading. The evidence of the failure mechanism of the filler- matrix interface was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26051

Effect of hormone and rooting performance using stem cuttings on selected Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis)
Kesan hormon dan pengaruh daun terhadap pengakaran propagasi keratan tunas markot hybrid Acacia (A.mangium x A.aurriculiformis) terpilih

School of Science and Technology; University Malaysia Sabah; Kota Kinabalu; Sabah

BSc Thesis; Sabah; University Malaysia Sabah; 2000

Abstract:
A study was carried out on Acacia hybrid (A.mangium x A.uriculiformis) stem cuttings of selected marcot coppice regrowth (2-mths-old) to evaluate the effect of hormone at different concentration namely Oppm,50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm. The suitability of different type of hormone, their effect and the presence of leaf numbers and leaf size were also investigated for rooting performance using the non mist propagator technique for better rooting. Parameters assessed were the number of root and the length of longest roots for each cutting. The age of the marcot was about 6-yrs-old and the age of the mother tree when marcotted was about 15-yrs-old. The sources of cuttings were taken from SAFODA Kinarut Project-Research and Development Division nursery. This experiment was started on the 10th August, 1999 until January 2000 at campus Jln Tuaran, University Malaysia Sabah. Three ortets were used in this experiment. namely PT7, PT8 and PT22. The design used for this experiment was Randomised Completely Block Design (RCBD). The result indicates that rooting can be achieved from 2-mths- old stem cutting of marcot within 4 weeks under non-mist growth chamber. Analysis of variance at 0.05 level showed that there was a significant difference between hormone concentration. It was found that 100ppm (lndole- ButyricAcid) was the best concentration for stimulate rooting of stem cuttings of Acacia hybrid. Analysis of t-test at 0.05 level showed that IBA (Indole- Butyric-Acid) was better than IAA (Indole-Acetic-Acid) for rooting. Though the effect number of root was not significant it was noted that the root with hormone treatment was longer and larger. The rooting percentages of the three ortets also showed variation. The one way anova at 0.05 level showed that ortet PT7 performed highest with a mean percentage of 65.0%. The percentage of rooting, number of root and the root length decreased at 150ppm concentration level. Leaf number and leaf area were also shown to influence rooting of stem cuttings of Acacia hybrid. Analysis of variance at 0.05 level showed that stem cuttings with two half leaves or of single of equivalent size treated with 100ppm IBA (Indole-Butyric-Acid) gave better rooting compared to the rest.

Availability :
University Malaysia Sabah




NO. 26075

Confocal images of unbeaten and beaten fibres of Acacia auriculiformis and mixed tropical hardwood commercial pulp


Liew, KC; Jalaluddin, H; Sarani, Z; Mohd. Nor, MY; Law, KN
Faculty of Resource Science & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak; 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Journal of Tropical Forest Products 9(1 & 2): 145-152 (2003)

Abstract:
Non-destructive image generation technique using confocal laser scanning microscope with the ability of optical sectioning was used to generate cross- sectional confocal images of unbleached (unbeaten and beaten) pulp fibres under epi-fluorescent >mode. Typical images of these unbeaten and beaten fibres were shown with their lumens not collapsed, and partially and fully collapsed respectively.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26057

Isozyme analysis on Acacia hybrid
Kajian isozim dalam hybrid di antara Acacia mangium dan Acacia auriculifromis

Kevin Ng, KS
School of Science and Technology; University Malaysia Sabah; Kota Kinabalu; Sabah

BSc Thesis; Sabah; University Malaysia Sabah; 2000

Abstract:
Isozyme analysis was performed on hybrid population of Acacia from Segaliud Lokan and Babakang Lungmanis, Sandakan Sabah to verify whether the hybrid is still a true hybrid of A. mangium X A. auriculiformis.For the Babakang Lungmanis population two enzyme systems, glutamate dehydrogenase (GOH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGO) showed good banding resolution. Three loci namely Gdh-1, Pgd 1 and Pgd-2 were scored. For the Segaliiud Lokan population four enzyme systems, glutamate dehydrogenase (GOH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGO), shikimate dehydrogenase (SOH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed good banding resolution. Five loci were scored (Gdh-1, Pgd-1, Pgd-2, Sdh-1 and Sod-1) from the four enzyme systems assayed. Among all the loci that were identified, only Gdh-1 from Segaliud Lokan population showed homozygosity on A. mangium and A. auriculiformis. However, the hybrids were identified as heterozygous with a broad fuzzy band consisting of two bands overlapping at this locus. This indicated the probable hexameric molecular structure of glutamate dehydrogenase in Acacia. Beside the GOH enzyme, SOD enzyme can be developed as an isozyme marker for Acacia. Therefore, true generation hybrids still exist in the Segaliud Lokan populations and this isozyme can be used for verification of hybrid generation of the two species.

Availability :
University Malaysia Sabah




NO. 26131

Air layering of Acacia crassicarpa provenances


Suliman, J
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; 1995; p95

Abstract:
Rooting of air layering can be an effective means in clonal propagation. The present. study examined the possibility of raising planting stock of Acacia crassicarpa provenances from air layering of different positions with and without hormone treatments at the age 2 years. The air layering positions tested were upper crown and lower crown while the hormone used was seradix no. 3 (containing IBA) in the form of talcum. Of these provenances, 2 were from Papua New Guinea and 2 were from Northern Queensland. The results indicated th.at all the provenances had high rooting and survival percentages (>70%) with the highest recorded at 91.6% and 85.4% respectively. For all the provenances, upper crown gave better results in both rooting and survival percentages compared with lower crown. However, hormone treatment did not result in any improvement in rooting percentage and also in survival percentage except in Claudie River provenance from Queensland. Root growth for all provenances followed similar response.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26108

Micropropagation of Acacia crassicarpa A. cunn. ex benth


Griffin, A
University Putra Malaysia [UPM]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; 2000; p160

Abstract:
Micropropagation through tissue culture technique offers an alternative to vegetative propagation to mass propagate selected trees for large-scale forest plantation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a protocol for the micropropagation of A. crassicarpa. It involved the determination of an appropriate sterilisation technique for seeds, suitable explants to be used, appropriate plant growth regulators and medium for culture initiation and culture maintenance. Rinsing with commercial clorox (15%) for at least 15 minutes was found to be effective to reduce contamination rate to as low as 10%. Nodal stem segment and leaf obtained from 2 month-old aseptically germinated seedlings were used as explants in this study. Nodal stem segment was found to be the most appropriate explant for shoot formation when cultured on a MS medium supplemented with BAP. The highest mean number of shoots (5) and the longest mean shoot elongation (8 mm) occurred on a medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP. The longest mean shoot length (8 mm) and the highest mean number of explant obtained per culture (7) were obtained on medium without any plant growth regulator. When cultured on a medium supplemented with 2,4-D, nodal stem segment explant developed roots and callus after 14 days in culture incubation. The highest mean number of roots (8.3 @8) and the longest mean root length (12.0 @12mm) were obtained from the medium supplemented with 10.0 and 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D respectively while the highest intensity of callus (+++) was obtained from a medium supplemented with higher concentrations of 2,4-D (6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 mg/L). Leaf explants on the other hand, failed to develop shoot when cultured on a medium supplemented with BAP where they were swollen and eventually died. However, they produced roots and callus when cultured on a medium supplemented with 2,4-D. The highest mean number of roots (20.6 @21) and the longest mean root length (10.4 @10mm) were obtained from the medium supplemented with 10.0 and 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D respectively while the highest intensity of callus (+++) was produced on a medium supplemented with 8.0 and 10.0 mg/L 2,4-D. The calli produced were compact, watery and white in colour. The shoots were then transferred onto the MS medium containing 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L BAP to stimulate shoot multiplication. The highest multiplication rate (4.2) was obtained from the second subculture on a medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L BAP. A comparative study showed that IBA performed better than NAA where the former produced 100% rooting and having an average of 7 roots per culture as compared to the latter, which only produced 70% rooting and having an average of 2 roots per culture. Shoots obtained from the fourth subculture were found to produce higher percentage of rooting (60%) than those obtained from the initial culture (21%) but having lower mean root number (1.9 @2) and shorter mean root length (19.7 mm) compared to those obtained from the initial culture (an average of 2.3 @2 roots per culture and mean root length of 22.0 mm). Survival rate of plantlets was higher (100%) when transferred into the autoclaved mixture of soil, sand and peat (3:3:1) than those transplanted in an unautoclaved soil mixture (6.6%). Survival percentages of the plantlets in the culture room and green house condition were 85% and 100% respectively.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26112

Litterfall, throughfall and stemflow in Acacia mangium stands on tin tailings and their effects on soil chemical properties


Indreshwar, PI
University Putra Malaysia [UPM]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; 1995; p192

Abstract:
Acacia mangium has been planted on ex-tin tailing areas to improve soil fertility. The return of macro nutrients from A. mangium and their effects on the soil chemical properties is however not well understood. The main objective of this study is to compare the effects of macro nutrient input via A. mangium litter, throughfall and stemflow on soil chemical properties of mineral and ex-tin mining soils. The first study area located in mineral soil situated in Universiti Pertanian Malaysia farm consists of an A. mangium covered plot (AMA) and a grass covered plot (GCA). The second study area on ex-tin mine soil located in Semenyih, Selangor, consists of an A. mangium covered plot (AMB) and a grass covered plot (GCB). The total annual litter production for AMA is 872.51 g/m(2) and 741.18 g/m2 for AMB. The litter production of AMA is significantly {P<0.01) higher than that of AMB. At AHA, the annual return of nutrients through litterfall are 9.48 g/m(2) N, 0.33 g/m(2) P, 3.13 g/m(2) K, 6.27 g/m(2) Ca and 1.90 g/m(2) Mg. At AMB, it is 8.09 g/m(2) N, 0.28 g/m(2) P, 2.71 g/m(2) K, 5.38 g/m(2) Ca and 1.62 g/m(2) Mg. The mean ground leaf litter biomass is 516 g/m(2) for AMA and 458.68 g/m(2) for AMB. The mean weekly decomposition rate of leaf litter is 1.6% at AMA and 1.5% at AMB. Throughfall, stemflow and interception average 59.7%, 2.9%, and 39.7% of gross rainfall at AMA, while at AMB, the corresponding percentages are 57.6%, 2.7% and 39.8% .The total quantity of nutrients added annually to each hectare of the soil through precipitation, throughfall and stemflow is 6.68 kg of N, 0.42 kg of P, 10.26 kg of K, 1.19 kg of Ca and 0.59 kg of Mg for AMA, while for AMB, it is 5.95 kg of N, 0.28 kg of P, 9.14 kg of K, 0.91 kg of Ca and 0.52 kg of Mg. The litter produced and crown leaching nutrients also improved the soil nutrient status in AMA compared to GCA by the following changes in mean concentrations: organic matter, 1.3%; N, 0.64 mg/g; P, 4.50 ppm; K, 0.51 ppm; Ca, 0.10 ppm and Mg, 0.09 ppm. In AMB, the improvement in organic matter is 0.3% N, 0.27 mg/g; P, 0.65 ppm; K, 0.03 ppm; Ca, 0.03 ppm and Mg, 0.01 ppm.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26124

Micropropagation of Acacia auriculiformis A. cunn ex benth from different explant sources


Haliza, I
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor

MSc Thesis; University Kebangsaan Malaysia; 2000; p207

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis is one of the multipurpose tree species under Leguminoceae family which has the capability to fix nitrogen from soil and rehabilitate the land. The wood properties are widely known to be suitable for pulp and paper making and can contribute as raw materials for pulp and paper industry in Malaysia. The large scale propagation of A.auriculiformis using seeds from open Pollination will result in high variation of trees. Therefore, micropropagation can be an alternative method to mass propagate, A.auriculiformis from selected materials (genetically improved) which can produce higher yield, uniform and high quality wood. This study sought to develop a protocol for micropropagation of A.auriculiformis utilizing samples from different explant sources. The explant sources were from 2 month-old in vitro seedlings, 5 month- old seedlings, 14 month-old trees, 6 year-old plus trees, marcotts of 6 year-old plus tree, 10 year-old plus trees, forced flushed shoots from branch cuttings of 10 year-old trees and coppice shoots from 10 year-old trees. This study involved the investigation on appropriate collection and sterilization techniques, appropriate media for initiation, multiplication and rooting of shoots of the explants taken from different ages of mother plants. Collection techniques by soaking samples for 24 hours in 0.1 % fungicide Benlate plus 1 % boric acid and kept in the refrigerator was the best pretreatment for sample collection from the field. Sterilization with 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 10 minutes followed with 10 % Chlorox for 5 minutes gave the highest percentage of clean and surviving explants. Incorporating 0.1 % Benlate for two weeks in initiation medium helped to reduce contamination in cultures. For shoot initiation, the results showed that low concentrations of BAP (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L or 0.44 to 2.22 uM) were sufficient for shoot initiation of juvenile and mature sources. However, explants from mature sources required a longer gestation period to start multiplying shoots. Combination of BAP with Kn showed that 0.5 m (2.22 uM) BAP plus 0.1 mg/L (0.47 uM) Kn was suitable for shoots initiation of juvenile source and 0.1 mg/L (0.44 uM) BAP plus 0.1 mg/L (0.47 uM) Kn for mature sources. Effects of different node positions showed that the percentage of contamination increased with the increase of node positions (from shoot tip) for 14 month-old and 10 year-old explant sources. Study on the effects of different basal media, strength of MS medium, gelling agents and different concentrations of sucrose on the shoot multiplication of 5 month-old explant source resulted with the highest - multiplication rate in the full strength MS medium incorporated with 30 g/L - sucrose and solidified with 2 g/L Gelrite. Elongation of shoots was highest in the MS medium incorporated with 5.0 mg/L (14 uM) GA3, 0.02 mg/L (10.7 uM) NAA and 0.25 mg/L (1.1 uM) BAP but the shoot quality was not suitable for rooting. IBA at 2.0 (1.2 mg/L (9.8 uM) and combination of 2.0 mg/L IBA (9.8 uM) with 1.0 mg/L (5.4 uM) NAA were found to be the best for in vitro rooting. Outplanting of in vitro rooted shoots in shredded coconut husk as a growing substrate gave the highest percentage of survival during acclimatization in the greenhouse. In vivo rooting also gave the highest percentage of survival in coconut husk. From this study, it can be concluded that there were different responses of explants in vitro with the different ages of mother trees.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26153

Pilot scale production of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrid


Fadhilah, Z; Aziah, MY; Haliza, I
Forest Research Institute of Malaysia; Kepong; 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2000; Symposium A Volume II; 18-20 September 2000; University Malaysia Sabah; Kota Kinabalu Sabah; p69-75

Abstract:
Acacia hybrid is the hybrid between Acacia mangium Willd and Acacia auriculiformis A Cunn ex Benth. Micropropagation studies and clonal propagation for mass production of this species were carried out in FRIM's Tissue Culture Laboratory through the FRIM Fletcher Challenge Limited (FCL) joint venture. As many as 50,000 shoots can be handled in this laboratory for each cycle of 6 weeks. The multiplication of three Acacia hybrid clones declined and harvesting percentage increased as the number of cycles increases. The suitable number of shoots to be transferred to multiplication, elongation and rooting must be well-planted to sustainability produced the shoots.

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 26144

Stand growth structure of Acacia mangium Willd.: 15 years after planting


Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y; Rosdi, K
Forest Plantation Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2000; Symposium A Volume II; 18-20 September 2000; University Malaysia Sabah; Kota Kinabalu Sabah; p9-21

Abstract:
The stand growth and structure of plantation grown Acacia mangium 15 years after planting under different silviculture regime is discussed. The study was carried out in Block 87 A, Compensatory Forest Plantation in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The plots were initially planted at 1111- stem ha-I ill 1984 located about 80 m above sea-level with level to the slightly undulating terrain. The soil parent material is sedimentary and metamorphic rock formed during the Jurassic and Triassic periods. The texture is silty clay with more than 60% clay and 30% silt. Soil nutrient status is poor with low cation exchange capacity, and soil pH is low. Selective thinning interventions were carried out at the year 4, 6 and 8 down to 350 and 200 stem ha-I. After 15 years, tile stem number (N) has declined to 763-stem ha-I for the unthinned, 318 and 164 for the medium and heavy thinning plots. An average annual diameter increment based on 4.5 ha (nine 0.5 ha size per plot) stand ranges from 1.4 cm (unthinned) to 2.0 cm (heavy thinning) for the whole 15- years period. Similarly, for the 200 potential final crop trees {PCT), the periodic annual diameter increment ranged from 1.0 cm to 1.5 cm. The course and level of the height growth from 1984 until 1999 (15 years) are almost congruent for all nine plots which would justify the use of a common height curve. The calculated mean top height (100 biggest tree ha-I) varies from 25.70 m to 28.43 m. Similarly the mean total height for the whole plots ranges from 28.43 m to 29.00 m. The calculated total basal area per ha (G) ranges from 12.30 m2ha.l (heavy thinning) to 27.19 m2 ha-l (unthinned). The total volume (over bark) ranged between 126.44 m3 to 299.85 m3ha-1 which is equivalent to an annual volume increment 16.05 and 22.29 m3ha-1 year-l. The live crown ratios ranged from 16 % to 28 %. The initial target of reaching an annual increment of 3 cm per year for the whole 15 years period is unlikely to be achieved. Results obtained are based on the current fertilizer regime applied from year I until year 4 at the rate of 2 kilogram per point. The growth rate may possibly be improved with intensive fertilizer application until specified time period. The possibility to interpret and generalized the results is limited since the plots are established on specific particular soil series. However the results have value for answering question such as suitability for planting, rotation length and possible yield.

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 96537

Germination rate of mangium (Acacia mangium) seeds under varying pre-germination treatments


Tingkahan, M
WMSU [Western Mindanao State University] Research Journal 19: (1-9) (1999)

Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the effects of the different seed treatments on the germination performance of the mangium (acacia mangium) seeds. The seeds were not sown in the soil media propagated in seed boxes of 40 cm. x 60 cm. x 15 cm. .The experiment were laid out using Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with 3 replicates. Water treatment was recommended for hand coated and waxy seeds achieved by boiling water and pouring this over the seeds. After 30 seconds of hot water treatment, seeds were washed with tap water. Other treatments also included treating with sulfuric acid solution as chemical treatment. The results of the study revealed significant result using the first and second treatments.The seeds treated with hot water yielded the highest percentage (92%) germination rate among all the treatments for acacia mangium.

Availability :
Western Mindanao State University, Library




NO. 26193

How durable is Acacia mangium against fungi?


Salmiah, U; Roszaini, K; Suhaimi, H
Forest Research Institute of Malaysia; Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2002; Symposium C: Life Sciences; 12-14 December 2002; Sarawak

Abstract:
An accelerated test was carried out on Acacia mangium blocks using six species of wood decay fungi: Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma lucidium, Lentinus sp, Trametes sp., Pleurotus sp. and Gleophyllum trabeum. This method is useful in determining the relative decay resistance between the wood of A. mangium and wood destroying fungi. It is an initial means of estimating the ability of the wood to resist severe microbial attack and, therefore qualifying the performance level of A. mangium. Trametes sp. was found to be a significant decayer compared to other fungal species. Even though Pycnoporus sanguineus is a common fungus, in comparison to the other five species tested, this species has the least effect to A. mangium. Based on the study done, A. mangium can be considered as quite resistant to fungal attack.

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 26187

The survival and growth of ten relatively fast growing timber species planted in degraded sites and Acacia mangium plantation


Honma, T; Che Aziz, A; Ang, LA
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong; Selangor

Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2002; Symposium C: Life Sciences; 12-14 December 2002; Sarawak

Abstract:
The potential of commercially important timber species from natural forests to be domesticated in a plantation scale has yet to be fully realised. Present popular plantation species such as teak (Tectona grandis), sentang (Azadiractha excelsa), and khaya (Khaya ivorensis) that are grown in Peninsular Malaysia have yet to play the major role of supplying the demand of the local wood-based industries. The usual long gestation period of timber plantation has discouraged many investors for establishment of large-scale forest plantation. In addition, other limiting factors such as shortage of suitable land, lack of high-yield planting stock and marketing support have collectively reduced the extent of private sectors' involvement in the plantation industry. Foreign investors prefer a pilot scale plantation project to be established before investing in our country. Hence, this research and development project was funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency to establish a small-scale forest plantation for demonstration purposes. One of the project activities is identify fast-growing commercially important timber tree species. A total of 28 species including seven dipetrocarps and 21 non dipterocarps were examined for their establishment potential at degraded sites such as grassland interspersed with bushes, secondary forest and Acacia mangium plantation. Top ten species growing on all three different sites comprising grassland interspersed with bushes, secondary forest and Acacia mangium plantation were ranked according to their relative growth rate of height. The rank is as follows; Petrocarpus indicus and Artocarpus rigidus> Shorea roxburghii, Dillenia reticulata, Parkia javanica > Dipterocarpus oblongifolius, Artocarpus lanceifolius >Endospermum diadenum, Dryobalonops oblongifolia, and Kompasia malacccensis. The mean survival of these ten species was ranging from 60 to 90%. Secondary forest was significantly a better growing site for all the species than grassland interspersed with bushes and Acacia mangium. In grassland interspersed with bushes, Pterocarpus indicus (1.78(0.09 cm/cm/y), Shorea roxburghii (1.80(O.17 cm/cm/y) and Artocarpus rigidus (1.67(O.15 cm/cm/y) had the best RGRH, their survival ranged from 70 to 95%. In secondary forest, Parkia javanica (1.82(0.48 cm/cm/y),. Shorea roxburghii (1.74(0.06 cm/cm/y), Artocarpus rigidus(1.66(O.16 cm/cm/y), Neolamarkia cadamba (1.62(0.42 cm/cm/y) had the best RGRH and their survival ranging from 70 to 95%. Lastly, in Acacia mangium plantation, Pterocarpus indicus (1.74(0.17 cm/cm/y), Artocarpus rigidus(1.77(0.09 cm/cm/y), and Artocarpus lanceifolius (1.45(O.15 cm/cm/y) had the best RGRH and their survival ranging from 60 to 85%.

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 26189

Acacia hybrid - a new resource for particleboard manufacture


Rahim, S; Rafeadah, R; Suffian, M
Wood Chemistry Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong 52109; Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2002; Symposium C: Life Sciences; 12-14 December 2002; Sarawak

Abstract:
Acacia hybird is a new species developed from a crossbreeding between Acacia mangium wild and Acacia auriculiformis. The Acacia hybird possesses some superior charateristics such as better stem form, longer clear bole and rapid growth compared to its parent species. This study reported the feasibility of using juvenile 3 year-old Acacia hybrid from various clones namely M2, M5 and C14 for particleboard manufacture. The tree were obtained from Rantau, Negeri Sembilan and processed for particleboard manufacture. Three trees were taken from each clone with the average diameter between 13.9 to 16.9cm in which clone M2 recorded the highest diameter growth compared to the other clones. The average density along the height of the tree indicated that clones M2 was generally higher compared to m5 and cl4. Proximate chemical analysis on this sample revealed that this material contain between 3.15-3.48% of total extractives content. A total of 18 pieces particleboard were manufactured at a combination of various target density 650 and 750 kg/m3 and resin level of 6,8 and 10%. The study indicated a promising result to utilise young tree, which normally discarded during thinning exercise for wood composite manufacture especially for particleboard. Generally, the modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bond (IB) increased as the density and resin content increased. However, the thickness swelling was minimized as the density and resin level increased. Generally, the study revealed that all boards produced comply to the standard specification for general purpose particleboard as specified by the European Standard (EN 312: 1996).

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 26210

Bioaccumulation of lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury from domestic sewage sludge in Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis grown on sand and slime tailings


Ho, WM; Ang, LH
Research Officers of Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Science and Technology Congress 2002; Symposium C: Life Sciences; 12-14 December 2002; Sarawak

Abstract:
Domestic sewage sludge (biosolids) has been widely used as an organic fertiliser in some developed countries. In Malaysia, application of biosolids as an organic fertiliser in the field of forestry remains at a trial stage. The presence of heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria in the sludge has reduced its usefulness as an organic fertiliser for food crop production. However, biosolids may be an important fertiliser in forestry as heavy metals uptake by the timber species will be 'locked-up' in the stem, which is not a consumable product. A greenhouse experiment was designed to ascertain the bioaccumulative capacity of two timber species namely Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis that grow well on tin tailings. Two types of growth medium comprising sand and slime tailings were examined with the application of three levels of biosolids at i) control (0%, no biosolids), ii) 70% growth medium: 30% biosolids, and (ill) 50% growth medium : 50% biosolids. Each of the three-month-old Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedling was seperately transplanted in a 10 cm diameter x 50 cm length growth column according to the factorial balance design of (1) species, (2) growth medium and (3) biosolids treatment. The greenhouse experiment was terminated at seven months after the transplanting. The chemical analysis for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) of tin tailings and biosolids were carried out before the experiment. Growth parameters such as height and collar diameter were measured monthly. The 0.05). Acacia seedlings grown on sand tailings accumulated significantly (P<0.05) higher Ph, Hg and As than those grown on slime tailings except for Cd. Acacias grown on biosolids- treated tin tailings had significantly higher accumulation of Cd and Hg. However, acacias treated with 30% biosolids have significantly less Pb than in control and samples treated with 50% biosolids. The accumulation of As in acacias grown on tin tailings reduced after treatment with 50% biosolids. The experiment also showed that the acacias treated with biosolids accumulated the highest level of heavy metals in root compared to other parts of the plant. This paper also discusses the uptake or accumulative patterns of heavy metals in the acacias and their biofilter capacity.

Availability :
Mohd Zaki Abdullah




NO. 96674

Control of the beehole borer, Xyllutes sp. (Lepidoptera cossidae) using insecticides impregnated cotton ball plug


Lapis, EB; San Valentin, HD; Polo, HG
Sylvatrop [Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources] 6 (2): 77-82 (1996)

Abstract:
The concealed habitat of larvae of the beehole borer, makes conventional method of control very difficult. These fross produced by the larvae, covers the feeding site/excretion hole protecting the feeding larvae from parasites and predators. The application of the insecticide was not through spraying on the external surface of the host plants, insecticide drift, hence environmental pollution was reduced if not totally prevented.

Availability :
Southern Tagalog Agriculture Resources Research and Development Consortium One Stop Information Shop




NO. 26295

Insect diversity in Acacia mangium canopies in Peninsular Malaysia


Ahmad Said, S; James Kotulai, R
Department of Forest Management; Faculty of Forestry; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of International Symposium on Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems: Research and Development Priorities; 2-4 September 1992; p234-238

Abstract:
Forest canopies are occupied by insect communities of various species. Their interaction with each other, their host plants and physical environment are very complex and not clear understood. Even though their roles in the forest ecosystem are widely acknowledged, the nature of association in a forest plantation, particularly Acacia mangium plantation, is poor known. In this study, the abundance and diversity of insects associated with A. mangium, were assessed and compared with those from mixed tree species in a natural forest. Selected trees were fogged with a rapid knock-down insecticide, cypermethrin and insects killed were collected. The diversity and the relative abundance of the insects were determined by the Shanon-Wiener index. The result shows that a total of 691 and 679 individuals were collected from A. mangium and natural forest, respectively, with the diversity indexes of 2.97 for A 1rwngium and 5.11 for natural forest. More than 50% of the insects in A. mangium was represented by Hymenoptera. While the natural forest was represented predominantly by Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26353

Possible hyperaccumulator plants in abandoned copper mining area -a preliminary finding


Raziff, AM; Mushrifah, I; Fee, KY; Amelia, AN
School of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources; Faculty of Science & Technology; 43600 UKM; Bangi Selangor.

Proceedings of the KUSTEM 3rd. Annual Seminar on Sustainability Science and Management 2004; 4-5 May 2004; Kuala Terengganu; p20-25

Abstract:
The screening of plants species that potentially accumulate heavy metal was conducted in an abandoned in Tasik Chini Watershed. The copper mine has ceased operation eight years and the soil on which it grows were sampled. The identified plants are Acacia mangium (Am), Melastoma malabathricum (Mm), Imperata cylindrica (Ic), Dicranopteris curranii (Dc), Lycopodium cernuum (Lc). Uptake of metals by plants seems to be metal specific. Lc seems to favour the uptake of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb), as compared to other metals. The roots of these plants showed that these are sites of high metal accumulation, which ranges 707% to 9000% with respect to the bioavailability of metals in the soil. Acacia mangium showed high percentage of metal uptake in the leaves with respect to its bioavailability in the soil, in which mangnesium (Mg) was taken up by 18000%, chromium (Cr) 1700% and nickel (Ni) 3382%.

Availability :
Azyati




NO. 96727

Spanish cedar as reforestation species


Yao, CE
Canopy International 23 (4): 5 (1997)

Abstract:
Cedrella is the best far building canoe and sporting boats. Special uses include cigar boxes, veneer/plywood, for indoor and outdoor construction, furniture, cabinet works, musical instruments and dmoestic utensils. Its mechanical property are comparable with those of mahogany although tougher.

Availability :
Southern Tagalog Agriculture Resources Research and Development Consortium One Stop Information Shop




NO. 26380

Growth Performance and Genetic Variation of Selected Physical and Mechanical Properties of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn ex. Benth Provenances


Abel Nelson Nang
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; Serdang; Selangor; University Putra Malaysia; 1996; p55

Abstract:
A study of growth performance and genetic variation of some selected physical and mechanical properties of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn ex. Benth provenances was carried out to investigate the relationship between growth and these wood properties. Out of the provenances, 3 were from Queensland, Australia, 4 from Papua New Guinea and 1 from Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Growth performance based on height and DBH measurements made at 51 months of these provenances revealed significant difference at p lower or equal to 0.01 with more than 43% of the total trees being single stemmed. Samlleberr from Irian Jaya, Indonesia appeared to be best performing provenances with mean height and DBH of 19.54 m and 15.37 cm respectively. Analysis of variance of physical properties showed that provenances and performer classes possessed significant differences.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26376

Growth and Isozyme Variation of Selected Plus Tree of Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia crassicarpa Provenances


Kalang, E
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; Serdang; Selangor; University Putra Malaysia; 1997; p55

Abstract:
A study of the pattern of genetic variation of selected plus trees of A. auriculiformis and Acacia crassicarpa provenances was carried out using starch gel electrophoresis. The analysis of fifteen enzyme systems was found to be coded by 25 loci in Acacia auriculiformis and 24 loci in A. crassicarpa. The level of polymorphism in both species ranged from 0.6667 to 0.8800, meanwhile the mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.3900 to 0.5840. It was found that there was a negative relationship between heterozygosity and growth performance. Provenance with a good growth performance produced low genetic variability and vice-versa. Kings Plain, a provenance of A. auriculiformis and Jardine River, a provenance of A. crassicarpa were considered as a good performers with the heterozygosity values of 0.3900 and 0.5208 respectively. Meanwhile poor growth performance was produced by Morehead River (NT) and Bensbach (PNG) with heterozygosity values of 0.5840 and 0.5556. The higher level of heterozygosity values obtained were due to the usage of plus trees which normally grow well and do not need to compete for other resources such as space, sunlight, water and nutrient. Instead of using the energy to grow, the plus trees might have used most of the energy to grow. Possible genetic markers namely Adh-1, Est-1, Est-3, Got-1 and To-1 were able to identify A. crassicarpa.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26378

Genetic Variation of Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn ex. Benth by Isozyme and RAPD Analyses


John Keen, C
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; Serdang; Selangor; University Putra Malaysia; 1996; p68

Abstract:
The investigation of the extent and pattern of genetic variation od Acacia crassicarpa for 4 provenances from Papua New Guinea (PNG) - Bimadeburn, Old Zim, Bensbach, Limal-Malam, 1 from Irian Jaya (Ind.) - Samlleberr and 3 from Queensland (Qld) - Jardine River, Olive River, Claudie River, Australia were assayed using biochemical markers, isozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses. Isozyme analysis for 12 enzymes was found to be coded by 23 loci. The heterozygosity values ranged from 0.0644 to 0.1000 while the polymorphic loci varied from 56.52% to 60.86% with an average of 2 alleles per locus. Heterozygosities were found to be inversely associated with the altitudes. Factors such as the historical and ecological background, selection and reproductive biology of the species were suggested to explain for the polymorphism and heterozygosity paradox. The generic identity was recorded to vary from 0.9770 to 0.9955 with the lowest genetic identity between jardine river (Qld) and Olive River (Qld) while the highest was between Limal-Malam (PNG) and Samlleberr (Ind.) Generally, the genetic variability contributed by various loci within provenances showed that they are closely related to each other although being grouped into 2 different geographical regions. RAPD analysis using OPA-12, 10-mers primer, on the Jardine River (Qld) provenance, produced 1 to 7 bands of specific molecular weights, ranging from 170 to 1310 base pair (bp). A common band was detected for species identification at 950 bp. There was a clear relationship between growth and genetic variability data. 3 provenances, namely Old Zim (PNG), Bensbach (PNG) and Olive River (Qld) were identified as most promising provenances in terms of growth and genetic variability.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26403

Organic matter form and distribution in sand tailings soils planted with Acacia mangium


Hamdan, J; Winny J.R. david
Department of Land Management; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

AGRO-Search 6 (1999)

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the organic matter contributed by Acacia mangium, its form and distribution in the ex-mining soils.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26460

Effect of slow release fertilizer on Acacia mangium and Azadirachta excelsa


Huzaini, H
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2001; p101

Abstract:
Fertilizer application is one method to improve the production, ensuring good tree growth and maintaining soil fertility. This study evaluates the performance of several slow release fertilizers available in the market. The study was conducted at Ladang 2, Universiti Putra Malaysia. The experimented design was Completely Randomize Design (CRD) where slow release fertilizers of Agroblen, Kokei, Green Feed and compound were used as treatments. Results mowed that treatments using the Green Feed fertilizer were able to improve the performance of the young acacias and sentang better quality plants. Agroblen were less suitable on these trees because it failed to perform a crops response while Kokei and compound fertilizer gave good result in some parameters tested. The responses were doing to the fertilizer dissolved rapidly in soils.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26484

Physical properties and air drying characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis


Norul Izani, MA
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p79

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the drying characteristics and physical properties (moisture content, specific gravity, shrinkage and wood movement) of stressed wood of Acacia auriculiformis. Three discs were collected from each tree, representing the top, middle and bottom levels of the tree. Drying defects of samples were obtained from 2 meters bolt from each type of tree. The result indicated that there was no significant difference in moisture content between two types of wood with average of 77% for normal wood and 75% for stressed wood. The specific gravity was found to be similar for both type of wood. which were 0.57. Tangential and radial shrinkage for stressed wood were found to be higher compared to normal wood. However, there was no significant difference in longitudinal shrinkage between the types of wood Mean values for wood movement were 2.93% for normal wood and 3.94% for stressed wood. Air drying Acacia auriculiformis took 91 days and the final moisture content for normal wood was 20.72% and for stressed wood was 19.80%. Drying defects such as surface checking, bowing. twisting and crooked in normal wood was found to be less compared to stressed wood.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26485

Growth performance of selected genotypes of Acacias


Abdul Latib, S
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p71

Abstract:
A progeny trial consisting of 80 progenies from 16 provenances of four acacia species viz., Acacia mangium, A. crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. aulacocarpa was established at Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis Pahang using a completely randomized block design (RCBD). The materials used were from Papua New Guinea or Queensland regions. Assessment of survival and growth performance was undertaken at 18 months. Significant differences at p < 0.001 were obtained between regions, species, provenances and progenies for survival, height, dbh and tree form. Generally, materials from PNG region were superior than QLD sources. Between the four species studied, A. mangium was found to be the most outstanding with potential provenances being the SW of Boset WP (PNG) and Bensbach WP (PNG). Generally the best progenies were A. mangium no. CG 1852 from SW of Boset, PNG followed by progeny no. KN 000090 from Bensbach WP, PNG. However, A. aulacocarpa progenies no. GB 096 and GB 099 from Samford, QLD performed the poorest. The findings of the study suggested that variation between regions, species, provenances and progenies are important to be estimated and should be utilized for further tree improvement and breeding programmes on sites that share similar environmental conditions.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26486

Anatomical properties of stressed and non-stressed wood of Hevea brasiliensis, Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis


Leong, SF
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p100

Abstract:
Growth stress is one of the major cause for wood properties variation. In h hardwood species, tension wood is formed on the upper side of branches and the leaning stems. Tension wood may be formed in response to wind or other internal stresses within the species. The presence of tension wood will have major effects on the quality of final wood products. This research was focused on the anatomical properties of stressed and non- stressed wood of Hevea brasiliensis (rubberwood), Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical properties of stressed wood at different height level and radial zones of each species. Disc of 5cm thick were taken from three different height levels at bottom, middle and top. The discs were then cut into strips of 5cm width from outer and Inner regions. Macerated fibres were used for the morphological study of the fibre. The results showed that the stressed wood fibres were longer, smaller in fibre diameter and lumen diameter, thicker fibre wall than non- stressed wood fibres. The vessels of tension wood are smaller in diameter and about the same in length when compared to normal wood vessels. Under the microscope, tension wood can be recognised by the presence of the gelatinous layer (G- layer) in the fibre walls, which are unlignified. Thus the rays height, vessel area and vessel length are apparently not affected much in stressed wood of these species. As a conclusion, the anatomical properties of stressed wood showed a significant difference compared with the non- stressed wood, especially in fibre morphology rather than tissue proportion. Among these three species, rubberwood is more prone to the occurrence of tension wood than the acacia species.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26478

Growth performance of Acacia multiple leader trees after 12 months of singling


Michael, T
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p51

Abstract:
Acacia mangium Willd and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn ex Benth are two tropical promising and fast growing leguminous tree species of subfamily Mimosidae. Despite being fast growing and multipurpose, both species have been found to have an inherent tendency to produce multiple leaders and heavily branching. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the extent of variation of multiple leader incidences in acacia species and to study the effects of singling on the growth performance of these species. The trial was established in August 1998 at Aur Gading, Pahang, using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications of eight genotypes of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis. Seed sources from Papua New Guinea (PNG), Queensland (QLD) and Northern Teritory (NT) were used Growth performance was assessed based on five classes of ML according to the numbers of stems. In addition, three treatments were applied; i.e. ML being retained, ML being singled, and single stem trees) with 21 trees per treatment. Out of 481 trees in the trial, only 207 trees (43.03%) were ML trees. A. mangium showed the highest incidences of ML (132 trees accounting for 63.77%) compared to A. auriculiformis (75 trees accounting for 36.23%). A. mangium provenance of Tully Mission Beach (QLD) recorded the highest number of :ML trees (45 trees accounting for 35.75%). The occurrences of ML classes were found to be higher in blocks 2 (69 trees) and 3 (65 trees), compared to blocks 1 (36 trees) and 4 (37 trees). Among the five classes of ML, ML class 2 recorded the highest numbers with the percentages of 69.6%, followed by ML class 3 (23.67%), ML class 4 (5.79%), and ML class 5 (0.9%) of ML trees. ML being retained gave better growth performance in terms of mean diameter at breast height (19.16 cm), height (22.92 m) and volume (245.03 cm3) compared to ML being singled and singled stem trees after 12 months.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26557

Genetic variation in fluorescence efficiency of four selected Acacia progenies at aur Gading Estate, Pahang


Mohd Noor, M; Ab. Rasip, AG; Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; 52109, Kepong; Kuala Lumpur

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p16

Abstract:
A species/ provenance/progeny trial was established in August 1998 at Kampung Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis. The research was part of a collaborative effort between the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), and the Fuel wood / Forest Research and Development Project (F/FRED) and the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) to evaluate the Genetic Variation in Fluorescence Efficiency of these species /provenances in Malaysian environment and to access the genetic worth of selected parents. The study involved the assessment of growth performance of two and an half year old Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia crassicarpa and Acacia aulococarpa trial plot at Kampung Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The materials used in this trial comprised 80 progenies of the four species mentioned of which 20 progenies from each species. No significant variation were found in fluorescence efficiency between the species/provenances despite significant variation were detected in the growth performance between the species, provenances as well as among progenies. Morphological character such as leave size was observed to have given significant effect on the growth of these Acacia as they were grown together side by side. Acacia mangium appeared to give the best growth as it dominated the others. The result also revealed that physiological character such as fluorescence efficiency could not serve as on of the selection tool for advance breeding population for further improvement.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26580

Flowering phenology of Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium grown in tin tailing area


Nor Azurawati, MS; Norwati, M; Mohd Zaki, A; Ab Rasip, AG; Mohd Jaffar, S
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109; Kuala Lumpur

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p29

Abstract:
Flowering phenology in the 4 year-old of Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium plot in tin tailing area, located in FRIM sub-station Bidor, Perak, Perak, was observed. The flowering intensity of 22 trees per species was recorded weekly between May 2003 and April 2004. A. auriculiformis flowered continuously throughout the 12 month observations while A. mangium flowered only in certain months. The peak of flowering seasons for A.auriculiformis are in July 2003 and January 2004 while one peak flowering season was observed in A.mangium that is in January 2004. The relationship of flowering intensity and natural microclimate was analyzed. Generally, there is no significant correlation between microclimatic condition and flowering intensity of A. auriculiformis. Maximum and minimum temperatures found to give moderate microclimate model explained 53% of variation in flowering intensity of A.mangium.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26839

Growth performance assessment of four selected Acacia progenies progenies at Aur Gading Estate, Pahang


Mohd Noor, M; Ab Rasip, AG; Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109, Kepong; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p76

Abstract:
A species/provenance/progeny trial was established in August 1998 at Kampung Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis. The research was part of a collaborative effort between the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), and the Fuelwood / Forest Research and Development Project (F/FRED) and the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) to evaluate the performances of these species / provenances in Malaysian environment and to access the genetic worth of selected parents. The study involved the assessment of growth performance of two and an half year old Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia crassicarpa and Acacia aulococarpa trial plot at Kampung Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The materials used in this trial comprised 80 progenies of the four species mentioned of which 20 progenies from each species. Significant variation were detected in the growth performance between the species, provenances as well as among progenies. Morphological character such as leave size was observed to have given significant effect on the growth of these Acacia as they were grown together side by side. Acacia mangium appeared to give the best growth as it dominated the others. The result also revealed that further selection could also be done from the best progenies to form advance breeding population for further improvement.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 26854

Cationic starch in Acacia hybrid kraft pulps: effect of PH


Latifah, J; Sharmiza, A; Mahmudin, S; Mohd. Nor, MY; Sarani, Z.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong; 52109; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p134

Abstract:
Cationic starch is widely used in papermaking process to improve the dry strength of paper. In this study, the effect of pH on cationic starch addition to pulp was determined. Cationic starch was added at 2% addition based on oven dried pulp. Standard laboratory handsheets from a bleached Acacia hybrid pulp were made at a pH between 6 and 10. The physical and mechanical properties of the handsheets were determined and compared. The mechanical properties namely tensile, burst and fold strengths were observed to increase with increasing pH but seemed to level off beyond pH 8.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 26857

The effects of soil and fertilizer on the growth of Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium, Swietenia macrophylla and Khaya ivorensis on sand tailings


Ang, LH; Tang, LK; Tan , KC; Ho, WM; Baskaran, K; Don K, Lee.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong, 52109; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p198

Abstract:
Large tracts of idle tin tailings cover about 80,000 ha are suitable for timber production. However, tin tailings especially sand tailings has very poor site quality. The high composition of sand particles amounted to more 90% makes the degraded site poor in water retention, nutrients and developed adverse microclimate. This study is embarked to develop a cost-effective technique for growing Acacia auriculiformis, Swietenia macrophylla and Khaya ivorensis on sand tailings. A factorial experiment comprising 3 levels of species and 2 levels of soil enrichment (with or without 60 kg good mineral soils) and 3 levels of fertilizer (control, chicken manure at 265 g/point, and empty fiuit bunch of oil palm at 100 kg fresh weight/point) was carried out on sand tailings. Two years after planting, the result showed that Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium had the faster grown rate followed by Swietenia macrophylla grown on sand tailings. Addition of 60 kg soil/point had resulted in significantly increase of height, and total leaf areas per plant irrespectively of species. Additional organic amendment such as EFB and chicken manure is necessary for the significantly better growth of the timber species.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 27170

The structure and chemical characterisation of wood cut from a leaning stem of Acacia spp.


Zaidon, A; Tadashi, N; Mohd. Hamami, S; Mohd. Farizan
Department of Forest Production; Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
Growth stresses may generally occur in fast grown Acacia spp., especially in leaning stems on flat terrain, or upright boles on hill slope. The presence of stressed wood or reaction wood in a log will reduce the quality of timber during processing or drying, thus limiting the end uses. The understanding of the structure and chemical characterisation of this wood may help to enhance their processing and drying procedures. A study was carried out to analyse vessel and fiber morphologies as well as to determine the chemical contents of the reaction wood of planted Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis and A. hybrid (17-20 yr-old). The properties were compared with the normal wood cut from the same tree. Analyses of the properties were made at the tension, opposite and lateral sides of the stem in accordance with International Standard procedures. For all species, gelatinous layer was found abundantly distributed in cell walls of a tension wood and scarcely distributed in the opposite side. Tension wood had lower vessel distribution and larger tangential diameter compared to the opposite and normal woods. A significantly different fiber morphology was found in the tension wood from those found in others. Holocellulose content in the tension wood was slightly higher or similar whilst lignin content was relatively lower than in the opposite and normal woods of all species. The influences of anatomical features and chemical characterisation of the reaction wood on processing/drying properties are also discussed.

Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 23056

"Pink disease – Its incidence and economic importance in Sarawak, Malaysia"


Chin, FH
Forest Department, Kuching; Sarawak, Malaysia

Proceedings Volume IV of the 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Pahang, Malaysia, 20-23 March 1990; Malaysia, Malaysian Plant Protection Society (MAPPS), 1991; p 156-160

Abstract:
Pink disease, a stem disease on young trees of Acacia mangium, associated with Corticium salmonicolor, is a major problem in reforestation in Sarawak. The earliest occurrence of pink disease on Acacia mangium was recorded in 1979 and it reached epidemic proportion in 1987. To date, nearly six thousand trees of Acacia mangium distributed in five reforestation sites and over one thousand trees planted in trial plots are infected. The disease is prevalent on 3-4 year-old trees with 6-12 cm diameter. Treatment with two fungicides (Callixin Ready-Mixed and Perenox) are currently applied in trial plots and are found to be effective. Large scale, chemical treatment is uneconomical and impractical. Effective control in the field depends on early detection and treatment when the disease has not reached epidemic proportions.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 21921

Growth data from Sabah soft woods Sdn Bhd Plantations of some fast-growing leguminous trees'


Chong, TK
Sabah Softwoods Sdn Bhd, Brumas, Sabah, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 155-158

Abstract:
In 1974, Sabah Softwoods Sdn Bhd was created to manage a 6.0 X 104 ha afforestation program; to date. it has planted 2.3 X 104 ha. some of which include Albizia falcataria, Acacia mangium. and Leucaena leucocephala. Data on height and diameter are being collected, and preliminary indications are that Albizia falcataria, planted at 600 -900 stems1ha is sawlog class by age 8 years: that, at the some spacing, A. mangium has a mean annual increment in volume equal to 30 m3/ha; and that timing is essential in the soils of Sabah where Leucaena leucocephala is grown but is regarded as uneconomic (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 21919

Leucaena leucocephala as a tall cover crop for sawlog plantations


Ng, F; Zulkifly bin Haji Mokhtar, SP; Ghani bin Abdul Aziz, AA
Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Serdang, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 113-118

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala seldom exceeds 20 m high and usually stops growing at 15 m or less in most sites in Malaysia. Hence, it is too small to be a sawlog species. However, because it is fast growing, it may play a useful role as a tall cover crop in sawlog plantations where the sawlog species is expected to grow to 30 m or more. Preliminary results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala as a cover crop for teak and Araucaria sp. have proved promising (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 21920

Fast-growing leguminous trees in Sabah


Jones, N
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/United Nations Development Programme, FAO-UNDP-Project MALI 781009, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 149-154

Abstract:
The importance of high growth rates of trees in the tropics is highlighted, particularly in relation to the future demands for wood products in Asia. In Sabah, Malaysia, the need for high volumes of wood and for tree legumes in reclamation of land degraded by excessive cultivation has prompted tree planting and trials with two major species: Acacia mangium and Albizia falcataria. Two other spccies. Acacia auriculiformis and Gliricidia sepium are mentioned the latter grown primarily for its value as cocoa shade in the state. Special attention is drawn to the importance of seed origin and the dangers of over expanding populations of limited genetic base. The biological ease with which some species can be generatively or vegetatively propagated makes overexpansion a real possibility (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 23059

The association of Thelephora ramarioides Reid with Acacia mangium Willd


Su See, L
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings Volume IV of the 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Pahang, Malaysia, 20-23 March 1990; Malaysia, Malaysian Plant Protection Society (MAPPS), 1991; p 171-173

Abstract:
Thelephora ramarioides has often been observed to grow in association with containerized of seedlings of Acacia mangium in the nursery. It has been stated that the fungus forms an ectomycorrhizal relationship with Acacia mangium. This study was conducted to examine the actual relationship between the plant and the fungus. Roots of Acacia mangium seedlings directry associated with the fungus were sampled, embedded in plastic, sectioned and examined under the light microscope. The fungus was not associated with the small feeder roots of the seedlings as is typical of extomycorrhizae, but instead was always associated with the larger lateral roots. The fungus formed a loose mycelial sheath around the lateral roots and in some cases invaded the cortical root cells. A Hartig net which is diagnostic of ectomycorrhizas, was not found in any specimens. There was evidence of an endomycorrhizal relationship between some other fungi and the roots of Acacia mangium. It appear that Thelephora ramarioides does not form mycorrhizas with a Acacia mangium but is most probably a week parasite.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 96086

Response of four fast growing tree species in different potting mixtures


Malab, SC; Visco, RG
Ilocos Research Abstracts 1986-1987; Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte; 1987; Dy, MEY (ed); Ilocos Norte; Philippines; p. 65

Abstract:
Thirteen different mixtures of forest soil, carabao and chicken manure, and complete (14-14-14) NPK fertilizer were tested in the Forestry Development Project in Ilocos Norte (FDPIN) forest nurseries as potting media of four tree species, namely Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Eucalyptus deglupta and Casuarina equisitifolia. The seedlings were grown for four months (January to April 1986). The survival, height and diameter growth were measured every month, while the top-root ratio and dry matter yield were determined four months after sowing.|The four species responded differently to different potting mixtures. The addition of carabao and chicken manure significantly improved the growth characteristics of the seedlings. The addition of one part chicken manure and four parts carabao manure to four parts forest soil significantly increased the diameter growth of Acacia auriculiformis seedlings. The height, survival, top-root and dry matter yield, however, were not significantly affected.|Among the different mixtures, forest soil, cow manure and chicken manure at 14:2:1 ratio by volume gave the best results for Eucalyptus deglupta, Acacia mangium and Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings at a cost of P0.16 per pot using the 5x7 plastic bags.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96087

Proper size and depth of planting holes for various species and site qualities


Malab, SC; Visco, RG
Ilocos Research Abstracts 1986-1987; Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte; 1987; Dy, MEY (ed); Ilocos Norte; Philippines; p. 66

Abstract:
The effects of size and depth of planting holes on the survival and growth of different fast growing tree species were studied at the Forestry Development Project in Ilocos Norte (FDPIN) during the 1985 and 1986 planting seasons. Four species, namely, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, and Eucalyptus deglupta, were planted in five sizes and depths of planting holes (15 x 15 x 20 cm, 20 x 20 x 20 cm, 20 x 20 x 30 cm, 30 x 30 x 20 cm, and 30 x 30 x 30 cm). Plant height, diameter and survival were determined every six months.|Initial results showed that the different sizes of holes did not affect significantly the height, diameter and survival of the four species. The highest percentage of survival, however, was noted in the A. auriculiformis plots planted in the 30 x 30 x 20 cm holes, while the highest growth increments were recorded in the A. mangium plots planted in the 30 x 30 x 30 cm holes. The costs of preparing the 30 x 30 x 30 cm and 15 x 15 x 20cm holes were P0.42 and P0.21, respectively.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96088

Performance of 12 reforestation species on the FDPIN plantation areas


Malab, SC; Visco, RG
Ilocos Research Abstracts 1986-1987; Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte; 1987; Dy, MEY (ed); Ilocos Norte; Philippines; p. 66

Abstract:
A trial planting of exotic and endemic reforestation species was conducted at FDPIN area to determine their adaptability to the site. The 12 species were: Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, CAssia spectabilis, Leucaena leucocephala, Pterocarpus indicus, Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea and Swietenia macrophylla. Height measurements and survival counting were conducted every three months during the first year and every six months during the second year.|The survival of 12 species were not significantly different at 18 months after planting. Survival count ranged from 74.1 to 97.2%.|The species had considerable variation in height A. mangium was the tallest (174.3 cm), but this height did not differ significantly from those of E. camaldulensis, G. arborea, C. siamea, A. auriculiformis and E. deglupta. All the other species were significantly shorter.|The findings during the second year followed the same trend as those obtained during the first year.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96089

Nodulation inducement of selected fuelwood species by the application of rhizobia and nitrogenous fertilizer


Bucad, AU
Ilocos Research Abstracts 1986-1987; Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte; 1987; Dy, MEY (ed); Ilocos Norte; Philippines; p. 67

Abstract:
The effect of the application of inoculant and nitrogen fertilizer (alone and combined) on the survival and growth of farm fuelwood species was studied.|Four fuelwood species, namely, Pterocarpus indicus, Samanea saman, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium, were inoculated with Rhizobia and treated with nitrogen fertilizer at three application levels (0, 8.5 and 17 g/plant).|Initial results showed that inoculation with Rhizobia and application of N fertilizer, and their combinations did not affect significantly the survival and growth of all the species. S. saman without fertilizer had higher percent survival than the treated trees. However, percent survival in all treatments was far below 50%.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96179

Litterfall production of 5-year-old plantation of three fast growing tree species


Loria; Bauan
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '98; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1999; 120p.; Joven, JEA (ed); pp.70-71

Abstract:
Loria and Bauan (DENR-ERDS III) determine the amount of litterfall production of 5-year-old plantations of Gmelina arborea, Acacia mangium and Eucaplyptus camaldulensis; the amount of nutrient/chemical contribution of litter to the soil; the changes in soil properties as influenced by litter decomposition; the litterfall decomposition; the litterfall decomposition rate; and the influence of canopy size in litterfall.|The maginitude of all soil properties, except for phosphorus, in the three plantations increased two years after the initial soil analysis. Gmelina plantation had the highest increase in potassium at 71.0 ppm followed by E. camaldulensis at 28.5 ppm and mangium at 1.5 ppm. Phosphorus increased from trace to 2.4 ppm in all species. The pH values had negligible changes due to the short observation period.|This increase showed that litterfall is an important component in soil fertility and soil moisture-holding capacity.|Litterfall analysis showed that gmelina had the highest phosphorus concentration at 5.05% and nitrogen at 2.31% amonf the three species while E.camaldulensis had the highest potassium level at 0.45%. Mangium had the lowest nitrogen concentration of 0.68%.|Litterfall production was highest from March to May due to mass leaf shedding and fruit falling in summer and from September to November, the peak of the typhoon season. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in litterfall production among the three species from June 1995 to May 1997.|Litterfall decomposition rate after one year was fastest in gmelina (0.221 g/m2 per week) followed by mangium (0.0218 g/m2/week) and E. camaldulensis (0.0213 g/m3 per week).|The study also showed that the size of the canopy does not influence litterfall production. Gmelina with an average canopy of 3.64m2 produced an average litterfall of 58.61 kg/tree;mangium with 3.68m2 had 50.60 kg/tree; and E. camaldulensis with 2.74m2 had 45.08 kg/tree.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96160

Improved tree plantation estbalishment technologies in Eastern Visayas


Nasayao, E; Germano, E
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '97; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1998; 167p.; Malicsi, LC and Joven, JEA (eds); pp. 100-101

Abstract:
Nasayao and Germano (DENR-ERDS-Region VIII; ViSCA; UPLB) established tree plantation trials technologies related to increasing productivity of planted forest trees.|The overall growth performance of Asutralian and local species from different provenances were measured after 15 months.|There were 11 outstanding species and provenances. These were Acacia auriculiformis (16152, 17961, 18218). A. leptocarpa (18404,18079), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (18604, 17297, 18709), L. leucocephala, P. indicus and Swietenia macorphylla. Other species/provenances which showed good potential for agroforestation were: A. mangium (18212, 17945, 16938), E. deglupta (18706, 15615), Casuarina cunninghamiana (18007, 13516), A. aulacocarpa (17628,18358), and E. teretocornis (13418, 16349, 18603).|The improved cultural management tehnologies applied were: fumigation of germination medium, fertilizer application to the potting mix, appropriate pregermination treatments, inoculation of seedlings using Rhizobium amd Mycorrhiza, application of complete fertilizer and muriate of potash to the outplanted seedlings, application of chemicals to control pests and diseases (powdery mildew, leafroller, stemborer and others). Weeding, brushing and replanting were done as neccessary.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96218

Production of base paper for currency rates


Mabilangan, LC; Torres, AS; Mari, FL; Estudillo, CP
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 24 (1): 1-9 (1998)

Abstract:
The required pulp furnish in producing currency base paper and the cost of production using selected pulp blends were determined.|Fourteen blending experiments were conducted using Y2 grade pulp from abaca (Musa textlis Nee) (A), cotton waste (Gossyphium hirsutum), (C); Acaica mangium Willd (M), rice straw (Oryza sativa L.) (R), and salago (Wikstroemia sp.) (S). Sixty-five grams per square meter (gsm) handsheets were formed from the 14 pulp blends using the British sheet-forming machine and following TAPPI Standard Methods and Procedures.|Strengthwise, the residual Y2 grade of abaca fiber was comparable with the high-grade fiber. The blend of 50:80 proportions of abaca Y2 pulp and wood pulp resulted in handsheets with tensile strength and folding endurance comparable with and tear strength much greater than those of the reference.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96222

Wood fiber reinforced cement composites from Eucalyptus pellita and Acacia mangium Kraft pulp


Eusebio, DA; Soriano, FP; Cabangon, RJ; Warden, PG; Coutts, RSP
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 24 (1): 57-65 (1998)

Abstract:
Wood-fiber reinforced cement (WFRC) composites were produced using kraft pulp of Eucalyptus pellita and Acacia mangium to determine the effects of various fiber contents as well as autoclaving and air-curing on board properties. Fiber loading greatly affected bending strength, water absorption (WA) and coid volume (VV) properties. The modulus of rupture (MOR) differed at various fiber contents, curing regimes and species. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) decreased as fiber contents increased for both air-cured and autoclaved boards. High MOR was obtained from air-cured boards at fiber contents of 12% A. mangium and 10% E. pellita. WA and VV were better for air-cured boards than the autoclaved boards. In general WA, and VV decreased as the fiber content decreased.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96327

Acacia mangium


Department of Environemtn and Natural Resources-Region 8

Technology Transfer Series Bulletin (Department of Environment and Natural Resource-Region 8) 16: 1-20 (n.d.)

Abstract:
This technoguide presented the different uses and various practices and techniques of growing acacia mangium. It is hoped that this technoguide promote the conversion of marginal forest lands into productive and ecologically stable ecosystems.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 96328

Reforestation with Philippine tree species in Mt. Makiling forest reserve


Sargento, JO; Abraham, ERG; Aparyado, LA
International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiveristy Protection and Economic Progress Proceedings; Palo Leyte; 3-6 March 1997; Visayas State College of Agriculture-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Applied Tropical Ecology Program; 1997; pp. 224-232

Abstract:
The choice of species in reforestation usually vary depending on the primary objective of the project. When the purpose of the reforestation efforts is to protect and conserve biological diversity, the MFR experience provides a good example. Trees in MFR are planted to stay and not mainly to raw materials for the wood processing industry. Indigenous thus planted and the manner of planting basically "assisted naturally" the recovery and enrichment of the second-growth forests and promoted the diveristy of reforested open/degraded areas.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 96358

Commercial tree farming


Nasayao, E; Pasion, E; Tagra, MS; Vendiola, E
Sustainable Livelihood Options: An information Kit, Upland Ecosystems; Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City; Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 1997; pp. 315-332

Abstract:
This livelihood option is intended for the benficiaries of Integrated Social Forestry (ISF), Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) program, Forest Land Management Agreement (FLMA) holders of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, indigenous peoples and private landowners.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 27130

Enrichment planting of poorly-stocked inland forest in Peninsular Malaysia under multi-storied forest management system (msfms)


Noradli @ Mohd. Adli, P; Che Aziz, A; Abd. Rahman, AR
Forest Plantation Unit; Forest Department of Peninsular Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

14th. Malaysian Forestry Conference; Kota Kinabalu; Sabah; 12-16 September 2005; p19

Abstract:
The Multi-Storied Forest Management Project had been implemented in collaboration with the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM), Perak State Forestry Department (PSFD) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JlCA) for eight (8) years from November 1, 1991 to October 31, 1999. The project has successfully generated immense technical and managerial information for establishing a "Multi-Storied Forest Management System (MSFMS)" in three (3) forest areas vis a vis. (i) "Selective Logged-Over Natural Forest"; (ii) "Secondary Forest"; and (iii) "Acacia mangium Forest". In Selective Logged Over Natural Forest - "Gap Planting (GP)" using two approaches (i) "Natural Gap Planting" [setup in pre-existing gap (NGP) with 5m x 2.5m spacing]; and (ii) "Artificial Gap Planting (AGP)" [created by felling over story trees (AGP) with 2m x 2m and 3m x 3m spacing]; and "Line Planting (LP)" (using 3m interval and 5m x 2.5m spacing) have successfully been adopted. In Secondary Forest, indigenous species were employed (2.5m x 5m spacing) with three types of planting designs by using secondary forest as nurse trees. While in Acacia mangium forest, indigenous species were planted (3m x 3m) between the retained rows of nurse trees (Acacia mangium) with five types of planting designs. No fertilizer was used in all types of planting methods. From this project, a total of twenty-three (23) suitable indigenous species have been identified for commercial planting, of which the following species: Meranti tembaga (Shorea leprosula); Balau laut (Shorea glauca), Keruing gondol (Dipterocarpus kerii) and Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica) are highly potential for quality timber production with good site adaptabilities, less light demanding, high survival rate and easily available planting stocks. This paper discusses the prospect to adopt several planting methods under the MSFMS for future large enrichment planting programme for poorly-stocked inland forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 27140

Tearing strength of paper made of Acacia mangium Kraft pulp


Rushdan, I
Pulp & Paper Laboratory; Wood Chemistry Programme; Product Development Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); 52109 Kepong;, Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Tearing strength is one of the important strength properties of paper. Tear is a traditional way to quantify the runnability of paper during converting. Two processes consumed the work of tear: (a) stretching individual fibres until they break in tensile failure, and (b) pulling individual fibres out of the network against frictional forces. In this work, the percentage of fibre broke and fibre pullout during tearing strength of Acacia mangium kraft was studied. The A. mangium wood chip was pulped by kraft pulping process. The pulp was refined in a Valley beater at seven different times: 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The stocks were converted into laboratory papers. The structural, mechanical and optical properties of these papers were determined. Tbe percentage of fibre broken and fibre pullout during tearing strength testing was observed using image analyser. The tearing strength of A. mangium kraft paper first increases with degree of bonding passes through a maximum, and then declines. The percentage of fibre pulled was decreasing and fibre broke was increasing as the refining time increased, 85.06.to 39.58% and 14.94 to 60.42% respectively. Initially in a lightly bonded paper, the work of pullout is low, so that tear strength is low (3.28 mN.m2/g). Thus tear strength first rises with bonding degree (11.94 mN.m2/g) but passes through maximums the proportion of fibres that are broken increases. Because of the energy of pullout far exceeds the energy of failure, the tearing strength drops as bonding is increased further and as more fibres fail rather than pull out. This work conform the Vanden Akker hypothesized: the work of fibre failure was small compared with the work of fibre pullout.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27141

Commercial production of high-quality planting material of tropical timber species using micro propagation technique, for forest plantation programmes


Kandasamy, KI; Sun, WF; Rosilah, AA; Siti Suhaila, AR; Fadhilah, Z; Haliza, I
Tissue Culture Unit; Forest Biotechnology Division; Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Timber supply from natural forest has been on a rapid decline due to various developmental projects; and as such, there is an urgent need to look at alternative supply (such as re-aforestation, forest plantation and agro- forestry programmes) for future timber requirements. Therefore, for the establishment of any forest plantation programmes, the availability of sufficient planting materials at a specified time period is a pre-requisite. Micropropagation, an artificial (or vegetative) reproductive technique can be exploited for the production of large-scale, uniform and high-quality planting material, all year-round. The Tissue Culture Unit, of the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) has been very successful in producing a number (indigenous and exotic) timber species through the use of various tissue culture techniques, including micropropagation techniques. To date, more than six species of tropical timbers (indigenous and exotic) has been successfully produced in large numbers, at FRIM's laboratories, and these were successfully acclimatised to adapt to harsh (non-laboratory) environment, in the open nurseries. Some of the popular tropical timber species with economic potential, and reputed for their suitability in forest plantation programmes includes Acacia hybrid (Acacia), Tectona grandis (Teak), Dyera costulata (Jelutong), Aquilaria malaccensis (Karas), Endospermum malaccense (Sesenduk) and Peronema canescens (Sungkai). Through extensive R&D programmes, we have successfully developed economically viable micropropagation media formulations (for the various developmental stages) for all of the earlier mentioned (tropical timber) species. In addition, the optimal sub-culturing cycles of each species at different developmental stages (shoot multiplication, rooting, etc.), as well as their respective environmental requirements (e.g. growth room condition) have been perfected. Well planned plant production schedules are also in place for these selected species to meet any potential demands. Micropropagated plantlets of the above mentioned species have been successfully acclimatised (or weaned) in our proprietary "Weaning-Chamber" and grown to "finish" (i.e. ready-to-plant) in the misting and growing areas in the greenhouse and nursery, respectively. Furthermore, these (micropropagated) plants have been successfully planted in the field for evaluation on their performance, i.e. "clonal-trial".

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27142

A preliminary study of leaf production of Acacia mangium and Shorea roxburghii in different relative light intensities


Tong, PS
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong; Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The production of leaves have important physiological consequences for the whole plant, including total leaf surface area, the biomass, water resources and other associated factors. Six individual seedlings of Acacia mangium and Shore a roxburghii at one foot tall were chosen and placed under different relative light intensities (RLIs), namely 2%, 5%,15%, 50% and 100%. It was found that Acacia mangium produced 159, 120, 124, 62 and 29 phyllodes on the leader shoots in 100%, 50%, 25%, 5% and 2% RUs respectively over a study period of 16 weeks. There were 152, 99, 105, 63 and 29 phyllodes produced on combined single-branch study of individual seedlings of Acacia mangium under 100%, 50%, 25%, 5% and 2% RUs. For Shorea roxburghii (meranti temak nipis), a leaf production of 89, 87, 78, 30 and 24 in 100%, 50%,25%, 5% and 2% RLIs was recorded over 38 weeks. For the combined single-branch study of the individual Shorea roxburghii seedlings, 97, 60, 43, 36 and 12 leaves were accounted in 100%, 50%, 25%, 5% and 2% < RUs over a study period of 43 weeks. This study indicates that leaf (or phyllode) production for both species was highest in 100% RLI, a close-number of leaf production in 50% and 25% RLIs and a lower leaf production with lower relative light intensities (5% and 2%).

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27162

Propagation of the multipurpose tree species


Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A; Aziah, MY
Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
Cloning of forest planting stock offers prodigious potentials for rapid multiplication compared to seed. The objective of this research was to develop appropriate technologies and protocols for mass propagation of the improved materials of some potential plantation species. It involved the development of micropropagation protocols for Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia crassicarpa, Azadirachta excelsa, Endospermum malaccense, Shorea parvifolia and Tectona grandis. Results indicate that nodal stem segments obtained from young sources was the most appropriate explant for shoot formation and multiplication when cultured in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 2.0mg/I BAP. Supplement of 1.0 - 2.0 mg/I NAA could stimulate in vitro rooting. These protocols form practical tools to complement the conventional vegetative propagation of multiplying s elected trees.

Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 27160

Genetic variation and improvement of multipurpose tree species


Nor Aini, AS; Kamis, A; Hazandy, AH; Dzulkifli, T; Mohamed Lokmal, N; Abdul Rasip, AG; Latifah, T
Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
Plantation forestry is an effective strategy for overcoming the anticipated timber shortage in Malaysia. Retrospectively, the plantations have not so far relied on improved genetic materials. The objectives of this research were to select and improve several provenances and progenies of target species. It is compared of an acacia progeny trial and multilocational trials of Azadirachta excelsa. ANOV A results from the progeny trial at 18 months showed significant difference between regions, species, provenances and progenies in all growth t raits. The best progenies identified were Acacia mangium from PNG. The two-year assessment of the sentang trials indicated that survival and growth were significantly different among sites and provenances. The provenance from Bukit Lagong consistently performed better than the other sources at all the tree locations.

Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 27088

Biopulping of Acacia mangium


Wong, SY; Juraidah, S; Liew, KC; Nigel, L; Awang Ahmad,S
Faculty of Resource Science and Technology; University Malaysia Sarawak; Kota Samarahan; Sarawak

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Acacia mangium is commercially used as a source of raw material in the pulp and paper industry. The production of pulp and paper from A. mangium usually use chemical pulping process. However, the chemical process causes high consumption of chemical and produced low pulp yield. This study was carried out to determine the effect of biopulping on A. mangium wood chips. The study involved 40 and 60 days incubation of A. mangium wood chips with two species of white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus; The pretreatment has reduced the weight and chemical properties such as lignin and extractive content in the sample. Average weight loss ranged from 8.62% to 10.59% for biodegradation period 40 to 60 days for T. versicolor and from 7.53% to 8.31% for P. coccineus. During the 40 days and 60 days A. mangium treatment with T. versicolor, the solubility of 1 % Sodium hydroxide was 11.07 % and 9.75 % respectively. Meanwhile, the 40 days and 60 days biodegradation of A. mangium treated with P. coccineus, the solubility of 1 % sodium hydroxide was 13.52 % and 11.62 % respectively. A. mangium treatments with P. coccineus caused the reduction of lignin percentage which was 30.55% to 27.76% during 40 days biodegradation period and to 26.66% during 60 days of biodegradition period. Inoculation of A. mangium wood chips with T. versicolor caused extractives reduction about 1.52% and 2.02% lower compared to the control which was 5.24% during 40 and 60 days of biodegradation. Meanwhile, by treating A.mangium wood chips with P. coccineus the percentage of extractives tends to decrease about 1.00% and 1.55% lower than the control during 40 days and 60 days respectively. During the chemical pulping, the wood chips pretreatment with P. coccineus had produced high pulp yield, freeness, brightness and tear index as compare to the untreated wood chips. However, the tensile have resulted low value as compared to the untreated woodchips. The result clearly showed that the fungus pretreatment of A. mangium chips produced better pulp and handsheet as compared to the conventional chemical pulping.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27165

Economic analysis of Acacia mangium plantation in bengkoka safoda project, Sabah, Malaysia


William, A; Awang Noor, AG; Khamuruddin, MN
Faculty of Forestry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
A study was conducted on Acacia mangium plantation in Bengkoka SAFODA project, Sabah, Malaysia. The objective was to evaluate the economic viability of the Acacia mangium forest plantation and conduct sensitivity and distribution impact analysis. Data on plantation establishment and operational costs were collected from SAFODA Planning and Marketing Division, and Economic Division, Sabah Land Development Authority (SLDB), as well as the prices of the commodity in the domestic and international market. The "with project" and "without project" approach was adopted to evaluate the economics of Acacia mangium. The oil palm plantation was chosen as the "without project" because it was considered as the next best alternative use of natural forest.

Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 27258

Growth assessment of Acacia spp. with mycorrhizal treatment on bris soil: preliminary results


Rosdi, K; Patahayah, M; Lee, SS; Adzmi, Y; Ghazali, H
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong; Selangor

Proceeding on IRPA RMK-8 2004 Seminar; 1-3 February 2005; Malacca [ Editors: Nor Azman, H; Nik Zanariah, N.M; Chan, H.T]; p190-196

Abstract:
This paper presents the preliminary results of the early growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium and Acacia hybrid with mycorrhizal treatments on BRIS soil, which has low nutrient but very high silica content. The objective of establishing the stand was to determine the most suitable species of Acacia and mycorrhizal treatment for the rehabilitation of BRIS soils. A 2.0-ha planting trial was established in December 2003 at Setiu, Terengganu, with trees planted at a spacing of 3.0 x 4.0 m (833 stems ha-1). The trial consisted of 4 treatments, i.e. T1 - ectomycorrhiza inoculum (ECM) application, T2 - arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculum application, T3 -AM + ECM application, and T4 - uninoculated control with the three species, namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium and Acacia hybrid, replicated four times. Inoculum was applied at the time of planting. Root-collar diameter, survival rate and total height of the plants were monitored at three-monthly intervals for the first year and at six monthly intervals trereafter. Acacia hybrids seedlings treated with arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum had the highest relative growth rate while A. mangium control seedlings had the poorest performance. It was clear that the relative height growth of all the three species was significantly improved with the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum (T2) compared with application of the ectomycorrhizal inoculum (T1) or the combined treatment (T3). It was also clear that mycorrhizal inoculum significantly improved the height growth of the three species over the control. Overall, these preliminary results show that Acacia hybrid outperformed the other two species.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 15047

Energy potential and comparative of charcoal production of Azadirachta excelsa, Acacia catechu and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from 3 different kilns


Panunumpa, M; Panyathanya, W; Tatayanon, S
Wood Energy Research Sub-Div, Forest Products Research Division, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand

The 35th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 3-5 Febuary 1997; Bangkok; p277

Abstract:
The study on energy potential and comparative test of charcoal yield of Acacia catechu, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Azadirachta excelsa with the three types of charcoal kilns were about charcoal production, the ignition of charcoal, charcoal cracking, smoking, burning rate, charcoal quality, heat of combustion and chemical component analysis. The results showed that the quality of charcoal from Acacia catechu is better than Eucalyptus and Azadirachta trees. Comparing three types of kilns, the brick beehive kiln is the best followed by the mud beehive kiln and the single drum, respectively.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 13780

Urban forestry
Wanasat nai nakhon

Samaphut, K
Bangkok, Forest Industry Organization, [nd]; 55p

Abstract:
Information on 21 species.

Availability :
Royal Forest Department, Library




NO. 13918

Nitrogen fixing abilities from specific rhizobium of legumes in Roi-Et saline soil
Prasittthiphap kan trung nitrogen chak chua rhizobium ruam kap watsadu prapprung din samrap phut trakun thua bon phun thi din khem chut Roi-ET

Anuraktiphan, Y; Arunin, S
Soil Salinity Section;Soil and Conservation Division;Land Development Department;Bangkok;Thailand

Abstract of The 31st Kasetsart University Annual Conference;Bangkok; ;Kasetsart University;1993;p44

Abstract:
The results showed that A.ampliceps with inoculation of rhizobium+gypsum+ rice husk mulching has the best method of survival (92.5%) 12 months after transplanting. It was also shown that both A.formosa and A.grandiflora have a high survival (about 32.5 and 47.5%) on saline soil with EC1 5.1-7.55 and 5.1-13 ds/n, respectively. A.auriculiformis has the highest survival percentage by N-P-K+rhizobium+gypsum+rice busk mulching that is equal to 97.5%, but inoculation of rhizobium+gypsum+rice busk mulching gave 70% of survival on saline soil EC1 during 10.5 to 23 ds/m. It can be concluded that the 4 species can tolerate differences in salinity level especially A. ampliceps which is the best with a luxuriant growth on soil with an EC1 during 10.5 to 23 ds.m. Growth of A.ampliceps showed high performance in canopy diameter, height, no. of branches and branch length with values equal to 107.91, 98.98 cm., 23.55, and 79.22 cm respectively. Moreover, health should be scored for each individual tree and there are 7 scoring. A.ampliceps has 6.24 scoring that means of good health and normal growth in inoculation of rhizobium + gypsum + rice busk mulching treatment but it gave the lowest % N content from the lower and the upper leaf 1.73 and 1.32 % N at the age of 9 months after transplanting, respectively. In addition, the optimum method suitable for A.ampliceps and A.suriculiformis is rhizobium inoculation + gypsum + rice husk mulching gave the highest biomass and the survival percentage, but not for cost production. However, both cost production and survival percentage & growth stage should be considered to decrease high cost. Some amendment is costly so it should be omitted to appropriate technology transfer on reforestation in saline soil. From economic point of view, rhizobium inoculation + rice husk mulching treatment should be selected, because it demands a reasonable cost and is a good method for vegetable growth stage of A.ampliceps and A.auriculiformis which cost 1,697.14 Baht/rai. A.grandifora and A.formosa should be given the treatment of rhizobium inoculation + (P-K) which cost 1,076.63 Baht/rai. (Author abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14208

Growing Acacia mangium as shade plant for dookkoo
Kan pluk longkong doi chai krathin-thepha pen mai rom

Phukphibun, S
Warasan Witthayasat Kaset (ASST Newsleter) 24(3-4)126-134 (1991)

Abstract:
Details of the use, growth and management of Acacia mangium as shade plant for Aglaia dookkoo were described. Thinning of Acacia mangium at 6-7 years after planting, and sold as timber provided considerable amount of income.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14928

Performance and Potential of Acacias in Thailand


Kovith Yantasath; Sutep Poonsawat; Winai Supattanakul; Somchai Anusonpornperm; Suttijed Chantrasiri & Pensri Sornprasit
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; 196 Phahonyothin Road; Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Thai Journal Of Agricultural Science

Abstract:
There is international concern over the problem of rapidly diminishing forest resources. Within some Asian countries, forest loss has been catastrophic. The Philippines has lost 90% of its jungles in the last 50 years. Indonesia had an annual lost up to 550,000 ha of forest. Over half of Thailand used to be froest two decades age, at present only 28% is under forest cover. Shifing cultivation, illegal logging and the increasing need for wood were the causes of this loss. The consequence of deforestation and degradation of forest resources has resulted in innumerable deteriorations of biological system; the depletion of soil fertility caused by erosion, uncontrolled folld and low agricultural productivity. All these have an unavoidable impact on the economic, social and environmental conditions of the country. To tackle these problems and to cope with the human demand in upgrading the standard of living for rural poor, attempts have been made to bind ways to maintain the forest area and increase the forest plantation.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14997

Performance and potential of acacias in Thailand


Kovith Yantasath; Sutep Poonsawat; Winai Supattanakul; Somchai A.; Suttijed Chantrasiri; Pensri Sornprasit
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; 196 Phahonyothin Road; Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 29: 257-274 (1996)

Abstract:
Their is international concern over the problem of rapidly diminishing forest resources. Wild in some Asian countries, forest loss has been catastrophic. The Philippines has lost 9096 of its jungles in the last 50 years; Indonesia had an annual lost up to 560,000 ha of forest. Over half of Thailand used to be forest two decades ago, at present only 2896 is under forest cover. Shifting cultivation illegal logging and the increasing need for wood were the causes of this loss. The consequence of deforestation and degradation of forest resources has resulted in innumerable deteriorations of biological system; the depletion of soil fertility caused by erosion uncontrolled flood and low agricultural productivity. All these have an unavoidable impact on the economic, social and environmental conditions of the country. To tackle these problems and to cope with the human demand in upgrading the standard of living for rural poor, attempts have been made to find ways to maintain the forest area and increase the forest plantation.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15227

Trypsin inhibitor from lead-tree leaves (Acacia siamensis)


Ruengsinsuvit, P; Rattanapanone, V
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology; Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; Bangkok; 16: 21(1991)

Abstract:
Trypsin inhibitor from lead-tree leaves was purified by using column chromatography method. The molecular weight of trypsin inhibitor from lead- tree leaves and soybean seed were calculated to be 22,800 daltons and 14,500 daltons by Sephadex G-100 column; and 24,500 daltons and 14,700 daltons, as indicated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The pH and heat stability of trypsin inhibitor were investigated. The lead-tree trypsin inhibitor was less stable than soybean trypsin inhibitor under the same conditions. The soybean trypsin inhibitor was rather thermo-stable whereas lead-tree trypsin inhibitor was completely lost its activity when incubated at 90 degree Celsius for 10 min under acidic and basic pH.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15374

Trypsin inhibitor from lead-tree leaves (Acacia siamensis).


Ruengsinsuvit, P.; Rattanapanone, V.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 16: 21(1991) Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. Bangkok.

Abstract:
Trypsin inhibitor from lead-tree leaves was purified by using column chromatography method. The molecular weight of trypsin inhibitor from lead-tree leaves and soybean seed were calculated to be 22,800 daltons and 14,500 daltons by Sephadex G-100 column; and 24,500 daltons and 14,700 daltons, as indicated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The pH and heat stability of trypsin inhibitor were investigated. The lead-tree trypsin inhibitor was less stable than soybean trypsin inhibitor under the same conditions. The soybean trypsin inhibitor was rather thermostable whereas lead-tree trypsin inhibitor was completely lost its activity when incubated at 90 degree celsius for 10 min under acidic and basic pH.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16570

Votatile compounds from 'Som Poy' (Acacia concinna (WILLD.)DC.)


Sombutsiri, P. and Chairote, G.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. (griangsa@chiangmai.ac.th)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 137. (2003)

Abstract:
Volatile compounds of 'Som Poy' (Acacia concinna (WILLD.)DC.) were studied using the extract obtained by steam distillation and extraction with dichloromethane. The analysis was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of volatile compounds were found as fatty acids such as palmitic and linoleic acid with rather high amount of furfural and 5-methyl-2-furfural. Some esters of fatty acids such as methyl salicylate, methyl palmitate and isopropyl palmitate were also identified as well as linalool oxide. The occurrence of these compounds may contribute to the aroma of 'Som Poy'

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16690

Inhibitory effect of lyophilized aqueous extract of thai traditional herbs against Propionibacterium acnes


Wuthi-udomlert, M.; Prathanturarug, S. and Jearanaisilavong, J.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. (mansuang7@hotmail.com)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 413. (2003)

Abstract:
Six Thai commercial herbs from local distributor were investigated for their efficiencies on bacteria associated in acne formation. Form volunteers, with various degree of acne, 42 strains of Propionibacterium acnes were isolated anaerobically, using modified blood agar medium. Lyopholizations of aqueous extract were obtained from Acacia concinna Wild. DC., Cardiospermum helicacabum L., Clerodendrum indicum L., Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb., Plumbagp zeylanica L. and Terminalia citrina Roxb., with 20.36, 3.98 1.86, 1.95 and 27.58 % yield (w/w), respectively. Herbal prohibition effects demonstrated as inhibitory zone diameters (IZD) by the use of agar diffusion method. Comparison with referenced drug, 10 mg per disc ampicillin, T. cirtrina exhibited statistically similar effect against tested organisms (p > 0.01) as well as the effect of C. helicacabum but for different number of susceptible strains (42 and 4 strains, respectively). Active ingredient responsible to these inhibitions, local dermal irritation and possibility to formulate into external traditional drug are interesting for further study.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16652

Inhibition of heinz body induction of six commion thai medicinal leaves and creeping stems in In Vilro antioxidant study


Soogarun, S.; Wiwanitkit, V. and Suwansaksri, J.
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, (supunsug@hotmail.com)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 531. (2003)

Abstract:
Six common Thai medicinal leaves and creeping stems were studied. The six studied herbs included two creeping stems; Derris scandens Benth and Crpolepis buchanani Roe et Sch, and four leaves; Tamarindus indica Linn., Acacia concinna DC., Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. and Abdrograohis paniculata Wall EX Ness. Of these 6 herbs, only three leaves, Tamarindus indica Linn, Acacia concinna DC. and Bauhinia malabarica Roxb., can inhibit Heinz body induction in vitro. Acacia concinna DC. presented the most potent inhibition effect. Conclusively, most of the studied medicinal leaves present some degrees of antioxidant effect. Further study on the type and amount of antioxidant in each herb is recommended.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 72254

Preliminary results in clone testing of hybrided Eucalyptus and Acacia
Ket qua khao nghiem dong vo tinh Bach dan va keo lai

Pham Van Tuan
Institute of Forestry Sciences of Vietnam

Thong tin Khoa hoc Ky thuat Lam nghiep [Information of Forest Sciences] (2): 3-5 (1995)

Abstract:
Preliminary results of the testing show that the growth of about 50% of the hybrided Eucalyptus clones and 75% hybrided Acasia clones are better than controls. Eucalyptus clones 1, 2, 5 and 10 and Acasia clones 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 can be initially chosen to produce plants from cuttings to serve the afforestation. Although hybrid Acacia is potentially good growth, plus tree must still be selected to remove trees of poor growth.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70718

Preliminary study on the tannin content in some species of Mimosaceae in Vietnam
Buoc dau nghien cuu tannin chua trong mot so loai thuoc ho Trinh nu (Mimosaceae) o Vietnam

Phan Ke Loc
Hanoi University; Thuong Dinh; Dong Da; Hanoi; Vietnam

Tap chi Sinh vat [Journal of Biology] 16 (1): 11-13 (1978)

Abstract:
The author showed the results of ecology, habitat and distribution survey of 24 species of 9 genera of Mimosaceae; the methods of tannin collection in the different organs of the plants and proportion of tannin contained in each species.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70808

'Tuong tu' (Acacia)
Cay Tuong tu

Duong Huan
Forest Department of Vinh Phu; Vietnam

Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] (7): 40 (1963)

Abstract:
Acacia plants have many advantages: their roots catch fungi of symbiosis, grow quickly, bud strongly, their wood have many uses, their barks contain tannin, the plants have beautiful style. The author introduced the treating method of their seeds, standardardizing seeds, and the technology of cultivating, in order to use Acacia as 'advanced guard' plant covering bald hills.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70830

Acacia auriculiformis, a tree which has a lot of usages and be propagated easily
Keo la tram mot loai cay nhieu tac dung, de gay trong

Le Dinh Kha
Institute of Forestry Hanoi; Vietnam

Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] (3): 14-15 (1993)

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis was introduced into Vietnam since 1960. It can reach 30 m high and 80 cm diameter. It was a multipurpose tree with a high specific gravity and calorific value and high quality pulps of woos. It has nodules with Rhizobium bacteria in the roots and wide ecological adaptable amplitude, easily to plant in many regions from southern to northern Vietnam.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70841

Natural hybrides between Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis
Giong lai tu nhien giua Keo tai tuong voi Keo la tram

Le Dinh Kha; Nguyen Ding Hai; Pham Van Tuan
Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] (7): 18-19 (1993)

Abstract:
Natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculformis have been found at Ba Vi and some places at the east of South Vietnam. Wood density and many morphological characteristics of the hybrids in F1 generation are intermediate between A. mangium and A. auriculformis. In the meantime the heterosis is obvious and the natural hybrid is very much taller and bigger the pure species.

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NO. 72706

Acacia holosericea a plant used as wood plants, reconstructing soil should be developed wildly
Keo la sim-loai cay lay go cui,cai tao dat can duoc phat trien rong rai

Nguyen Van Song
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 4: 16-17 (1990)

Abstract:
Description on morphological properties of Acacia holosericea, it economic value as wood, auxiliary, hedge and ornamental plants. It seeds handled under normal temperature can bud 70-80; should treat seeds by hot water (in 30 second) and soak in cold water 8-9 hours; use polyethylene pocket 7.11 cm for young plant; suitable current events: on March, April and May. In Vietnam Acacia holosericea is planted in Soc Son (Hanoi), Bacson and Thachthat (Hatay).

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NO. 73040

Acacia and their prospects of success in plantations in North Vietnam
Cac loai keo Acacia gay trong co trien vong o mien Bac nuoc ta

Nguyen Hoang Nghia
Tap chi lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 1: 22-23+25 (1992)

Abstract:
This family has 1200 species. It is distributed all over the world. Acacia depressa, A. pulviniformis species are only high 0.5m. Acacia bakeri, A. melanoxylon are high 35m. Acacia gives woods and resin. Its resin is used processing perfume. There are four species: A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa,... at Dachong (Hatay), Hoatuong (Bacthai), Dalai (Vinhphu). The result researching showed that: A. aulacocarpa grows slowly. It should be planted Taituong Gum, Latram Gum and A. crassicarpa because these species are suitable with climate condition in Vietnam.

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NO. 74008

Some research results of planted free species Manglietia glauca, Styrax tonkinensis, Acacia mangium, Pinus kesiya in the paper raw material region
Mot so loai cay trong: Mo, Keo tai tuong, Bo de, Bach dan_o vung nguyen lieu giay

Dao Cong Khanh
Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Lam nghiep [Information on Forest Science] (2): 5-7 (1994)

Abstract:
The aim of the research subject is to construct standing stock volume table, preliminary studying growth and increment laws of four species (Pinus caribaca; Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus camandulesis and E. urophylla) planted in the mid land of North Vietnam to supply raw material for Bai Bang paper factory. As results, volume tables have been constructed for all 4 species with and without bark.

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NO. 74012

Preliminary research results on pyrolysis of Acacia mangium and Pinewood
Ket qua buoc dau nghien cuu go Keo tai tuong va go thong

Luu Tin; Nguyen Van Duong
Thiong tin Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Lam nghiep[Information on Forest Science] (2): 26-27 (1994)

Abstract:
After pyrolysis process all kinds of wood give charcoal liquid and non condensed gas. Pyrolysis of Pinewood produces a water-essential oil mixture and acid while A. mangium wood pyrolysis mainly produces water vapour mixture and acid. A. mangium wood pyrolysis does not emit offensive or ours causing environment pollution, efficiency in charcoal recovery is rather high and not second to wood of other broad-leave species.

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NO. 74016

Preliminary study on chemical composition and capability in sure of Acacia mangium wood
Buoc dau nghien cuu thanh phan hoa hoc va danh gia kha nang su dung keo tai tuong

Luu Tin; Nguyen Van Duong
?

Thong tin Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Lam nghiep [Information on Forest Science] (2): 37-38 (1993)

Abstract:
Acacia mangium mix planted with other species, it is important that Eucalyptus obviously improves the soil condition. But after a fuller study of this species is shown that the tree stem is hollow, the heart of the stem is porous and represents up to 80% of the total stem volume. The heart wood contains much colouring matter and tannin, its cellulose contents is lower even that that of bamboo and Styrax tonminensis wood. Such stems would cause bad effects in wood peeling pulp making and resulting in low efficiency.

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NO. 74112

15 years forest plantation in South provinces
Qua 15 nawm trong cay gay rung o cac tinh Nam bo cu

Ho Anh Gia
?

Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] (7): 4-6 (1996)

Abstract:
After 15 year forest planting in the South provinces. The main trees, those are determined to plant are Rhizophora apiculata, Acacia auricuformis, Melaleuca leucadendron, Eucalyptus. This paper estimates also technical situation and economical coefficient of forest planting in South.

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NO. 76209

About provennaces of Acacia mangium introduced into the paper raw material area.
Ve xuat su keo lat to trong o vung nguyen lieu giay.

Huynh Duc Nhan; Nguyen Quang Duc
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 3: 12-13 (1994).

Abstract:
The writer give a full account of the results of Acasia mangium provemances trials made on the main sites available in the paper raw materials area. These results will effectively contribute to the choice of the most promising programme to be implemented in the area. Furthermore, precise technical instructions are also give to help foresters and farmers improve the growth of Acacia mangium and increase plantation yields.

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NO. 76274

Regeneration of Acacia auriculiformis
Kha nang tai sinh cua cay keo la tram.

Tran Hau Hue
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 8: 12 (1994).

Abstract:
Acacia aurifulifomis can be used as a cover crop on denuded hill and as a crop for paper raw material supply. The plants 5-6 year old can regenerated very well. However, for improved regeneration, it is necessary to adopt approriate techniques in time; in particular the selection of harvesting season, the technique for site preparation after logging and that of promoting regeneration are of much relevance.

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NO. 76279

Preventing stem diseases on Eucalyptus and Acacias.
Phong tru benh hai than canh bach dan va keo.

Tran Van Mao
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 9: 17-18, 22 (1994).

Abstract:
The author presents some new species of pathogeniuc fungus on the stem and branches of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia mangium in Vietnam. The author also states the symptoms pathogenic etiology of cankers and setting control measures against these serious diseases.

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NO. 78454

Survey on the diseases in the forest nursery
Ket qua buoc dau ve dieu tra thanh phan benh hai tren mot so cay con lam nghiep o giai doan gieo uom

Nguyen Thi Binh
Tap san khoa hoc ky thuat Nong Lam Nghiep [Journal of agricultural sciences and technology] 3: 86-88 (2000).

Abstract:
To contribute in promoting regreening barren land and uncovered upland areas-reforestation clear cutting forest areas and restoration biodiversity of forest nursery technique, sivilculture, afforestation and protection forest are important. Addition to, researching diseases and pathogens of quickly growing plants such as Eucalyptus, Acacias and other economic trees is necessary. Establishing system of prevention and treatment harmful diseases with principle: "itegrated pathogen Management (IPM)" is practical and urgent. During from August 1999 to January 2000 at cuttings and Micro shoots Nusery Station- Tam Ky District, Quang Nam Province, we searched pathogens on three different plants such as Hopea odorata, Acacia hydri and Acacia cassia with result following as: There are six different pathogens on Hopea odorata, but gloeosporium sp is the most serious. Curvularia sp and Meleola commixta are more popular on Acacia hydri; gloeosporium sp, curvularia sp and Rhizoctonia sp. have appeared on Acacia cassia.

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NO. 78456

Predicting yield of acacia auriculiformis plantation in Tri An area, Dong Nai province.
Du doan san luong rung trong keo la tram o khu vuc Tri An (Dong Nai)

Bui Viet Hai
Tap san khoa hoc ky thuat Nong Lam Nghiep [Journal of agricultural sciences and technology] 3: 93-95 (2000).

Abstract:
Yield of Acacia auriculiformis plantation depends on site change and imtial density. Yield table is established for two site degree and two density degree in Tri An area (Dong Nai province). There are two main conclusions as following: -Product yield increases according to age of plantation with logarithmic form. Yield increases between site degree from 15 m3 (at age of 6) to 48 m3/ha/year for 6 years. Yield of density 2.660 trees/ha is higher density 3.300 trees/ha; this difference is significant level on statistical method.

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NO. 78596

Using capacity wood of Acacia sp. to produce boards. (plank)
Kha nang su dung go keo tai tuong san xuat van dam va van boc

Hoang Thuc De; Tran Van Chu; Pham Van Chuong; Nguyen Van Thuan
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc 1990-1994 – [Results of Scientific studies 1990] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 174-183

Abstract:
Acacia sp. has been planted tree in Northern Vietnam since 1980. It's some properties such as: fast development, adapted with different soils and geographical condition, reconstructeing soil able... This paper presents some results of study on composition, of mechenical, physical properties of this woods and using this wood to make planks.

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NO. 78599

Sciencific base to plant heterogeneous forest of Acacia sp and Eucaluptus
Co so khoa hoc cua phuong thuc trong rung hon loai bach dan-keo (Thong bao ket qua buoc dau)

Nguyen Huu Vinh; Pham Thi Huyen; Nguyen Quang Viet
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc 1990-1994 – [Results of Scientific studies 1990] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 124-126

Abstract:
Acacia and Ecuraluptus are planted tree, which have high economical value. But planting only Ecuraluptus forest have some pveak points. Resently models planting heterogeneous forest of Acacia and Ecuraluptus are applied. This paper presents review on initial results of this forest planting measures.

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NO. 78698

Main change of diseases and pest in testing foret of Forestry University Xuan Mai, Ha Tay
Dong thai sau benh chu yeu o rung thuc nghiem truong dai hoc Lam nghiep Xuan Mai, Ha Tay.

Tran Van Mao; Tran Cong Loanh; Nguyen Kim Oanh
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc 1990-1994 – [Results of Scientific studies 1990] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 143-146

Abstract:
In the testing forest of forestry university Xuan Mai, Ha Tay province there are Pinus spp, Eucalutups sp and Acacia sp. The main diseases and pests are: Dendrolimus punctatus walker and Pestalstiopis funerea. The results of study on change of this diseases and pests showed that the ecological factor has big influence to change of these disease; The intergrated control should be applied.

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NO. 78903

Technology of production united boards by Acacia sp. wood.
Cong nghe san xuat van ghep thanh bang go keo tai tuong.

Tran Ngoc Thiep
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc 1990-1994 - [Results of Scientific studies 1990] - H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. - pag. 184-187

Abstract:
This paper gives survey on Acacia sp. (age, foot diameter, shoot diameter, length, hart of tree, humidity of woods...) and discription technology of production united board by Acacia woods and it using value.

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NO. 78906

Chemical-phifsical properties of land under three kinds of forests in Luot mountain (Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Ha Tay)
Tinh chat ly hoa hoc cua dat duoi ba mo hinh rung trong tai nui Luot (Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Ha Tay)

Ha Quang Khai; Vi Van Vien
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc 1990-1994 - [Results of Scientific studies 1990] - H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. - pag. 152-155

Abstract:
This paper sudies on influence three kinds of forests to chemical-physical properties of the lands, such as: mix forest of pinus massoniana Lamb + Eucalyptus camaldulensis Petford (P+E); mix forest of pinus + Acacia auriculi formis (P+A) and unmixed forest of pinus (P). The results showed that the P+A kind forest is best for land fertileness, follow it is P+E and P kinds.

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NO. 74201

Acacia mangium in the tropical countries and Vietnam.
Keo tai tuong o cac nuoc nhiet doi va o Vietnam.

Nguyen Hoang Nghia
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 10: 8-10 (1991)

Abstract:
Acacia mangium are distributed in wet tropical of Northern Autralia, Papua Newguinea and Indosia. It is introduced to Sabah (Malaysia) from 1966. In 1990, there are 42500 ha in Malaysia, 38000 ha in Indonesia, 60000 ha in China. In Vietnam, the plant are planted in Bavi, Dong Nai, Song Be.

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NO. 74223

First trials of Legume plantation for wood production on denuded hill around Hanoi.
Buoc dau trong thu nghiem cay ho dau than go tren vung doi troc o Hanoi.

Nguyen Duc Khang
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 7: 10-15(1991)

Abstract:
Hanoi's bald hills are planted the species Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. holocericea, A. mearnsii, Cassia siamense, sesbania sesban, Calliandna calothyrsus. They give wood, fodder or improment land. These species have uses to anti washing away soil, anti wind. The propeties, growth and development of those species are researched for growing them in Hanoi hill regions.

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NO. 76778

Acacia mangium
Keo tai tuong

Nguyen Xuan Luu; a.o.
So tay ky thuat hat giong va gieo uom mot so loai cay trong rung [Handbook on breeding seeds and propagation of some trees for forest plantation], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. House, 1995; p. 103-108.

Abstract:
A. mangium grows widly and planted in many provinces, where the raifall is 1500-2500 mm/year. It grows well in different soils with pH = 4.5-5. The breeding seeds are collected from the tree of over 8 years old on Aprile-June (in North), February-March (in South) and are stored in normal environment. The sowing time is February-March or September-October. Before sowing, the seeds should be treated by hot water at 100oC for a minute, then made cold down for 8 hours. The suitable size of nursery bags are 7x19 cm. After 3-4 months the young trees can be replanted when they reach to 50 cm high.

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NO. 76779

Acacia auriculiformis
Keo la tram.

Nguyen Xuan Luu; a.o.
So tay ky thuat hat giong va gieo uom mot so loai cay trong rung [Handbook on breeding seeds and propagation of some trees for forest plantation], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. House, 1995; p. 99-103.

Abstract:
A. auriculiformis grows widely in regions where the rainfall is 1500-2500 mm/year. It grows well in many different soils at pH = 3-9 and altitude 800 m. The breeding seeds should be collected from over 5 years old trees on April-June (in North) and February-March (in South). They are stored in normal condition. The seeds are sown on February-March or Septerber- °Ctober. Before sowing, the seed should be treated by hot water at 100 °C for a munite and soaked in the made cold down water for 8 hours. The suitable bags for sowing 7x12 cm; After 3- 4 months the young trees can be replanted

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NO. 76996

Acasia auriculiformis Cunn.
Cay keo cham

Ngo Quang De; Nguyen Mong Menh
Ky thuat giong cay rung [Breeding technique of forest trees], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. house. 1986; p. 123.

Abstract:
A. auriculiformis is distributed in North Australia. It has been introduced into India, Malaysia and Vietnam. The tree demands an average temperature of 26-30 °C, a rainfall of 1500-1760 mm. It can adapt to a poor, bad, sandy drought soil. The plant can be propagated by its buds. The seed for breeding is collected all year round. 1 kg of seed contain 53,000-62,000 seeds. the genimating ratio is 70-80%.

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