Carica papaya L
« Back  
NO. 50021

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and nuts


Verheij, EWM (ed); Coronel, RE (ed)
Department of Tropical Crops; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1992; 447 p

Abstract:
This volume testifies to the great wealth and diversity of edible fruits and nuts in South-East Asia. The appreciation of these fruits and nuts is reflected in the many ways they are put to use and their role in cultural traditions. However, they generally yield erratically rather than prolifically. Where low productivity is the root of the problem, there is much to say for a shift in emphasis in research work from the fruit to the tree. Recent developments in South-East Asia suggest that traditional skills can provide the necessary clues for a breakthrough towards much higher yield levels. Among the 120 crops included are sugarapple, cherimoya, cashew, ananas, breadfruit, mango, durian, black and white sapote, mangosteen, avocado, tamarind, langsat, guava, carambola, bilimbi, salak, peach palm, passionfruit, macadamia, pummelo, lychee, longan, rambutan, sapodilla, starapple, canistel, sweet orange, pilinut, loquat, kumquat, bel fruit, galo nut, bignay, ketupa, rambai, gandaria, papaya, grape and strawberry. Brief characteristics of another 270 minor species are included. A total of 382 species producing edible fruits and nuts but with other primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of edible fruits and nuts. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 20022

Studies on Phytophthora palmivora, the causal organism of patch cancer disease of durian


Huan, TL
Division of Agriculture; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

The Malaysian Agricultural Journal 48 (1): 1-9 (1971)

Abstract:
Morphological features of Phytophthora palmivora from durian have been described. The fungus forms oopores in paired cultures with Phytophthora palmivora from cocoa and Phytophthora botryosa from rubber. The cardinal temperatures for growth are, minimum 12 °C, optimum 25 - 30 °C and maximum 35°C; favourable temperature range for oopore production is 15 -20 °C. Under experimental conditions it is capable of infecting the roots and barks of durian seedlings. When it is artificially inoculated on the bark of 9 different types of seedlings it is found to be pathogenic only to durian and papaya seedlings.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Jalan FRIM; Kepong; Karung Berkunci 201; 52109 Kuala Lumpur; Selangor; Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 20215

Fatty acid composition of some Malaysian fruits


Khor, HT; Yap, RCC
University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

The Malaysian Journal of Science 5: 75-78 (1978)

Abstract:
The lipid contents and fatty acid compositions of ten Malaysian fruits, namely, papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora lauriflora), soursop (Annona muricata), chempedak (Artocarpus integer), chiku (Manilkara zapota), great hog plum (Spondias cytherea), horse mango (Manilkara foetida), durian (Durio zibethinus), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) were analysed. Results showed that the above fruits had lipid contents of 0.19%, 0.46%, 0.91%, 1.01%, 1.08%, 0.11%, 0.59%, 5.04%, 0.20% and 0.72%, respectively. The fatty acid compositions of the fruits as determined by gas- liquid chromatography (GLC) were found to vary in the pattern of distribution, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, all the fruits had larger proportions of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the major saturated fatty acid but there was no consistent pattern in the distribution of unsaturated fatty acids in the fruits studied. Oleic acid (18:1) constituted the largest proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in durian, rambutan and mangosteen, but in the other fruits, either linoleic acid (18:2), linolenic acid (18: 3) or eicosadienoic acid (20:2) was the major unsaturated fatty acid.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 24555

Postharvest pathogens on fruits and their plant quarantine significance


Ganapathi, AN; Chinnathambi, C
Asean Plant Quarantine Center and Training Institute; Post Bag 209, UPM Post Office; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Proceedings of the 3rd. National Fruit Symposium, 24-26 September 1991, Genting Highlands, Pahang

Abstract:
A study was conducted on the postharvest fungal and bacterial diseases of local and imported fruits. This study reported on the pathogens intercepted from fruits, that appeared, not fit for consumption. This project was conducted from 1985 untill 1990. Fruits were selected on the basis of the appearance of lesions on the surface. Fruit samples were collected from the wholesale market, supermarkets, fruit stalls, night markets, growers, fruit packers, exporters, importers and even individuals who harvest from their home garden contributed fruit samples for this study. Pathogens intercepted include Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Chalara sp., Verticillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Thielaviopsis sp., Oidium sp., Absidia sp., Botryodiplodia sp., Alternaria spp., and some bacterial isolates of plant quarantine importance. The plant quarantine significance of these pathogens in the fruit trade was also discussed. Selected postharvest treatment for fruits, included hot water treatment, vapour heat treatments irradiation, cold treatment, hot air treatment and pesticide solution dipping. Research findings by fruit technologist suggested that the postharvest treatment together with proper handling of fruits could prove beneficial in controlling of pathogens growing on fruit surface. Constraints of the Malaysian Fruit Industry was discussed with constructive development strategies for better trade. This project paper concluded with the need for organizations like MARDI, FAMA, DOA, Universities, ASEAN PLANTI, etc. to regularly organise forums on the current developments in fruit technology, and utilisation for growers, exporters and traders engaged in fruit based industries.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 20688

Strategies and achievements in fruit breeding and selection at MARDI


Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Prosiding Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Fruits], April 8-9, 1986; Serdang, Selangor; MARDI, 1986, p 185-199

Abstract:
The fruit collection and germplasm centres for fruits were established at MARDI to provide breeders with the basic resource, i.e. genetic variation for crop improvement. The accessions in the fruit collection consisted of varieties, cultivars, clones or advanced breeding lines and was started in 1972 at Serdang. The germplasms were collected at random and restricted only to indigenous fruit species, started in 1982 at Kemaman. This was a joint effort with the IBPGR. Characterization and evaluation, important in providing an inventory of the genetic variation, were completed for papaya and banana and partial1y completed for perennial fruits, like durian, mango and cashew nut. In breeding and selection of clonally propagated fruit species, the basic step was to identify and select the 'winners' and subsequently testing them over time and space to establish the repeatabitily (stability) of their good performances. These, winners' were, however, time related, because of the changing consumer preference and industry demands. They will form the base for further improvement of the varieties in terms of increasing yield, developing pest and disease resistance and other requirements demanded by the industry from time to time. For clonally propagated fruits, selection of rootstocks and increasing productivity of durian clonal populations using mixtures of compatible genotypes were also given consideration. For seed propagated fruit species, the breeding and selection methodology for improving open-pollinated species (watermelon) and self-pollinated species (papaya) were included. The achievements of the breeding, programme on the whole were discussed in the light of the development of 'Nanas Johor' pineapple, the 'MARDI Backcross Solo' papaya, new accessions of 'Mas' and 'Rastali' bananas, the 'C11' cashew nut clone, and recommendation of mixtures of durian clones based on compatibility and xenic effects of the pollination.

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; P.O. Box 12301; phone: (60) (3) 894 37 111; fax: (60) (3) 894 83 664




NO. 20333

Population growth of rootknot nematodes on tobacco and ten other crops
Perkembangan populasi nematod bengkak akar pada tembakau dan sepuluh spesies tanaman

Abd Karim, S
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Teknologi Pertanian [Agricultural Technology] 5 (1): 92-95 (1984)

Abstract:
The population development of Meloidogyne javanica on tobacco and ten other crop species was studied in a glasshouse. Only the chilli plant was not attacked by the nematode; whereas groundnut, maize, papaya and brassica (sawi) were poor host of the nematode. Tobacco, long bean, cucumber, spinach (bayam), kangkung and okra were very good hosts.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 37103

Genetic control of sex expression in selected fruit crops exhibiting hermaphroditism and androeciousness


Ramirez, DA; Balagtas, GA; Garcia, RN; Ramirez, EG; Burgonio, CS
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB); 1987; University of the Philippines Los Baños Project No. 85-8; Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); 54 p

Abstract:
Male, female, and hermaphrodite trees of papaya, pili, and rambutan were differentiated by isoenzyme pattern analysis and thin layer chromatography. Isozyme patterns of papaya showed that sexually mature female, male and hermaphroditic trees can be distinguished through the esterasezymogram pattern. Female trees showed two bands with Rf values of 0.17 and 0.25, respectively. The hermaphrodites showed the slow-moving band, Rf=0.17 and the males showed only the fast-moving band, Rf=0.25. There was no significant difference found in total phenolic content among female, male and hermaphroditic papaya trees. However, hermaphroditic trees were characterized by a dark purple phenolic compound at Rf=0.06. Sex expression in pili can be identified by a combination of the acid phosphatase and esterase zymogram patterns. The hermaphrodites showed an acid phosphatase band at Rf=0.54; the females showed a fast-moving esterase band at Rf=0.18. Two bands, Rf=0.03 and Rf=0.10 were observed in both male and hermaphrodite trees. In rambutan, the females were distinguished from males by their peroxidase zymogram patterns. Female plants showed two bands with Rf=0.16 and 0.24 while male plants showed a slow moving band at Rf=0.16. Phenolic content of leaves obtained from thin layer chromatography showed an unsatisfactory parameter to distinguish sex expression in the fruits.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37141

Multiple cropping in Silang, Cavite


Grecia, DH
Greenfields 10 (12): 13-16 (1980)

Abstract:
The article presented in detail the multiple cropping system adopted by Mr. Juan Baon, a farmer in Silang, Cavite. Baon intercropped pineapple with papaya, coffee, banana, and gabi. Baon's farming system, as discussed in the article, was common to Silang farmers. Other crops planted were coconut and black pepper. Also presented was an estimated breakdown of input and output of multiple cropping per hectare for the first two years in Cavite (for 1980), and an estimated average input and output on multiple cropping in Cavite based on Cropping Pattern II in 1979-1980. Total gross income and net income estimated from the first two years of multiple cropping were 48,260 and 25,547 pesos, respectively.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 102004

Traditional medicinal plants for fever in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces
Tanaman obat tradisional untuk sakit panas/demam di Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan dan Kalimantan Timur

Sa'roni; Pudjiastuti; Adjirni
Research and Development Centre for Pharmacy; Ministry of Health; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 1; p 177-182

Abstract:
In 1989 a survey had been conducted to study the utilization of traditional herbs by local people to overcome their health in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces. One of the results showed that some of the traditional herbs were used for healing fever. Some of them had been examined using laboratory animal for antipyretic and hypothermic effects.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 71308

Handbook on physiology of some cultivars in Vietnam vol. 2
So tay sinh ly mot so cay trong o Viet Nam

Mong Hung
Nha xuat ban Khoa hoc [Scientific Publishing House], Hanoi, 1966; 125 p

Abstract:
The book deals with physiological characteristics of 17 cultivar plant's and describes planting methods of each cultivar.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 80005

Perennials in reforestation: the economic aspects of some alternative agroforestry systems


van Dijk, MP
Working Paper No. 15, Kali Konto Project, 1987; 34p

Abstract:
A large number of species is treated individually describing yield, prices, processing, problems and prospects, and recommendations. Data are mainly from literature with occasional information from the Konto river area.

Availability :
Library; International Agricultural Centre (IAC); Lawickse Allee 11, P. O. Box 88, 6700 AB Wageningen, the Netherlands; phone: (31) (0) 317 495 495; fax: (31) (0) 317 495 395
Email: iac@iac.agro.nl




NO. 101985

Utilization of plant species for traditional medicine in the Sundanese, Kasepuhan tribe
Pemakaian jenis tumbuhan untuk obat tradisional pada masyarakat Sunda Kasepuhan

Nizma; Darnaedi, SY
Biological Science Club, Jakarta, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Book 1; p 29-38

Abstract:
"Kasepuhan", a sub-ethnic group of Sundanese living in the southern and western part of Halimun National Park reserve in West Java, has long been utilizing plants for medicinal purposes. There are 3 different causes of illness, e.g. (1) by disease, (2) by spirit/white magic and (3) by law-breaking accident. The head of the clan shall be a most important person in healing illnesses. Beside performing pray and giving magic formula to sicks, traditional drug is also prepared. Physalis minima and Alstonia scholaris, are among the most common plants used. Those plants are used either after boiling, or after pounding, or directly use on the skin, or even given fresh. Members of the ginger family seems to be given for women after giving birth. While "dodol jahe", a kind of ginger paste, is used for improving vitality, as it consists of various kinds of nutritious seeds of legumes and cereals.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 101347

Utilization of non collagen protease enzyme from pancreas gland, papaya, pine apple juice, oropon and microbes for bating agent in the technology of leather processing
Penggunaan enzim protease non kolagen dari pankreas, pepaya, nenas, oropon dan mikroba untuk bating agent pada proses teknologi pengolahan kulit

Setiyono; Sujadi; Yusiati, LM; Jamhari
Buletin Peternakan [Animal Husbandry Bulletin] 18: 127-134 (1994)

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to investigate the utilization of non collagen protease enzyme made from pancreas glands, papaya, pineapple juice, oropon and microbes as a bating agent in the technology of leather processing. The observation involved isolation, enzyme activity test, and protease enzyme unit resulted from pancreas glands, papaya, pineapple juice, oropon and microbes, bioassay test in the leather processing. The pancreatic was isolated from fresh pancreas glands, green papaya, green pineapple, oropon and Bacillus sp. by using a precipitation with crystalic ammonium sulphate. The enzyme activity and enzyme unit were measured according to Malathi and Chakraberthy methods, while the bioassay by using an Indonesian Industrial Standard. The results indicated that from microbes isolation bacteria were obtained in steam formation, gram positive as a protease extracellular with pH of 6.0 - 9.5 at 37 °C, 70% ammonium sulphate concentration resulted in the best precipitation in enzyme isolated than that of 60% and 50% concentration and significantly different (P<0.01) in enzyme activity and enzyme unit, respectively. The highest enzyme unit was obtained from oropon (1564+72), followed by cow pancreas glands (1525 ñ 93), microbial enzyme (977 ñ 53), pineapple enzyme (933 ñ 43), and the lowest was from papaya enzyme (765 ñ 84). Based on bioassay test it was found that enzyme made from papaya, pineapple, microbe, pancreas glands and oropon was usable as a bating agent with concentration of 2% for papaya, 1.5% for pineapple, and 1.0% for pancreas glands and microbial (Bacillus sp.) enzyme (w/w), respectively according to tensile strength and stretch-at break tests.

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 20606

Laboratory studies on the effects of selected tropical fruits on the larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel


Ibrahim, AG; Rahman, MDA
Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika 5(1): 90-94 (1982)

Abstract:
A laboratory study (27 ºC - 30 ºC) on the suitability of tropical fruits for the larval development shows that it is in the order of: Papaya > carambola > banana > mango = watermelon > jackfruit > citrus > pineapple. In a suitable host i.e. papaya, the weight of the pupa was 11.6 g and life-cycle was 20.4 days. In the least suitable host i.e. pineapple, the weight of pupa was 4.9 g and life-cycle was 17.4 days. With papaya as food, the life-cycle of Dacus dorsalis depended on the density of the larvae within the food. A density of 10 larvae in 20 g of food had a life-cycle of 21.7 days, whereas a density of 50 larvae in the same quantity of food had a life-cycle of 15.1 days. The percentage of adult emergence decreased with increase in the larval density.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor




NO. 38502

Root activity of banana under monoculture and as intercrop with papaya and pineapple


Angeles, DE; Samonte, HP
The Philippine Agriculturist 73(1): 47-53 (1990)

Abstract:
The active rootzone of 11-month-old banana grown as monocrop and as intercrop with papaya and pineapple was determined using radioactive phosphorus (32P). The tracer was applied at 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm from the trunk, 15 and 30 cm deep and the activity of the third leaf was determined on the 8th, 16th and 24th day after application. Under both cropping systems, about uniform activity was observed at 15 cm deep within 20 to 80 cm radius. Higher root activity of banana was observed at 30 cm deep within a 20 to 40 cm radius.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 110506

The consumer preference to local and imported fruits in Jakarta Special Province
Preferensi konsumen buah lokal dan impor di DKI Jakarta

Deliana, Y
Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

Journal of Padjadjaran University, Bandung 16 (1): 27-33 (1998)

Abstract:
The increase of income and social welfare of the communities would certainly cause the increase of preference for fruits, for instance to get better quality. A research was conducted with the objectives: (1) to provide information on consumer preferences to local and imported fruits based on income level, (2) to know the potential market of local and imported fruits, (3) to find out local or imported fruits used as a substitute or complement. The methodology of this research was a survey method. The survey was conducted in Pasar Minggu village, Pasar Minggu subdistrict, Jakarta Special Province with 30 responded. The results of this research: (1) local fruits such as mangosteen, mango, snake fruit, and duku were chosen by high-income consumers, while non-nominated local fruits such as banana, papaya, pineapple, watermelon, rambutan and avocado were chosen by middle and low-income consumers. Imported fruits were chosen by middle and high-income consumers. The higher the income the more variety of fruits bought by the consumers, (2) marketing of local fruits in Jakarta Special Province is very potential, (3) local fruits will substitute imported fruits when the price of the imported fruits is high.

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Padjadjaran University




NO. 70617

Study on the optimal condition for producing crude papain and commercial papain
Khao sat dieu kien toi uu san xuat papain tho va papain thuong pham

Nguyen Thi Chung
College of Pharma-Medicine, Hochiminh city, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc lieu [Journal of Pharmacy] (4): 23-24 (1991)

Abstract:
Cultivated Carica papaya in Vietnam has the same resin content as the same species of other tropical countries. According to literature it is about 0.10%. The quality of crude papain taken by different solving methods varies. The quality of product can be observed easily: when, the colour is darker, the quality is worse. The fermenting activity of crude papain reduces fastly during storage. In Hochiminh city the condition is sufficient to produce crude papain. Based on this, we can extract commercial papain with quality and rather high efficiency to meet internal and external requirements.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Centre for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 109582

The effects of species and population of weeds on the vegetative growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Pengaruh jenis dan populasi gulma terhadap pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman pepaya (Carica papaya L.)

Sebayang, HT; Nugroho, A; Indrayana, S
Habitat 9 (103): 13-16 (1998)

Abstract:
Weed is a handicap in papaya cultivation. The effect of prominent weeds have been investigated in an experiment. The experiment consisted of two factors, weed species and number of weeds per pot. The weeds were cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and purple nut grass (Cyperus rotundus). The population was 4 and 12 per pot. The result of the experiment showed that the three weeds reduced the leaf growth and plant height of papaya significantly. The number of weeds of 12 per pot gave more effect on the fresh and dry weight of papaya than that of 4 weeds per pot. The dry weight of purple nut grass at the population of 12 per pot was higher than that of cogon grass and Bermuda grass weeds at the same population. However, the produced dry weights of those weeds at population of 4 per pot were equal.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library
Email: dir-riv@indo.net.id




NO. 20585

Crop improvement in Malaysia - Development and achievement


Yap, TC
Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika 6 (Review Supplement): 165-173 (1983)

Abstract:
Crop improvement through genetic manipulation has had a great impact on agricultural development in Malaysia. Through breeding, crop yield, quality and other agronomic characters have been improved substantially in the past few decades. Based on available information, the development and achievement of various crops, carried out in various research organizations in Malaysia, are reviewed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24728

Commercial establishment of papaya intercropping with cocoa: Asiatic experience


Tan, CH; Chan, CL; Tay, SP
Asiatic Development Berhad, 10th Floor, Wisma Genting, Jalan Sultan Ismail, 50250 Kuala Lumpur

The Planter 67: 301-313 (1991)

Abstract:
Gliricidia is commonly used as a shade tree for cocoa. In a 40 ha commercial planting of cocoa, 86% of the Gliricidia was substituted with papaya, variety Eksotika. The papaya provided uniform shade for the immature cocoa and posed adverse effect to the cocoa with sound agronomic and management practices. The financial returns from sale of papaya fruits and savings from otherwise having to establish and thin the Gliricidia amounted to $1389.00 per ha for the 24 months of the economic life of the papaya.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 90977

Root activity of banana under monoculture and as intercrop with papaya and pineapple


Angeles, DE; Samonte, HP
The Philippine Agriculturist 73 (1): 47-53 (1990)

Abstract:
The active rootzone of 11-month-old banana grown as monocrop and as intercrop with papaya and pineapple was determined using radioactive phosphorus (32P). The tracer was applied at 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm from the trunk, 15 and 30 cm deep and the activity of the third leaf was determined on the 8th, 16th and 24th day after application. Under both cropping systems, about uniform activity was observed at 15 cm deep within 20 to 80 cm radius. Higher root activity of banana was observed at 30 cm deep within a 20 to 40 cm radius.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 95000

Fruit crops manuring


Ibbay, SI
Philippine Mango Forum 1 (3): 99-112 (1995)

Abstract:
This article provides information on fertilization using green manure to different fruit crops and its effect on tree plants.

Availability :
Mango Information Network (MIN); Crops Research Division; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)




NO. 111600

A comparative study on the yard farming of Food and Nutrition Diversification programme in Pengasih, Kulon Progo Regency
Studi komparatif usahatani pekarangan program Diversifikasi Pangan dan Gizi di Pengasih, Kabupaten Kulon Progo

Triyono
Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Agr. UMY (Jurnal Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta) [Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Muhammadiyah University, Yogyakarta] 8 (1): 17-23 (2000)

Abstract:
The development programmeof Food and Nutrition Diversification (FND) was carried out in an attempt to solve food and nutrition deficiency problem by optimal use of the land of yard. However, people's awareness to participate in this programme was still low. Therefore, an evaluation was made on the income of the yard farm and various factors influencing the farmer's decision to participate in this programme. Based on it, therefore a research was carried out to compare the yard farming between participant and non-participant farmers of FND in Pengasih, Kulon Progo Regency. The result indicated that the incomes of the yard farm of the FND participant farmers were higher than those of the non-FND participant farmers. Further analysis on the contribution of the yard income showed that the per capita income, prosperity and the income distribution of FND participant farmers were better than those of the non-FND participant farmers. The result of social economic analysis showed that significantly influencing factors were levels of education, number of people per family farmer, extent of the yard land, income, experience in attending course on FND. Inactivity of FND participant farmers to carry out the programme again resulted from the lack of farm advisor's attention to conduct visits and guidance, resulting in lack of communication between farm advisors and the farmers to settle the problem faced by the farmers. Among the difficulties was air package, less suitable to natural condition and potentials as well harvest-failure by the farmers.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 67092

Effect of combination between naphthalene acetic acid and benzil adenine on the growth of papaya cv. Dampit in vitro
Pengaruh kombinasi asam naftalen asetat dan benzil adenin terhadap kultur pepaya kultivar dampit secara in vitro

Prahardini, PER; Sudaryono, T
Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Malang [Malang Research Station for Horticulture]; Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 2 (4): 6-12 (1992)

Abstract:
To investigate the proper combination of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and Benzil Adenine (BA) in the growth media of MS in vitro culture of papaya cv. Dampit, nine combination treatments consisting of 3 levels of NAA concentrations (1, 2, and 3 uM) and 3 levels of BA concentration (2, 3 and 4 uM) were used in the experiment. The result showed that differentiation of lateral shoot explant formed compound shoot and midrib explant formed callus and root of the organ. The best result produced by the combination of concentration of 2 uM NAA and 3 uM BA in MS media was able to initiate shoot at 4.4 weeks after planting, whereas combination of 2 uM and 4 uM initiate callus formation at 7 days after planting. Root formation produced by the combination of 1 uM and 4 uM, initiates at 11 weeks after planting.

Availability :
National Library




NO. 67099

Effect of garlic extract on latex production and crude papain quality of papaw cv. Semangka Paris
Pengaruh ekstrak bawang putih terhadap produksi getah dan mutu papain kasar, pepaya cv. Semangka Paris

Sjaifullah; Suyanti; Bunasor, TK
Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Pasarminggu [Pasarminggu Research Station for Horticulture], Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 2 (4): 59-65 (1992)

Abstract:
A study was conducted from August 1991 up to February 1992. The samples were taken from the field and conducted as laboratory works at Pasarminggu Horticultural Research Station and Bogor Agricultural University. Four concentrations of garlic extract (0, 40, 60 and 80%) were applied to papaya in the field just before tapping. The best concentration of garlic extract was 60%, produced latex and crude papain 141.3 and 146.1% over untreated control, respectively. The use of garlic extract increased protein, crude papain and proteolitic activities. Furthermore, the total bacteria in the fresh latex was reduced to one-third over the untreated control, and there was no significant effect on moisture content, ash and fat of fresh latex as well as of crude protein.

Availability :
National Library




NO. 67390

Effects of hot water treatment, fungicide and storage temperature on anthracnose attack and quality of papaya fruits
Pengaruh perlakuan air panas, fungisida dan suhu penyimpanan terhadap serangan anthraknose dan kualitas buah pepaya

Prabawati, S; Sjaifullah; Sudjana, R
Sub Balithorti Pasarminggu; Jakarta, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 5 (3): 86-96 (1993)

Abstract:
Papaya fruits were picked from a farmer orchard in Bogor West Java at 25% maturity (green with yellow spots a the tip). Fruits were dipped in 500 ppm benomyl solution for 30 seconds, 250 ppm prochloraz, hot water 53-55 °C, 3 minutes and combination treatment between hot water and 250 ppm benomyl or 125 ppm prochloraz. Untreated fruits were used as control. All fruits were stored at 10-12 °C. Observation was done on anthracnose disease severity and the chemical composition of fruit during the storage period. The results showed that dipping fruits in 500 ppm benomyl and in 250 ppm prochloraz solution were better than dipping fruits in hot water. The use of hot water combined with a half dosage of fungicides was the most effective in delaying the initial attack and development of anthracnose. Postharvest treatment for controlling anthracnose did not affect the papaya fruit quality (vitamine C, sugar and total acidity) at all.

Availability :
Agriculture Faculty Library; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 69038

Effects of various vegetables on the biomass of African snail (Achatina fulica)
Pengaruh berbagai sayuran terhadap biomassa bekicot (Achatina fulica)

Chumaidi; Insan, I; Nugroho, E
Buletin Penelitian Perikanan Darat [Inland Fisheries Research Bulletin] 12 (1): 76-81 (1993)

Abstract:
African snails were reared and fed with different vegetable leaves, i.e. chinese mustard (Brassica juncea), sweet potato (Ipomoea batata), papaya (Carica papaya), spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) and water-kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica). The snails with individual weights of 23-27 g were reared in 1 m² of bamboo box for four months. The result showed that feeding papaya leaf produced highest biomass of eggs (1238.7 eggs/m² or 64.9 g/m²), juveniles (1451.7 individuals/m² or 915.2 g/m², young snails (7.3 individuals/ m² or 451.2 g/m²), and brooders (1.3 individual/m² or 13.4 g/m²) and nest (10.7 nests/m²).

Availability :
Research Institute for Freshwater Fisheries (RIFF); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69857

Effect of drying methods for papaya latex cv. Paris on the quality of produced crude papain
Pengaruh cara pengeringan getah pepaya cv. Paris terhadap mutu papain kasar yang dihasilkan

Satuhu, S; Sjaifullah
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH), Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 3 (1): 46-51 (1993)

Abstract:
Three drying methods: cabinet-drying, simplified-drying and sun-drying were used to produce crude papain. The treatments were designed following a Completely Randomized Design and followed by LSD test at 5%. Crude papain was analyzed which covered moisture content, proteolytic activity, ash content, protein content and total bacterial counting. The results of these experiments indicated that crude papain quality which was produced by simplified drying was as good as crude papain from cabin-drying. The colour of crude papain was yellowish-white with moisture content of 9.10%, ash content of 10.90%, protein content of 59.84%, proteolytic activity of 156,17 unit/g and total bacterial count of 1.9 x 1.e4.

Availability :
Library of Lembang Research Institute for Horticulture; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 107799

Effect of papaya's (Carica papaya L.) foliar age on the sour pickle produced
Pengaruh tingkat ketuaan daun pepaya (Carica papaya L.) terhadap pemeriksaan asinan daun pepaya yang dihasilkan

Musita, N; Prayudie, U
Tanjungkarang Industrial Institute, Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah Balai Industri Tanjungkarang [Tanjungkarang Industrial Institute Science Journal] 3 (2): 5-11 (1996)

Abstract:
Vegetables are source of nutrition which are usefull for human health as source of vitamine, mineral, raw fiber, etc. Young papaya leaves leaves as vegetable has a bitter taste. To increase the used of papaya as a source of vegetable the papaya leaves can be treated with 'souerkrout'. Result of different levels of treatment give different effect on the physical and chemical properties of the leaves, which affect the different consumer acceptability.

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry, Library




NO. 100313

Effects of tomato cultivars and kinds of fillers on tomato sauce quality
Pengaruh kultivar tomat dan jenis bahan pengisi terhadap mutu saus tomat

Marpaung, Listria
Lembang Research Institute for Horticulture (LERIH), Bandung, Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research Bulletin] 25 (2): 47-53 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the objective to determine tomato cultivar and related filler which are acceptable for producing tomato sauce. The experiment was laid out following a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two factors of treatment combinations and three replications. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Lembang Research Institute for Horticulture from December 1991 to February 1992. The first factor was tomato cultivar (TW, Farmer, Gondol) and the second factor was the filler (sweet potato, carrot, papaya). The results showed that: (1) The best tomato cultivar for producing tomato sauce was the Farmer cultivar (highest total acid content, colour, taste, flavour and overall appearance, and low in pH); (2) The best kind of filler was papaya (highest in acid content, colour, taste, flavour, texture, overall appearance and lowest pH); (3) There was an interaction between tomato cultivar and filler treatment on the vitamin C, total acid, pH, colour, taste, texture and overall appearance of tomato sauce as shown by Farmer cultivar with papaya (highest in total acid content, colour, taste and overal appearance).

Availability :
Research Centre for Estate Biotechnology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 109454

Physico-chemical characteristics analysis of fruit and latex of papaw (Carica papaya L.) cvs. Paris, Gandul and Bangkok
Analisis sifat fisiko-kimia buah dan getah pepaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Paris, Gandul dan Bangkok

Dondy ASB; Suyanti; Sjaifullah
Buletin Pasca Panen Hortikultura [Horticultural Postharvest Bulletin] 1 (1): 22-31 (1998)

Abstract:
A research was conducted with the aim to analyze physical and chemical properties of fruits and latex of papaw cvs. Paris, Gandul and Bangkok. The research result showed that the fruits of the 3 cultivars have different moisture content, protein, fat and latex production. Furthermore, the lancing time affected significantly the moisture content, protein, fat percentage of crude papain and latex production. Papaw cv. Bangkok's potential was relatively not higher than that of cv. Paris, even though its percentage of crude papain and latex production was higher than that of cv. Paris.

Availability :
Lembang Research Institute for Vegetables; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 110385

Improvement of packaging technique for fresh fruits to reduce level of mechanical damage; a case study in Central Java Province
Perbaikan teknik pengemasan buah-buahan segar untuk mengurangi tingkat kerusakan mekanis studi kasus di Propinsi Jawa Tengah

Widodo, KH; Suyitno; Guritno, AD
Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Agritech 17 (1): 14-17 (1997)

Abstract:
Mechanical damages of fresh fruits may happen in traditional packaging methods. A research was conducted with the aim to find some alternative methods to reduce mechanical damage during transportation. The variables used in the study were vibration and drop test, and the study was implemented for avocado, mango, banana and papaya. Using equivalent bruise index percentage, it is known that the packaging models suggested are capable to reduce the mechanical damages (% EBI) from 15.01% to 22.33% through 1.57% to 9.17%. The results obtained give alternatives for each commodity. The best packaging model for mango is the corrugate carton, followed by the wooden box V type, the plastic basket and traditional packaging (bamboo basket). Whereas for avocado, the best packaging model is the plastic basket, followed by the corrugated carton. On the other hand, the corrugated carton is the best for papaya, followed by the wooden box V type, the plastic basket and traditional packaging (partition). The final result of the research suggests that the wooden box V type is the best for all commodities. This packaging method uses a linked hinge which is easier for distribution, and surely it needs only little space at transportation.

Availability :
Lembang Research Institute for Vegetables; Lembang; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 20443

Growth studies on some vegetative characters of papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Chan, YK; Toh, WK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Research Bulletin 12 (1): 46-54 (1984)

Abstract:
Growth and development of stem diameter, canopy, plant height, internode length and leaf production of three papaya varieties were monitored over a period of one year from seed planting. Stem diameter, canopy and plant height development followed a typical single sigmoid growth curve with the rapid stage of development coinciding with 15 -31 week period from seed planting. All three varieties constantly developed about three leaves per week over the entire period that was studied. Internode length was found to have a more important influence on plant height than number of nodes. Differences in plant height between varieties were related to large differences in internode lengths at an early stage of plant growth. No significant differences were found in the rate of leaf (node) production between varieties. The importance of this study in relation to reduction of the juvenile phase of the papaya is discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20580

Climatic influences on the yields of fruit number in three types of Carica papaya in Serdang, Malaysia


Ong, HT; Kwok, CY
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika 6 (2): 7-14 (1983)

Abstract:
The relationship between the number of fruits yielded in three types of papaya, viz lines 25 and 26 and variety Sunrise Solo, and changes in rainfall, sunshine temperature and dry spells was determined through the system approach. For each type, over a dozen monthly changes in climatic factors along various stages of floral initiation to fruit harvest could be correlated to the yields. However, through a series of recombinations of consecutive months of climatic changes and partial correlations, the climatic factors which commonly affected the three types were found to be maximum temperatures at LAG 4-41/2 (4-41/2 months before harvest) and dry spells at LAG 0-11/2, which were adverse to fruit yields. Sunrise Solo fruit numbers were promoted by minimum temperatures at LAG 6-61/2. In line 26, moisture at LAG 5-51/2 and maximum temperatures at LAG 1 promoted yields while minimum temperatures at LAG 3 had an adverse effect on yields. These effects on the development of floral into fruits are discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20590

Changes of starch and sugar in the ripening process of fruits
Perubahan kanji dan gula dalam proses kematangan buah-buahan

Marziah, M
Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

Pertanika 7 (3): 127-130 (1984)

Abstract:
The content of starch and total sugars in bananas, papayas and oranges at different ages and stages of maturity have been determined. In all the fruits studied, the starch content was found to be high in younger fruits and then began to decrease as the fruits matured and ripened. Comparing all the three types of fruits studied, bananas seemed to have the highest starch content followed by papayas and oranges. The levels of sugars, on the other hand, were initially low, then continue to increase until the ripening stage. Papayas (particularly the yellow flesh) appeared to have the highest concentration of sugars, followed by pisang berangan, oranges and pisang nangka. The rates of starch and sugar changes varied with fruit types and varieties.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23603

Response of papaya (Carica papaya L.) to limited soil moisture of reproductive stage


Masri, M; Abdul Razak, S; Mohd Zaki, G
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Research Journal 18 (2): 191-196 (1990)

Abstract:
The effects of depleting soil moisture on papaya (Carica papaya L.), Eksotika variety at reproductive stage, were studied under field conditions. The treatments given consisted of stress (not irrigated and sheltered), rainfed (not irrigated but exposed to rainfall) and irrigated. In the stress treatment, height and trunk diameter increments were 52% and 36%, respectively, less than those of irrigated plants. Consequently, plant under stress treatment had 50% fewer attached leaves per tree. Water deficit significantly reduced number of flowers and fruits by 86% and 58%, respectively. Water stress also retarded growth and development of papaya fruit.

Availability :
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 20642

Maturation of Malaysian fruits I. Storage conditions and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo)


Broughton, WJ; Hashim, AW; Shen, TC; Tan, IKP
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

MARDI Research Bulletin 5 (1): 59-72 (1977)

Abstract:
An investigation was made on factors affecting the ripening of harvested papaya fruits. A temperature of about 20 °C was optimal both for inducing ripening and for satisfactory storage of the fruits. Temperatures above this made the fruit susceptible to fungal attack, while at lower temperatures the onset of the climacteric was delayed, but "Chilling injuries" were manifested. Room temperature (28 to 32 °C) was particularly unsuitable for fruit storage. Removal of ethylene or water from the storage atmosphere had no apparent effect on the onset of the climacteric, while removal of carbon dioxide hastened the process. The climacteric of fruits in water saturated atmospheres was only slightly delayed. Glucose levels increased as the fruits ripened, but dropped with prolonged storage. Recommended storage conditions are: temperature 20 °C, humidity about 50% and with slightly elevated carbon dioxide levels if possible. Under these conditions fruit harvested 80 to 90 days after anthesis (and still very green) will ripen satisfactorily and can be kept for seven to fourteen days.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 37022

Genetic control of sex expression in selected fruit crops exhibiting hermaphroditism and androeciousness


Ramirez, DA; Balagtas, GA; Garcia, RN; Ramirez, EG; Burgonio, CS
RETRES Research Abstracts College, Laguna, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, 1987; 54 p; UPLB Project No. 85-8; PCARRD

Abstract:
Male, female, and hermaphrodite trees of papaya, pili, and rambutan were differentiated by isoenzyme pattern analysis and thin layer chromatography. Isozyme patterns of papaya showed that sexually mature female, male and hermaphroditic trees can be distinguished through the esterasezymogram pattern. Female trees showed two bands with Rf values of 0.17 and 0.25, respectively. The hermaphrodites showed the slow moving band, Rf=0.17 and the males showed only the fast moving band, Rf=0.25. There was no significant difference found in total phenolic content among female, male and hermaphroditic papaya trees. However, hermaphroditic trees were characterized by a dark purple phenolic compound at Rf=0.06. Sex expression in pili can be identified by a combination of the acid phosphatase and esterase zymogram patterns. The hermaphrodites showed an acid phosphatase band at Rf=0.54; the females showed a fast moving esterase band at Rf=0.18. Two bands, Rf=0.03 and Rf=0.10 were observed in both male and hermaphrodite trees. In rambutan, the females were distinguished from males by their peroxidase zymogram patterns. Female plants showed two bands with Rf=0.16 and 0.24 while male plants showed a slow moving band at Rf=0.16. Phenolic content of leaves obtained from thin layer chromatography showed an unsatisfactory parameter to distinguish sex expression in the fruits.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna




NO. 23921

Seedling age at transplanting and its relationship to growth and earliness in fruit bearing of 'Eksotika' papaya


Masri, M
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Research Journal 19 (2): 191-195 (1991)

Abstract:
The effects of seedling age at transplanting on the growth and earliness in fruit bearing of Eksotika papaya (Carica papaya) were studied. Though delayed transplanting after 5 weeks after appearance of hypocotyl (WAAH) decreased height increment rate, it had no significant effects on the stem diameter and node number increment rates. The time from transplanting to first flowering and fruiting was independent of seedling age at transplanting. However, node numbers and height of first flowering and fruiting were significantly higher up to the main stem when seedlings were transplanted after 5 WAAH.

Availability :
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 38373

Postharvest loss assessment of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Limbon, Indang, Cavite


Geronimo, SDB; Mendoza Jr, DB
The Philippine Agriculturist 71 (1): 85-97 (1988)

Abstract:
Papaya farmers in Limbon, Indang, Cavite did not generally regard proper cultural management as requisite to produce optimum and good quality yield. Consequently, they produced poor quality fruits (56% of them lumpy and 22% small-sized). Postharvest losses and damage due to lumpiness (28%), over-ripeness (13%), fruit-fly infestation (12%), decay (10%) and size defects (7%) could decrease farm receipts by as much as 25%. Over-ripeness and decay were the major causes of losses accounting for 13% of marketing costs. Losses, transport fee (47%) and permit/market fee (16%) were the major components of marketing cost. Postharvest damages like cuts, bruises, scratches, and indentation were mainly due to poor harvesting and transport practices. These reduced the price of fruits which in turn decreased the monthly average net returns by 4%.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 38825

Phenotypic variability in some characters of papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Magdalita, PM; Pimentel, RB; Del Rosario, EE; Sotto, RC; Rivera, FN; Espino, RRC
The Philippine Agriculturist 67 (3): 282-294 (1984)

Abstract:
One hundred papaya accessions of local and foreign origin were evaluated using ten horticultural characters. Considerable variations were found in all characters. Fruit weight was found to be positively and highly correlated with fruit length, fruit width, fruit volume, flesh thickness and cavity volume.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 91280

Phenotypic variability in some characters of papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Magdalita, PM; Pimentel, RB; Del Rosario, EE; Sotto, RC; Rivera, FN; Espino, RRC
The Philippine Agriculturist 67 (3): 282-294 (1984)

Abstract:
One hundred papaya accessions of local and foreign origin were evaluated using ten horticultural characters. Considerable variations were found in all characters. Fruit weight was found to be positively and highly correlated with fruit length, fruit width, fruit volume, flesh thickness and cavity volume.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 70332

Papain refinement from the latex of fresh 'Du du' (Caria papaya L.) for its use in cell culture
Tinh che papain tu mu Du du tuoi dung trong nuoi cay te bao (Caria papaya L.)

Nguyen Hanh Phuc et al
Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (2): 12-14 (1984)

Abstract:
Papain liquid was extracted from the latex of fresh 'Du du' (Carica papaya) by method of fractional precipitations it is precipitated twice with NaCl and systein for receiving refined papain with high proteolitic activity and only a little amount of mixed protein. Papain can be kept in solution of PBS 0.01 M pH = 7.4 at 4 °C for the duration of 6 months. Refined by this method papain was used for test in tissue culture.

Availability :
Natinal Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 92012

Papayas potentials as an export crop


Tacio, HD
Greenfields 23 (4): 8-11 (1995)

Abstract:
The article discusses the potentials of papaya as an export commodity, crop production, diseases, pests and handling after harvest.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 92869

Study on the production of papaya grown in three levels of fertilization (low, medium, high)


Loquias, VL
The Philippine Journal of Plant Industry 58 (1-2): 17-32 (1993)

Abstract:
The application of 250, 500 and 1,000 g (low, medium, and high) of ammonium phosphate (16-10-0) per plant of Solo papaya indicated that the 1,000 g level significantly resulted to higher yields compared to the rest after four years of testing (1988-1991). The 1,000 g per plant application obtained a mean yield of 51,600 kg of fruits per hectare as compared to 500 and 250 g application that gave yields of 34,390 and 31,800 kg of fruits, respectively. Results of the economic analysis shows that a marginal rate of return (MRR) of 684% was obtained from the 1,000 g (high) per plant application of ammonium phosphate (16-20-0).

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 70992

Report on the survey of virus diseases, insect vector and natural enemies in Vietnam
Mot so ket qua dieu tra benh Virus hai cay an qua va dau bo

Ha Minh Trung; Pham van Lam; Ngo Vinh Vien
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 128 (2): 27-29 (1993)

Abstract:
Ten viral diseases were found. They were banana bunchy top virus and cucumber mosaic virus in banana, Papaya ring spot virus and leaf curly virus in papaya, Citrus greening and tristeza in sweet orange and mandarin, cowpea stunt virus in asparagus beans.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 94378

Study on the productivity of papaya grown in three level of fertilization (low, medium and high)


Loquias, Vl
The Philippine Journal of Plant Industry 58 (1): 9-16 (1993)

Abstract:
The application of 250, 500 and 1,000 g (low, medium and high) of ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) per plant of Solo papaya indicated that the 1,000 g level significantly resulted to higher yields compared to the rest after four years of testing (1988-1991). The 1,000 g per plant application obtained a mean yield of (51,600 kg of fruits per hectare as compared to 500 and 250 g application that gave yields of 34,390 and 31,800 kg of fruits, respectively. Results of the economic analysis show that a marginal rate of return (MRR) of 684% was obtained from 1,000 g (high) per plant application of ammonium phosphate (16-20-0).

Availability :
Bureau of Plant Industry-Davao National Crops Research and Development Center




NO. 94505

Cytology of Carica papaya, Carica cauliflora and their F1 interspecific hybrids


Siar, SV; Geronimo, SB; Sierra, Z; Villegas, VN
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 23 (2): 91-96 (1998)

Abstract:
The chromosome behaviour during microprogenesis in Carica papaya, Carica cauliflora and their interspecific hybrids was studied to elucidate the observed sterility in the interspecific hybrids. Floral sampling for cytological studies was done at 11:30 am on bright sunny day for both Carica papaya and Carica cauliflora. For interspecific hybrids, meiotic activity was at its peak at 12:30-1:30 pm for field grown plants and 1:30-2:30 pm fro greenhouse grown plants. Meiosis in the parents was normal. The chromosomes showed regular pairing with nine bivalents at diakinesis and separated synchronously to each pole. At telophase II, tetrads of uniform size were produced. The chromosome number in both parents was consistent at 2n = 18. Pollen fertility was high. An average of 96% and 94% fertility was recorded for Carica papaya and Carica cauliflora, respectively. The chromosomes of interspecific hybrids showed very little to non-homology with the chromosomes of the two parents. Variable chromosomes counts, presence of univalents, chromosome elimination and marked meitotic aberrations characterized the meiotic behaviour of the interspecific hybrids. These meiotic irregularities lead to the formation of non-functional pollen; thus very low pollen fertility was recorded for the interspecific hybrids.

Availability :
c/o Crops Science Society of the Philippines (CSSP); Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB)-University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 94701

Field evaluation of micropropagated hybrid papaya 'Sinta'


Valencia, LD; Villegas, VN; Pimentel, RB
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21 (sup. 1): 50 (1996)

Abstract:
Field performance of micropropagated hybrid papaya 'Sinta' was compared with that of conventionally derived seedlings. 'Sinta' derived from in vitro grown single node cuttings established quickly in the field and exhibited a shorter juvenile period as manifested by earlier flowering and fruiting and reduced height at first flower. No off-types were detected visually. Serological tests confirmed that propagating material derived from the micropropagation system adapted for 'Sinta' are virus-free. Such system will enable year-round commercial production of quality planting materials. Other merits of this micropropagation system will be discussed.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 75949

A study on mutation level of papaya seedlings polinated from isolately bisexual ones.
Nghien cuu kha nang phan ly cua cay con tu hat cua qua duoc bao cach ly thu phan bang hat phan cay luong tinh cung giong o mot so giong du du.

Doan The Lu
Tap chi Khoa hoc Ky thuat Rau, Hoa, Qua [Journal of Sciences and Technology of Vegetables Flowers and Fruits] 1: 14-15 (1997)

Abstract:
In Vietnam a traditional propagation method of papaya by seedlings have been popularized, that resulted in some disadvantages such as poor quality, low yield, etc. For this reason, a study on seed production using the technology of isolated selection pollination was carried out on some promising papaya cultivars. Papaya plants propagated by this method have no accountable differences from their parents. The levels of mutation in the next generation of papaya is not as that of ordinary method (without isolation). No male plant (long flower stalk, small fruit) was obtained by this method.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76566

Insect species damaging fruit trees in Mekong delta
Ket qua dieu tra buoc dau thanh phan sau hai tren cay an qua tai mot so tinh vung DBSCL

Huynh Tri Duc
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 3312-332 (1995)

Abstract:
About 92 species of insect pests infected 7 species of fruit trees such as mango, papaya, durian, citrus, dragon fruit and cherry trees. Of which, Dichocrosis puntiferralis, Dacus dorsalis, Phyllocnistic citrella and Acroceveop hierocosma were considered important. Besides, some species of scale and mite groups as well as Spyllid diaphonia were notably recorded.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14440

Gerplasm collection of papaya from northern Thailand


Wasi, S; Narithum, K; Kaeosuwan, U
Kasetsart University Research Development Insitute, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasat [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science Supplement] 25 (5): 9-14 (1991)

Abstract:
A number of papaya fruit samples were collected and planted. The result showed that most of the plants were tall, late flowering types and had low yield. The fruit of all collections had yellow thick soft texture and thin skin. One of them was found to be homozygous recesssive in that all of their progenies had yellow leaves, flowers and fruits which were susceptible to diseases.

Availability :
Central Library, Kasetsart University




NO. 14696

Growth reduction of papaya plantlets for in vitro germplasm preservation


Lersrutaiyitin, R; Burikam, S
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasersart University Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

Witthayasan kasetsart; sakha witthayasat; chabap phiset [Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science Supplement] 27 (5): 12-14 (1993)

Abstract:
Papaya plantlets, line Pb1-R1 were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with different concentrations of chloro choline chloride (CCC), namely 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000 mg/l and cultured under 4 levels of temperature namely 4, 10, 15 and 27 °C. Under room temperature, papaya plantlets cultured on media supplemented with each level of CCC could grow for 3 months. On the other hand, under low temperatures, 4, 10 and 15 °C, papaya plantlets could grow for 6 months. Cultured papaya plantlets under 15 °C without CCC is the suggested condition for preservation of papaya germplasm for 6 months.

Availability :
Kasetsart University; Bangkok




NO. 91573

Antimutagenic effects of expressions from twelve medicinal plants


Lim-Syliangco, CY; Concha, JA; Jocano, AP; Lim, CM
The Philippine Journal of Science 115 (1): 23-30 (1986)

Abstract:
Mitomycin C, tetracyclin hydrochloride and dimethylnitrosamine induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of experimental mice. This indicates that these three systems are mutagenic and clastogenic. The formation of micronucleated polycromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C was greatly reduced by expressions prepared from fruits of Momordica charantia, Persea americana, Syzygium cumini, Pithecellobium dulce, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Cucurbita maxima, Spondias purpurea, Citrus decumana, and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made of expression from roots and seeds of Raphanus sativus, from flowers and leaves of Citrus maxima, from leaves of Momordica charantia, and from seeds of Cucumis melo. The same systems also reduced micronuclei formation as induced by tetracycline hydrochloride . The induction of micronuclei formation by dimethylnitrosamine was significantly reduced by expressions from fruits of Momordica charantia, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Citrus maxima and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made with expressions from leaves of Momordica charantia, roots of Raphanus sativus and seeds of Cucumis melo. When heated of micronuclei from plants still reduced micronuclei formation as induced by mitomycin C and tetracycline. The extent of reduction, however, was significantly decreased when expressions of the following were boiled: Momordica charantia fruit and leaves, Citrus maxima flowers and fruitsand Lycopersicon esculentum fruits.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office; PCARRD; Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425; Los Baños; Laguna 4030; The Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 536 0014 to 536 0020; fax: (63) (49) 536 0016, 536 0132




NO. 103618

Effectiveness of mycorrhiza on the seedling growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.), citrus (Citrus nobilis Lour), grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Efektifitas mikoriza terhadap pertumbuhan bibit tanaman mangga (Mangifera indica L.), jeruk (Citrus nobilis Lour), anggur (Vitis vinifera L.), dan pepaya (Carica papaya L.)

Mujoko, T; Rochdjatun, I; Abadi, AL
Majalah Ilmiah Pembangunan [Development Scientific Journal] 4 (5): 11-21 (1994)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effectiveness of mycorrhiza inoculum on seedling growth of mango, citrus, grape and papaya. The experiment was a factorial experiment, arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were combinations of soil factors i.e. sterile and non sterile soil, and sources of inoculum i.e. inoculum from mango, citrus, grape, papaya and control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The inoculum was a mixture of 3 gram mycorrhiza's roots and 10 gram mycorrhiza's soil from each plant. These inocula were placed at flannel paper in polybag. Results of this experiment showed that development of mycorrhiza was better on sterile soil than on non-sterilized soil. Mycorrhiza's plant growth was better than non-mycorrhiza's plant. Inoculum from papaya increased 255% dry weight of grape. Inoculum from mango increased 192% dry weight of citrus and 1034% dry weight of papaya.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 14236

Medicinal properties of fruits
Sapphakhun khong phonlamai nai ngae samunphrai

Anonymous
Warasan Songsoem Kan Kaset [Agricultural Extension Journal] 22 (59): 29-32 (1992)

Abstract:
Medicinal properties of sugar apple, mangosteen, banana and papaya are described.

Availability :
Central Library; Kasetsart University; Bangkok




NO. 51491

Compounds with anthelmintic activity in papaya seeds


Murdiati, TB; Adiwinata, G; Kurniawaty, M
Research Institute for Veterinary Science; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings International Seminar on Natural Products Chemistry and Utilization of Natural Resources, June 5 – 7, 2001, Universitas Indonesia, Depok Indonesia; Kosela, S et al. (eds); Depok, Universitas Indonesia, 2001; p 225-229

Abstract:
Seeds of papaya (Carica papaya) fruits have been reported as an effective anthelmintic for gastrointestinal parasites. To trace the active compounds responsible for the anthelmintic activity against Ascaridia galii, the papaya seeds were fractionated into hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, followed by in vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The study suggested that chloroform fraction had the highest activity to kill the worm, while methanol fraction had the highest activity to stop the development of the embryo. Analysis of the chloroform fraction indicated the present of more than one alkaloids, while phenolic compounds and alkaloid was detected in the methanolic fraction.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 111443

Price elasticity analysis of mangosteen compared with other fruits
Analisis elastisitas harga buah manggis terhadap buah-buahan lain

Waruwu, F; Wahjudi, T; Rais, M
Research and Development Centre for Horticulture, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 9 (4): 378-384 (2000)

Abstract:
A research was conducted to know the price elasticity of mangosteen compared with other fruits in West Sumatra. It was conducted from June 1996 to March 1997 in Limapuluh Kota and Padang regencies using survey method. A total of 114 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling. The available data were processed by using consumption function analysis and transformed into logarithmic (Trans-Log). The result showed that at the beginning of the harvest season the price elasticities of mangosteen, citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya, rambutan and avocado were 2.31, 6.05, 1.36, 1.49, 1.23, 1.19, 1.01, and 5.02 respectively. At the middle of the harvest season the price elasticities of citrus, durian, pineapple, papaya and mango were 5.18, 1.05, 9.74, 2.89, and 9.93 respectively, whereas at the end of the harvest season the price elasticities of citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya and mango were 2.53, 1.42, 1.11, 3.34, 2.66 and 1.84 respectively. The elasticity value of other fruits significantly affected mangosteen fruit consumption. Durian and mango were substitutes for mangosteen fruit consumption with price elasticity of mango 9.93 at mid harvest season and price elasticities of durian and mango of 1.42 and 1.84 at the end of the harvest season. Commodities complementary to mangosteen fruit consumption at the beginning of the harvest season were citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya, rambutan and avocado with negative price elasticity values -6.05, -1.36, -1.49, -1.23, -1.19, -1.01 and -5.02, respectively, where as at the mid harvest season the complementary commodities were citrus, durian, pineapple and papaya with negative price elasticities -5.18, -1.05, -9.74 and -2.89, respectively), and at the end of the harvest season citrus, sapote, pineapple, and papaya with negative price elasticities of -2.53, -1.11, -3.34 and -2.66, respectively. The negative price elasticity of other fruits indicated that these fruits were complementary to mangosteen fruit. It means that the consumption of mangosteen fruit increases when the price of other fruit decreases.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 22891

The development of pureed baby food using local fruits and vegetable


Osman, H; Soleha, I; Suriah, AR; Norimah, AK
National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceeding of the National IRPA Seminar (Agriculture), 6-11 January 1992, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Kuala Lumpur; Vol. 2 (Livestock, Fisheries, Food and harvest, Forestry, General); p 594-595

Abstract:
A study was carried out with the objective to identify the agricultural commodity for further processing into pureed baby food and to obtain a range of baby formulation. Findings on the demands, the development of formulation and processing parameters are highlighted.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25017

Effects of surface treatments of selected local fruits


Mohamed, S
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

UPM Research Report, 1993; Serdang, Selangor, Universitas Putra Malaysia, nd

Abstract:
A variety of Malaysian fruits were surface-treated with different concentrations of hydrophobic substances such as palm oil, fatty acid sucrose ester, liquid paraffin, starch and LDPE wrappings. LDPE shrin-kwrap/clingwrap, paraffin or palm oil was found to be effective in reducing weight loss and maintaining the firmness of most fruits and extending their storage life. The skin colour of guava was found to be most effectively preserved for about 8 weeks by 20% palm oil, while those of pineapples, starfruit, papaya, honey dew and bananas were best maintained by paraffin. Paraffin treatment caused lesions to the skin of some fruits e.g. guava and pineapples. Significant colour changes were observed between treatments after 2 weeks' storage. For guava, palm oil (20%) caused significantly less colour change during the storage period and was the best treatment for maintaining its colour at 10 °C storage, until about 8 weeks. This was followed by shrinkwrap, clingwrap packaging and 1% semperfresh. The treatments were able to maintain the fruit colour by behaving as a moisture and gaseous barrier. Paraffin was found to extend the storage life of pineapples (10 weeks), starfruits (7 weeks), papaya (5 weeks), honey dew (5 weeks) and bananas (5 weeks), but was incompatible to the guava epidermal layer and caused lesioning and browning of the skin during storage, appearing worse than untreated guava. Colour change was found to be correlated to weight indicating that moisture loss hastened the ripening or chlorophyll loss in the fruits. Colour was also correlated to firmness (ripeness) for most treatments.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 14712

Fruit production potential of the Maracaibo plain: research needs


Anonymous
University of Zulia, Agronomy Faculty, Maracaib, Edif, Fusagri, Calle 76 No 46-21 Maracaibo, Venezuela

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 3-4

Abstract:
The Maracaibo Plain is located in the Northwestern part of Venezuela, 9 °C above the Equator. It occupies an area of 450,000 ha. Average temperature, humidity, rainfall and evaporation are 28 °C, 76%, 500 mm, 2000 mm, respectively. The soil is very uniform and well drained. Irrigation water sources are deep wells. Fruit production has existed since last century, providing skilful and inexpensive labour. Traditional crops are red guava (Psidium guajava, 5000 ha) and sapodilla (Manilkara zapota, 1000 ha) with excellent production and quality. Newer crops have shown a great potential like table and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera, 800 ha), Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia, 150 ha), mango (Mangifera indica, 100 ha), grape-fruit (Citrus paradisi, 100 ha). Other potential crops are passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Passiflora flavicarpa), soursop (Annona muricata), sugar apple (Annona squamosa), and papaya (Carica papaya). The conditions of the plain allow some advantages like the production of mango free of antracnose, and the control of flowering in mango and citrus for hitting the world market windows. Research on the following aspects are needed: 1. Plant breeding and clonal selection for utilizing the potential derived from the propagation of the traditional species by seeds. 2. Plant propagation to obtain certified material, and to develop reliable grafting techniques. 3. Post-harvest technology to reduce losses and to design good packaging and management systems for fresh fruit. 4. Plant protection for reducing the impact of some pests and diseases. 5. Orchard management to exploit the full potential of the area, A good training programme for the technicians involved is a necessary complement to the adequate research infrastructure. The Maracaibo Plain, connected to the world by air and sea, is one of the best suitable places for tropical fruit production in the continent.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok




NO. 36970

Pesticide residue analysis of major fruits


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, College, Laguna

Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; UPLB-PCARR, 1980; Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Project No. 253; 43 p

Abstract:
Studies on crop protection and pesticide use, insecticide efficacy trials and insecticide analysis are presented. Major Philippine fruits such as bananas, citrus, grapes, mango and papaya were involved in these studies.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 36971

Crop protection and pesticide use survey


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, College, Laguna

Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; [Pesticide Residue Analysis of Major Fruits]; 1980; UPLB-PCARR Proj ect No 253; Study 1; MISD; PCARRD

Abstract:
Selected fruit crop growers from various cropland areas in the country were interviewed to describe their pesticide usage and crop protection practices. The areas chosen and their corresponding crops were: Davao and Kalinga Apayao for banana; Cagayan and Davao for citrus; Cebu for grapes and mango; Guimaras Island for mango and Davao for papaya. Most fruit farmers were aware of the need to protect their crops against pests and diseases. Grape, citrus and mango growers considered the use of pesticides as the primary means of control. They also considered smudging, pruning and burning as an important mechanical control. In using chemicals, most farmers were guided by label recommendations on dosage frequency of spray, pre-harvest spray interval and insecticide-fungicide spray combinations. Most farmers received technical assistance such as shouldering of inputs and miscellaneous expenses from government extension officers. Others derived help from the representatives of chemical distributors.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 22890

Storage of selected fruits


Abdullah, H; Lam, PC; Rohani, MY; MohdSalleh, P
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceeding of the National IRPA Seminar (Agriculture), 6-11 January 1992, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Kuala Lumpur; Vol.II (Livestock, Fisheries, Food and harvest, Forestry, General); p592-593

Abstract:
Recent development on storage of selected Malaysian fruits are discussed in this paper. Among the methods highlighted are refrigeration, modified atmosphere and others.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 66886

Utilization of traditional herb medicines to treat livestock diseases in three villages in East Java province
Pemanfaatan jamu untuk penyakit ternak tiga desa propinsi Jawa Timur

Djarwaningsih, T; Uji, T
Research and Development Centre for Biology, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 97-105

Abstract:
Villagers still use traditional herb medicines to treat diseases of their livestocks in East Java. In the development of these uses, a research was conducted in three villages to know the kinds of ingredient, effectiveness and uses of preparations. The results indicated that there were 34 kinds of herb used as medicines for cattle, 17 kinds for horse and 4 kinds for goat diseases. The analysis of the plants used and cultural and social aspects were discussed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 101950

Diversity of home garden plants utilized by Dayak Kenyah tribe in Apauping village, Pujungan subdistrict, Butungan district, East Kalimantan
Keanekaragaman pemanfaatan tanaman pekarangan suku Dayak Kenyah di desa Apauping, Kecamatan Pujungan, Kabupaten Bulungan, Kalimantan Timur

Rahajoe, JS; Susiarti, S
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Buku 2; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; p 319-329

Abstract:
Study on the diversity of home garden plants was conducted in Apauping village - East Kalimantan. All of the cultivated plants planted near the dwelling area were noted. Pecorded were 86 species of cultivated plants belonging to 73 genera and 43 families. Among those, 40 species are commonly consumed as vegetables.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 66879

Utilization of plants for traditional contraception in Lombok island
Pemanfaatan tumbuhan untuk kontrasepsi traditional di pulau Lombok

Sahidu, SH; Zawani, K
Faculty of Agriculture, Mataram University; Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 55-59

Abstract:
Research on plants used for traditional contraception and method of using them have been carried out in Lombok island. As resource persons were midwives and persons who know well medicinal plants quite well. Results showed that there were 19 species used as traditional contraception. Two methods had been applied by people, i.e. utilization of single species or combination of some species. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67640

Development of agroforestry models in the dryland of Pulutan village, Wonosari subdistrict, Gunung Kidul
Pengembangan model agroforestry lahan kering di Desa Pulutan, Kec. Wonosari, Gunung Kidul

Wawo, AH; Wirdateti; Sutrisno; Naiola, BP
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Hayati, Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI 1991/1992 [Proceedings of a Seminar on Research Finding and Development of Biological Resources, Centre for Research and Development in Biology - LIPI]; Bogor, 6 Mei 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Proyek Litbang SDH, Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI, 1992; p 216-227

Abstract:
Commonly the farmers in Pulutan, Wonosari, Gunung Kidul have only a small field on the average of 3000 m² per family. Small area and dry climate are the limiting factors for farmers to increase their agricultural food crops, animal feeds, and firewoods. One method to solve those problems is through developing an agroforestry system called Three Strata Agroforestry with spatial arrangement pattern. This paper discussed the above model of agroforestry and the result (rate of growth and yield) of agroforestry component in the first 6 months. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67553

Several useful plants to improve and stimulate the production of ASI (mother's milk) in Java
Beberapa tumbuhan penunjang program ASI (Air Susu Ibu) di Jawa

Januwati, M
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 415-419

Abstract:
There are some useful plants to improve the health conditions of mothers and to stimulate thr production of "ASI" (mother's milk) in Java. Some plants are used as jamu and for health diet. These plants stimulate the production of good quality milk for babies. The plants parts of used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, stems and rhizomes.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 68685

Variation of ewe rearing by model 8-ewe farmers and development prospects in Wanaraja-Garut: A managerial aspect
Keragaman usaha ternak domba oleh peternak model dan prospek pengembangan di daerah Wanaraja-Garut; Aspek manajemen

Suparyanto, A; Djajanegara, A; Sudaryanto
Research Institute for Livestock; Ciawi, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-hasl Penelitian, Adopsi Teknologi Peternakan, 19-20 September 1991, Cisarua, Bogor; Sabrani, M; Kusnadi, U (eds); Bogor, Balai Penelitian Ternak, 1992; p 57-64

Abstract:
Observation on 8-ewe model introduced to farmers in Wanaraja, Garut district was carried out for 11 months. The model was aimed to produce baby lambs every month. Five farmers were given 8 ewes and 1 ram in January 1990. Feeding system, population and reproduction management practised by each farmer were monitored. Results showed that feeding system was carried out quite normally. However, suggested reproductive management of the model was not conducted properly. Therefore, regular lamb production was not achieved by the time of observation. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Research Institute for Livestock




NO. 930

Postharvest technology of fruits
Pascapanen buah-buahan

Wigati; Nurbanah
Seri Hortikultura No.Kode 02/B/1988; Surabaya; Dinas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan Prop.Dati.I Jawa Timur; Balai Informasi Pertanian Jawa Timur; 1987; 28p

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 933

Identification of vegetable and fruit development in four agroecosystem zones
Identifikasi pengembangan sayuran dan buah-buahan di empat zone agroekosistem

Widjajanto, DD; Santoso, B; Sawito, MH
Malang Research Station for Horticulture; Indonesia

Pendekatan agroekosistem pada pola pertanian lahan kering [Agroecosystem approach to dryland agricultural schemes]; Jakarta; Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian; The Ford Foundation; 1988; p203-225

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 32360

Papaya, jackfruit, ube: upcoming dollar earners for RP


Urbanes, PO, Jr(ed)
Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Journal 23(9): 26(1989)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32370

Performance of papaya grown as monocrop and as an intercrop of pineapple and banana


Angeles, DE; Mendoza, DB
Philippine Agriculturist 71(2): 173-177(1988)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32414

Fruits for all seasons


Arcega, MB
Greenfields 3(2): 3-7(1973)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 3249

Post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables
Penyakit buah-buahan dan sayuran sesudah panen

Sosrodiharjo, S
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (8): 202-206(1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3449

Propagation methods for fruit trees
Cara memperbanyak pohon buah-buahan

Rosjidi, M
Public Forest Corporation Unit II; East Java; Indonesia

Gema Rimba [Jungle Echo] 5(31-32): 22-27(1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4742

Respiration patterns of some fruits
Mempelajari pola respirasi dari beberapa jenis buah

Kurniandari, UN
BSc thesis; Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry; 1981; 58p

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 5974

Effects of ripening period and fruit species on the alcohol content produced during fruit juice fermentation
Pengaruh waktu peram dan jenis buah terhadap kandungan alkohol yang dihasilkan pada fermentasi sari buah

Jalip, IS
Thesis; Jakarta; Faculty of Biology; National University; 1984; 63p

Availability :
PROSEA Indonesia Country Office; Bogor




NO. 6487

Survey on diseases of fruits in the market
Survey penjakit buah-buahan di pasar

Roharsih
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; University of Indonesia; 1963; 27p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia




NO. 7950

Cultivation of papaya and banana
Budidaya papaya dan pisang

Sunarjono, H; Daryono, M; Poernomo
Pasarminggu Research Institute for Horticulture; Jakarta; Indonesia

Informasi [Information] (14): 1-29(1980)

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 8048

Why should we eat vegetables and fruits ?
Mengapa kita harus makan sayuran dan buah-buahan

Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 4(3): 8-9(1984/1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9650

Post-harvest handling of horticultural crops
Pasca panen hortikultura

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Ujung Pandang [Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Bulletin] 8(6): 2, 6(1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9779

Our fruits
Buah-buahan kita

Hardjohutomo, H
Bandung; W.van Hoeve; 1960; 52p

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 14449

An economic evaluation of postharvest tropical fruit research: Some preliminary results


Lubulwa Godfrey, A.S.; Davis, J.S.
Aciar, Gpo Box 1571; Canberra, ACT 2601; Australia

Proceedings of an International Conference on Postharvest Handling of Tropical Fruits; 19-23 July 1993; Chiang Mai; Thailand; p32-49

Abstract:
This paper reviews the methods for the economic evaluation of post harvest research; illustrates the use of these postharvest evaluation methods using six postharvest tropical research projects and provides preliminary results on the potential gains from postharvest tropical fruit research. (Revised authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 20106

Notes on current investigations, January to March 1953


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 36(2): 114-124(1953)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20137

Current affairs and research investigations for the period January to June 1964


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

The Malaysian Agricultural Journal 45(1): 89-102(1965)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20761

Soil fertility, nutrient requirement and fertilization


Othman Yaacob
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Fruit Production in Malaysia; Othman Yaacob(ed); Serdang; Selangor; Agricultural University of Malaysia; 1980; page?

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 20768

Breeding of local fruits


Yap, TC
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Fruit production in Malaysia; Othman Yaakob (ed); Serdang; Selangor; Agricultural University of Malaysia; 1980; p300-313

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 20901

Fruits
Buah-buahan

Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor

Lapuran Tahunan MARDI [MARDI Annual Report] 1987: 8-9

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 22328

The economics of establishing a 500-acre fruit orchard in Peninsular Malaysia


Kwok-Kong
The Malaysian Agricultural Journal 49(4): 421-432(1974)

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 30596

The Philippines recommends for fruit processing and utilization


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna

Bulletin Series No.68; Los Banos; Laguna; Philippine Agriculture and Resources Research Foundation, Inc; 1988; 100p

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 31001

Major fruit crops in the country


Garzon, ED; Palpalloc, LT
University of Mindanao Agricultural Research Center; Kabacan; Cotabato; Philippines

SMARC Monitor 5(3): 4-5(1984)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31562

Climate, soil and cultural requirements of selected Philippine fruits


Matienzo, LH, Jr
Greenfields 3(2): 2-8(1973)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31566

How much pesticide is left in fruits


Lastimosa, PJ
PCARRD Monitor 10(9): 12(1982)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31693

The digestability by swine of sweet potato vines and tubers, cassava roots, and green papaya fruits


Zarate, JJ
Philippine Agriculturist 40(2): 78-83(1956)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31964

Root distribution based on P12 uptake of papaya and banana under monoculture and as intercrops of pineapple


Angeles, DE
Dissertation; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1988; 126p

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32536

Post-harvest handling of fruits


Urbanes, PO
Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Journal 15(7): 33(1980)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32599

Qualities of good fruits


Bigornia, AA
Market Day (April): 25(1979)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 33204

Grow more papayas and bananas in the backyard


Rodrigo, PA
Agricultural and Industrial Life 12(1): 31(1950)

Availability :
Library; Department of Agriculture; Diliman; Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 34039

Dehydration of fruits


De Leon, SY; Bravo, OC; Martinez, LO
Fruits and Vegetables Dehydration Manual; [place ?; publisher ?]; 1988; p63-83

Availability :
National Library; Filipiniana and Asia Division; Ermita; Manila; Philippines




NO. 34045

The effectiveness of some local fruit and vegetable juices as meat tenderizers under household conditions


Manlulu, LM
MSc thesis; Manila; Philippine Women's University; 1966; 99p

Availability :
National Library; Filipiniana and Asia Division; Ermita; Manila; Philippines




NO. 34542

Preparation of wine from Philippine fruits


Gonzales, LG
University of the Philippines College of Agriculture Bi-weekly Bulletin 1(11): 1-2(1933)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34910

A comparative study on pectin control and quality of fruits for jam and jelly production


Dela Cruz, FM
MSc thesis; Malabon; Metro Manila; Araneta University Foundation; 1963

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34919

The effectiveness of some local fruit and vegetable juices as meat tenderizers under household conditions


Manlulu, LM
Philippine Journal of Nutrition 19(1-2): 159(1966)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34920

Banana and papaya sauces as substitute for tomato sauce


Manoto, HF; Guzman, MP
BSc thesis; Diliman; Quezon City; College of Home Economics; University of the Philippines; 1959

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34926

Solar drier for tropical fruits and marine products for rural development


Pablo, IS
National Science and Technology Authority Technical Journal 4(1): 26-41(1979)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 35085

Studies on the manufacture of jams from various Philippine fruits


Gavan, LD; Sulit, JI
BSc thesis; Malabon; Manila; Araneta University Foundation; 1970

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 35383

Production and management of a banana-pineapple-papaya cropping system in Tagaytay City


Magadia, DB
BSc thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1984; 46p

Availability :
Library; Department of Horticulture; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 35465

Production analysis of coffee growing in Barangay Lumil, Silang, Cavite


Donato, ALF
BSc thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1985; 92p

Availability :
Library; Department of Horticulture; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 36504

A study on moisture loss of mango, papaya and banana preservation using solar dryer


Mann, JC
BSc thesis; School of Agriculture; Silliman University; Dumaguete City; Philippines; 1981; ivp; 14p

Availability :
Library; School of Agriculture; Silliman University; Dumaguete City; Philippines




NO. 37099

Pesticide residue analysis of major fruits


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
RETRES Research Abstracts; UPLB; 1980; 43p; UPLB-PCARRD Proj. No.253; MISD

Abstract:
This presents studies on crop protection and pesticide use, insecticide efficacy trials and insecticide analysis. Major Philippine fruits such as bananas, citrus, grapes, mango and papaya were involved in these studies.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37098

Banana and papaya sauces as substitutes for tomato sauce


Manoto, HZ
BSc Thesis; University of the Philippines (UP); 1959; 34p

Abstract:
Sauce made from Musa paradisiaca L. var. Compressa (`Saba') and Carica papaya L. (papaya) pulps was studied to develop a suitable substitute for imported tomato sauce. Mixed with artificial colorings (Neco strawberry - red and egg-yellow colors) and flavorings (citric acid and salt) to approach the imported tomato sauce in color, flavor and consistency, the sauce was then evaluated by a panel of three judges. Preference for the tomato red color of the banana sauce over the bright red papaya sauce was noted. Bottled samples of papaya sauce were also noted for their finer texture and nicer appearance than bottled samples of banana sauce. Flavor evaluation showed that the sweet-sour flavor with slightly salty taste of both the banana and papaya sauce was preferred although they were regarded as poor or lacking in tomato- taste-appeal. Small `Saba' fruits gave better color, flavor and consistency than large ones.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37100

Crop protection and pesticide use survey


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
Pesticide Residue Analysis of Major Fruits; UPLB; 1980; ?p; UPLB-PCARRD Proj. No. 253

Abstract:
Selected fruit crop growers from various cropland areas in the country were interviewed to describe their pesticide usage and crop protection practices. The areas chosen and their corresponding crops were: Davao and Kalinga Apayao for banana; Cagayan and Davao for citrus; Cebu for grapes and mango; Guimaras Island for mango; and Davao for papaya. Most fruit farmers were aware of the need to protect their crops against pests and diseases. Grape, citrus and mango growers considered the use of pesticides as the primary means of control. They also considered smudging, pruning and burning as an important mechanical control. In using chemicals, most farmers were guided by label recommendations on dosage frequency of spray, pre-harvest spray interval and insecticide-fungicide spray combinations. Most farmers received technical assistance such as shouldering of inputs and miscellaneous expenses from government extension officers. Others derived help from the representatives of chemical distributors.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37104

Studies on the enzymatic extraction of fruit juices


Mabesa, L; Arca, RAR; Tan, WT; Velecina, MLM
RETRES Research Abstracts; UPLB; 1985; 3p; NRCP Funded; MISD; PCARRD

Abstract:
Efficiency of pectic enzymes to extract juices from banana and papaya was evaluated. Banana pulp treated with 0.5 to 0.75% (v/w) enzyme at 18 to 24 hours room temperature obtained 60 to 80% juice yield. Addition of 0.1% potassium metabisulfite to the pulp before enzyme treatment retarded browning of juice. Similarly, maximum juice yields were extracted from papaya and unclarified calamansi juice with 0.5 to 0.75% and 1.5 to 2% (v/w) pectic enzyme, respectively. Best blend for papaya and calamansi juice was 95% to 5% with 15.5 deg Brix to 0.6% acidity (sugar: acid) at 1: 1.5 juice to water ratio.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37113

Papaya, jackfruit, ube coming dollar earners for RP


Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Journal 23(9): 26, 36(1989)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 39325

Pathogenicity and cultural characteristics of Botryodiplodia spp. causing fruit rots


Lantican, MT; Quimio, TH
Philippine Phytopathological Society; c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology; Institute of Biological Sciences; U.P. Los Banos; College; Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 12: 66-74(1976)

Abstract:
Pathogenicity studies showed that wounding is necessary for Botryodiplodia infection to occur. Botryodiplodia isolated from banana, grape and papaya caused infection on the three fruits showing that they can cross-infect one another. Several fruits and vegetables were also easily infected by the three isolates. The three Botryodiplodia isolates exhibited slight variability in 10 culture media tested. They grew and sporulated best at 30 oC and pH 6 to 8. Light did not influence the growth of the three isolates although it was necessary for pycnidial formation. The three isolates exhibited the same conidial morphology. Based on the above studies, the Botryodiplodia isolate from grapes is found to be identical with those of banana and papaya isolates and therefore the causal species of Botryodiplodia rot of grapes is identified as B. theobromae.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 40154

Agriculture and population in the Mortlock islands


Boag, AD; Curtis, RE
Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries; Bougainville; Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal 12(1): 20-27(1959)

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40202

Yam gardens and fallows in the Torricelli foothills, Drekikir District, East Sepik


Allen, BJ
Office of Environment and Conservation; Waigani; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

Proceedings of the Second Papua New Guinea Food Crops Conference, Goroka 14-18th July 1980; Port Moresby; Department of Primary Industry; 1982; Part 2; p236-255

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40211

Subsistence agriculture and Papua New Guinea economy


Shaw, B
National Centre for Development Studies; Australia National University; city?

Agriculture in the Papua New Guinea economy; Institute of National Affairs Inc. Discussion Paper No.20; 1985; p13-26

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40229

Training for food crop production


French, BR
Vudal Agricultural College; East New Britain Province; Papua New Guinea

Proceedings of the 1975 Papua New Guinea Food Crops Conference; Port Moresby; Department of Primary Industry; 1976; p275-286

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40244

Other crops


Sillitoe, P
Social Anthropology; La Trobe University; USA

Roots of the earth: crops in the highlands of Papua New Guinea; Section 1; Washington; 1983; p135-136

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40286

Subsistence agriculture in Milne Bay subdistrict


Cheung, P
Department of Primary Industry; Milne Bay province; Papua New Guinea

Six studies in subsistence agriculture; Department of Primary Industry Extension Bulletin No.11; 1980; p9-14

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40361

Social setting: The Eastern highlands


Moulik, TK
New Guinea Research Unit; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

New Guinea Research Bulletin No.53; 1973; p50-65

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40363

Social setting: Milne Bay


Moulik, TK
New Guinea Research Unit; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

New Guinea Research Bulletin No.53; 1973; p20-34

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40365

Siwai: The environment stage


Connell, J
Development Studies Centre; Australian National University; Canberra

Taim bilong mani: The evolution of agriculture in a Solomon Islands society; Canberra; Australian National University; Development Studies Centre; 1978; Monograph No.12; p1-22

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40390

Papua New Guinea food problems: time for action


Bourke, RM; Carrad, B; Heywood, P
Department of Primary Industry; Kainantu; Eastern Highlands province; Papua New Guinea

Department of Primary Industry Research Bulletin No.29; 1981; 42p

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40476

Food crop cultivation


Calcinai, BL
Highlands Agricultural Experiment Station; Aiyura; Papua New Guinea

Agriculture - Grades 7 & 10 teachers resource book; Port Moresby; Department of Education; Papua New Guinea; 1982; 81p

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40543

Post harvest handling 2. Getting your produce safely to market


Atkinson, G; Brum Sr., M
Department of Primary Industry; Konedobu; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

Harvest 11(3): 99-104(1985)

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40628

Statistical report on Enga Provincial smallholding crop survey - 1979/80


Waliji, ZA
Department of Primary Industry; Konedobu; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

Rural Statistics Bulletin No.5; Konedobu; Department of Primary Industry; 1982; vp; 7p

Availability :
Library; Papua New Guinea University of Technology; Lae; Morobe




NO. 40655

Agriculture year at Yabob village


Vicary, JR
District Agriculture Officer of Madang; Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea Agriculture Journal 12(4): 180-191 (1960)

Availability :
Library; Papua New Guinea University of Technology; Lae; Morobe




NO. 60827

Developing fruit crops
Pengembangan buah-buahan

Lamsayun, S
Pasarminggu Research Institute for Horticulture; Jakarta; Indonesia

Hortikultura [Horticulture] (13): 401-402(1981)

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 61262

Vitamine A source vegetables cultivated at homegardens
Sayuran sumber vitamin A di pekarangan

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Kalimantan Selatan [South Kalimantan Agricultural Information Bulletin] (10): (1990)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61300

Utilization of nutritious foodstuffs
Pemanfaatan bahan makanan bergizi

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lampung [Lampung Agricultural Information Bulletin] (10): (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62719

Research on fruits drying by solar energie dryer
Penelitian pengeringan buah-buahan dengan alat pengering energi surya

Malengkas, H.J.; Tandeliling, M.; Moningka, F.P.R.; Tompunu, S.R.J.; Sondalih, D.
Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Komunikasi Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri Manado [Communication of Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry] (76): 1-40(1985)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 63483

Some alternatives of utilization of fruits waste
Beberapa alternatif pemanfaatan limbah buah-buahan

Genisa, J.
Lontara; Hasanuddin University Magazine 27(35): 27-35(1989)

Availability :
Airlangga University; Surabaya; East Java; Indonesia




NO. 64830

Post-harvest diseases on fruits and vegetables
Penyakit buah-buahan dan sayuran sesudah panen

Sosrodiharjo, S.
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH); Pasarminggu; Jakarta; Indonesia

Horticulture (8): 202-206 (1979)

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 65135

Traditional agroforestry at Gunung Bunder II village, Cibungbulang subdistrict, Bogor district, West Java
Agroforestri tradisional di desa Gunung Bunder II, Kecamatan Cibungbulang, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat

Priarso, S.R.
S1 Thesis; Jakarta; Faculty of Biology; Nasional University; 1986; 56 p

Availability :
PROSEA Indonesia Country Office




NO. 68741

The efforts on breeding pesquet's parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus) in captivity


Prijono, Siti Nuramaliati; Mananseng, Jansen
Zoology Division of the Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI; Bogor; Indonesia

Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of South-East Asian Zoological Parks Association; Bogor 11-15 August 1993; Jakarta, Indonesian Zoological Parks Association; 1993; p88-99

Abstract:
Pesquet's parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus) is very rare and unusual parrot from the forested mountains of Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea. This bird is protected in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to know the normal behaviour of this bird, to find the right bond of the bird, and to determine the feed preferences in captivity. To develop succesful methods of animal captive breeding often required a detailed knowledge of basic biology of a species, including its behaviour and nutrition. Furthermore the captive breeding of threatened species was becoming a necessary part of conservation efforts world wide. Four birds in two aviaries in Indonesian Safari Park were used in this study. Each aviary content of two birds. The size for each aviary was 400 cm x 250 cm x 270 cm. The birds were fed three kind of fruits, sweet potatoes and high protein diets. Time sampling method was used for observing their maintenance behaviour and feeding activities. The results showed that the maintenance behaviour was more active during the day (12: 00-12: 30) than in the afternoon and in the morning. While the feeding activities in the tree of different time was not significant different. The average time of courtship feeding of a pair birds has been formed a right bond was 4 min. 10 sec. per hour. The birds in captivity tend to get feed lack of protein. It suppose that the birds need enough protein in their diets for their growth, maintenance and reproduction. Therefore, to meet the requirement of protein in the diets of Pesquet's Parrot, the birds fed high protein diets (mixed: Dog food, egg yolk, apple juice and honey), besides fed guava, bananas, papaya, and cooked sweet potatoes. The result showed that the feed preferences of Pesquet's parrot was as follows: papaya (39.9%), bananas (22.6%), guava (11.1%), while sweet potatoes (9.9%), diets high protein (8.7%) and red sweet potatoes (7.8%). (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Indonesian Safari Park; Cisarua; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69074

Plants beneficial for accelerating mothers' milk
Tumbuhan yang berkhasiat melancarkan air susu ibu

Rostiana, Otih; Mulyati, Rosita Sri; Yuliani, Sri; Januwati, M.
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants; Bogor; Indonesia

Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian; Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia [Agricultural Research and Development News] 14(1): 5-8(1992)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 101064

Study on the feed supply pattern for goat bred in Jeneponto district
Studi pola penyediaan pakan untuk ternak kambing di kabupaten Jeneponto

Ella, A.; Paat, P.C.; Salam, R.
Gowa Research Station for Livestock; Ujung Pandang; South Sulawesi; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie, B(ed); Haryanto, B (ed); Wina, E (ed); Kompiang, I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto, K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 475-483

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1805

Industrial production and utilization of enzymes from flowering plants


Schwimmer, S
Western Regional Research laboratory; US Department of Agriculture; Albany; USA

Economic Botany 8: 99-112 (1954)

Availability :
UPSEA; Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 20074

Notes on current investigations (Research) - April to June 1956


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 39 (30): 220-227 (1956)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20095

Notes on extension work, March to May 1954


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 37 (3): 186-189 (1954)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 34908

A chemical study on the use of papaya sap as an enzymatic fungicide


Buenaventura, F
Out-of-school Science Education Magazine 6 (1): 23-32 (1978)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34048

Production process - fruit canning project


Muro, V
Developing Philippine Business Enterprises Publication Series 114: 1-40 (1977)

Availability :
National Library; Filipiniana and Asia Division; Ermita; Manila; Philippines




NO. 40571

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) content of some Papua New Guinean fruits and vegetables


Bagar,MR;Oswal,V;Norumu,W
Department of Chemical Technology;PNG University of Technology; Lae;Papua New Guinea

Lae;PNG University of Technology;1982;14p

Availability :
Matheson Library;PNG University of Technology;Lae;Papua New Guinea




NO. 62475

Medicinal crops as export commodity resources
Tanaman obat sebagai sumber bahan komoditi ekspor

Taroeno; Gunawan, D; Soegihardjo, C.J
Faculty of Pharmacy; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Makalah Pada Pekan Ekspor Obat-obat Tradisional I di Solo [Paper Presented on the 1st Export Week of Traditional Medicine, Solo]; December, 1983; 12p

Availability :
Library of Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 37234

Plant constituents active against phytopathogens


Chua, N.M
PROJECT Database; Philippine Council for Health and Resources Development

Abstract:
The aqueous extract of the following plant materials were found to exhibit varying degrees of activities against Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus niger: Carica papaya seed, Ocimum sanctum leaf, Allium cepa bulb, Allium sativum bulb and Curcuma longa bulb.

Availability :
CONTRIBUTING INSTITUTION: Philippine Council for Health and Resources Development; UST-RCNS; UST




NO. 68233

Prospect of agropharmaceutical industries in Indonesia
Prospek industri agrofarmasi di Indonesia

Sidik
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Padjadjaran University; Bandung; Indonesia

Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah; Hasil Penelitian Plasma Nutfah dan Budidaya Tanaman Obat [Proceedings of the Scientific Communication Forum on Germplasms Research Result and Cultivation of Medicinal Crops], Bogor 2-3 Maret 1992; Buku II; Sitepu, D., et al. (eds.); Seri Pengembangan (20): 171-187 (1992)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68616

Controlling parasitic digestive-tract diseases on small ruminants through traditional medicine practices
Penanggulangan penyakit parasit saluran pencernaan pada ruminansia kecil dengan pengobatan secara tradisional

Murdiati, T.B; Bahri, S
Research Institute for Veterinary Science; Jl.R.E. Martadinata 30; Bogor 16114; Indonesia

Prosiding Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-hasil Penelitian Peternakan di Pedesaan [Proceedings of a Seminar on Processing and Communication of the Research Results of Animal Husbandry in the Villages] 27-29 Januari 1993; Iskandar, S (ed.); Syahgar, S (ed.); Supandji, S (ed.); Hidayat, S (ed.); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1993; p72-78

Availability :
Research Institute for Livestock




NO. 9626

Methods of fruit preservation
Cara pengawetan buah-buahan

Anonymous
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lembang [Lembang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (01): 28-29 (1981/1982)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 12121

Medicinal herbs from the backyard
Samunphrai nai suan khrua

Unchitwatthana, U
Agricultural Toxicology Division; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

Toxic Substances News and Report 10 (4): 106-108 (1983)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 30380

Coconut-based multi-story cropping


Margate, R.Z; Magat, S.S
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 8 (2): 81-86 (1983)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 68397

Preliminary study on the pest control of Lophobaris serratipes using natural insecticides
Studi pendahuluan pengendalian hama Lophobaris serratipes dengan insecticida alami

Mustikawati, D.R
Research Station for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri [Communication Media of Research and Development of Industrial Crops] (12): 27-30 (1993)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65950

Growth of clove (Eugenia aromatica O.K.) seedlings treated with gibberellin (GA3) in several lervels of seed damage
Pertumbuhan bibit cengkeh (Eugenia aromatica O.K.) akibat penggunaan gibberelin (GA3) pada beberapa tingkat kerusakan benih

Dhalimi, A
S2 thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Postgraduate; Gadjah Mada University; 1984; 64p

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 34917

Determination of chemical changes and sequence of microbiological flora in pickled papaya


King, R.L; Gatchalian, M.M
BSc thesis; Diliman; Quezon City; College of Home Economics; University of the Philippines; 1975

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Ba¤os; Laguna




NO. 36524

The effects of Tagetes erecta,Raphanus sativus,Zingiber officinale,Euphorbia pulcherrina and Carica papaya on the control of aphids


Culi, M.M
BSc thesis; School of Agriculture; Silliman University; Dumaguete City; Philippines; 1978; ivp; 14p

Availability :
Library; School of Agriculture; Silliman University; Dumaguete City; Philippines




NO. 68200

Increase of backyard productivity in Gambir Manis village, Pracimantoro subdistrict, Wonogiri district, Central Java
Peningkatan produktivitas pekarangan di desa Gambirmanis, Kec. Pracimantoro, Kab. Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah

Sumarnie-H. Priyono; Harahap, R; Komarudin, E
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Hayati [Proceedings of the Seminar on Research Result and Development of Biological Resources] 1992/1993. Proyek Litbang Sumber Daya Hayati; Puslitbang Biologi-LIPI; 1993; p406-412

Abstract:
This study was to test production models for increasing benefits from backyard areas. Two models of plant combination were introduced to the farmers; and they consisted of fruits, vegetables, herbs, and ornamental plants. It was indicated that ornamental plants such as Bougainvillea, Amarillys, and Vinca showed their high adaptability to dryness, while vegetables with high adaptability were Chinese leaves, spinach, cucumber, chili and tomatoes. Constraints in increasing backyard productivity were discussed in the paper. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 66110

Postharvest handling of fruit crops
Pasca panen buah-buahan

Ambon Agricultural Information Service 49: ?p (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 33175

Investigation of some Philippine plants for insecticidal activity


Alberto,SP
Journal of the Philippine Pharmaceutical Association 40(2):37-40(1953)

Availability :
Library;College of Pharmacy;University of the Philippines;Ermita;Manila




NO. 34095

Investigation of some Philippine plants for insecticidal activity


Alberto,SP
Centro Escolar University; Manila; Philippines

Graduate and Faculty Studies 3:193-207(1952)

Availability :
National Library;Manila;Philippines




NO. 37316

Suitability of the unfertilized ovule of jackfruit in jelly making


Dizon, GC
Central Luzon State University;Munoz,Nueva Ecija;Philippines

BSc thesis;Central Luzon State University;1977;19p

Abstract:
Four samples, each replicated three times were used in the experiment. A mixture of fresh unripe papaya and ripe pulp of jackfruit, simmered at 176 F for 45 minutes was used as the control. Another preparation was made using ripe pulp and unfertilized ovule of jackfruit simmered at 176 F for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among treatments as regards to general appearance, texture and palatability of the jellied fruits.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University




NO. 37106

Supply and price relationships for selected fruits and vegetables in the Philippines


Pabuayon, I; Aragon, CT; Rosario, G; Manalo, I
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)

Abstract:
Production, hectarage and yield of selected fruits (mango, papaya, citrus) and vegetables (tomato, eggplant, mungbean) were examined in terms of regional concentration and shifts, trends and changes. For vegetables, 62-74% of the national output came from the three leading regions, namely: Ilocos, Northern Mindanao and Central Luzon for tomato; Southern Tagalog, Ilocos and Central Luzon for eggplant; and Ilocos, Western Visayas, and Central Luzon for mungbean. The three top regions for fruits produced 54-68% of the total output. These were Southern Tagalog, Western Visayas and Central Visayas for papaya; Western Visayas, Central Luzon and Ilocos for mango; and Southern Mindanao, Southern Tagalog and Bicol for citrus. The country's production of fruits and vegetables generally showed upward trends with annual growth rate of 3.08% for papaya, improvement in productivity, the national yields still lower than the potential. Trends in production, area and yield varied greatly among regions with some exhibiting declines in production and yield and others expanding hectarage. Regional shifts in production also occurred. Northern Mindanao and Ilocos which ranked ninth and sixth place, respectively, in tomato production during the 1960s emerged as the top producers in the 1980s. Ilocos and Southern Tagalog rose from the fifth to the first place in mungbean and eggplant production, respectively, while Cagayan Valley slipped from the fourth to the twelfth position in the papaya production. Western Visayas, share of the mango output, rose from 5% in the 1960s to 17% in the 1970s and then to 25% in the 1980s. Southern Tagalog, although maintaining its superiority in calamansi production was overtaken by Southern Mindanao in the production of other citrus varieties. Year to year variability in output caused corresponding variations in the farm, wholesale, and retail prices. Generally, all prices (nominal) showed upward trends. Seasonal price variations were evident reflecting the seasonal availability of the crops. Similarly, peapaks and throughs in vegetable prices were observed reflecting a cyclical pattern. Yields of tomato improved with the availability of technology and declined with a rise in labour cost and excessive rainfall. Eggplant yields, however, decreased when fertilizer rate and wage rate increased and when there is heavy rainfall. Mungbean yield was likewise adversely affected by the rising fertilizer price.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 90259

Assay on the antifungal properties of different leaf extracts against pathogens of cereals


Gochangco, AM; Mamaril, VR
Bureau of Plant Industry, San Andres, Malate, Metro Manila

Philippine Phytopathology 26 (1 & 2): 65; 1990

Abstract:
Extracts of leaves of kutsai, atis, chichirica, pandakaki, uray, kamantigue, alugbati, acapulco, papaya, damong maria, sambong, kamoteng baging (green) tanglad, katakataka, herbabuena, mayana, suwag kabayo, kadyos, sampalok, okra, ampalaya, kamias, kulasiman, siling labuyo, saluyot, alagaw, lagundi, lantana and luya were tested against Helminthospirum oryzae, H. maydis, H. sorghicola, Curvularia oryzae, C. lunata and Fusarium moniliforme and compared with Delsene Mx, a commercial fungicide. Leaf extracts were mixed with potato dextrose agar on which the test fungus was grown. Fungal colony growth was measured after 2, 4 and 7 days of incubation. Extracts of leaves of kamias, kutsai, kamantigue, camote, ampalaya, okra, kulasiman, saluyot, mayana, damong maria, papaya, calamansi and sampalok inhibited colony growth of C. lunata with kamias being the most effective. Colony growth of C. oryzae was inhibited by leaf extract of uray, sambong, kamote and ampalaya. Only the extract of kamantigue was inhibitory to F. moniliforme while only those of calamansi and siling labuyo inhibited colony growth of H. maydis. H. sorghicola colony growth was controlled by majority of the tested leaf extracts except those of acapulco, kamote, tanglad, okra, ampalaya, kulasiman and saluyot.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 94322

A comparative study of alkaloids content of the leaves of three medicinal plants kapanitulot, papaya and sambong


Salazar, N
HERDIN Database 000017-PC00026

Abstract:
The three plants that have been studied were papaya scientifically known as Carica papaya Linn, kapanitulot scientifically known as Justicia gendarussa Burm. and Sambong scientifically known as Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) D.C. are widely cultivated in the Philippines, chiefly alone streams at low and medium altitudes. Some authors state that the leaves possess some medicinal properties. A comparative investigation of the alkaloid content of the leaves was performed using the method of continuous extraction with alkalinified organic solvent. Result of preliminary study of kapanitulot, papaya and sambong showed that the leaves contain alkaloid. The extractive obtained was purified by shaking the organic solvent with 5 % sulfuric acid. The acid layer separated was then alkalinified with Ammonia T.S. and further extracted with chloroform. The acid-base organic solvent alternating was continued until the extractive became colorless.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 23140


Clonal propagation of papaya: problems and prospects

Chan, LK; Chris, KHT
Science University of Malaysia;Penang

Simposium Buah-Buahan Kebangsaan 1986

Abstract:
The difficulty in determining sex of papaya in the juvenile or seedling stage and the variation in characteristics in seed-propagated populations, may justify clonal propagation of this fruit species. Earlier workers have succeeded in clonal propagation by grafting and root cuttings, but tissue culture methods still faced some difficulties. Plantlets were successfully obtained from juvenile shoot tips at the University Sains Malaysia, but tissues from field-grown trees did not regenerate in the same media because of high microbial contamination. Several problems in the commercial production of plantlets by tissue culture were discussed.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24170

Postharvest treatment with Gamma irradiation affects quality of excotica papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Siti Hajar, A; Julie, LEL; Zainon, O
Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Second Asia Pacific Conference on Plant Physiology; Shah Alam; Selangor; 20-22 August 1996

Abstract:
'Eksotika' papaya were harvested at a mature-green stage. Subsequently, they were cleaned, air-dried, packed and irradiat ed at 0, 500, 1 000 and 1500 Gy, and then stored at 10'C for three days to simulate air shipment. Next, the irradiated papaya were induced to ripen using 3000 mg/L ethephon and stored at ambient temperature to an edible ripe stage. Quality and fungal infection were then determined. The number of days to ripening increased at the rate of 0.0021 days with increased irradiation dosage. Injury in the form of scalding was detected on papaya irradiated with 1000 and 1500 Gy. Weight loss in creased by 3. 1 0% and 3.58% respectively, for papaya irradiated with 1000 and 1500 Gy. This weight loss was attributed to the delay in ripening of the papaya. The ascorbic acid content of the control papaya was significantly higher compared to the treated papaya; a decrease of 0.04 mg/ 1 00 g ascorbic acid was observed with every increment of irradiation dose. Pulp texture of papaya irradiated at 500 Gy was firmer than papaya treated at 0, 1 000 and 15000 Gy. Normal colour development was inhibited by irradiation treatment. Green colour was retained on the stem- end region of the 1500 Gy treated papaya even at an edible ripe stage. Gamma irradiation treatment had no significant effect on the soluble solids concentration, pH and fungal infection.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23716

Studies on carpellody of stamens in papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 12(2): 157-162 (1984)

Abstract:
Studies on carpellody of stamens in papaya were conducted over two crops in 1979 and 1981 in a breeding population of five genotypes at MARDI Serdang. Data on carpelloid fruits harvested over three plant ages, i.e 6-12 months, 13-18 monts and 9-24 months were monitored. The results showed that carpelloid fruit development was significantly influenced by plant age, genotype and the interaction of these two effects. Incidence of carpellody in all five genotypes declined with increase in plant age. This was found to be related to a slow down in vegetative growth in older plants. A strong correlation was found between incidence of fruit carpellody and internode length among four of the genotypes (r=0.68** to 0.86**). Ahigh heritability estimate (h2=82.34%) was obtained for carpellody of stamen but effective phenotypic selection may be interfered by the 'change-in-rate' type of interaction between genotype and plant age. The implications of the present findings in breeding and selection efforts against this undersirable traits are discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23748

Evaluation of the performance and stability of papaya varieties bred at MARDI


Chan, YK
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 13(1): 1-7 (1985)

Abstract:
The performance of four papaya varieties, three of which were bred at MARDI was evaluated over four locations in West Peninsular Malaysia from 1981 to 1982. The mean values of fruit weight, fruit number , total soluble solids % and yield of the varieties were examined but interpretation of the varieties' superiority was inconclusive for total soluble solids % and yield where significant genotype- environment interactions were detected. For these two characters, stability statistics based on structural relationship analysis were estimated for all the varieties. The results indicated that the varieties were generally stable for total soluble solids % while only Backross Solo and Maradol were stable for yield. However, Maradol, the most stable was the poorest yielder at all the environments. On the other hand, Sitiawan which recorded the highest mean yield, was found to be unstable because of its greater sensitivity towards environmental changes. The antagonistic relationship between mean yields of the varieties and their stability statistics warrants some form of reconciliation between these two criteria in selection of varieties for cultivation under different invironments and circumstances.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 38350

Effects of predrying treatment on the physicochemical, nutritive, and organoleptic qualities of packaged dehydrated tropical fruits. III. Papaya


De Leon, SY
Effects of predrying treatment on the physicochemical, nutritive, and organoleptic qualities of packaged dehydrated tropical fruits. III. Papaya; DFSN; U.P. Diliman; Quezon City; 1987; 93p

Abstract:
A mechanical peeler for papaya was designed, assembled and tested to compare against the manual peeling method in terms of yield and quality of dehydrated candied papaya. Also determined were the best syruping method for dehydrated candied papaya, and the effects of predrying treatments on the physicochemical and organoleptic qualities of dehydrated candied papaya. The mechanical peeler consisted of a motor, a rotary sawblade, guide rollers and a plastic board. An approximate 10% increase in yield resulted in the use of the mechanical peeler. Both samples were sensorially evaluated to have a moderately to slightly shrivelled appearance, a golden yellow to yellow orange color, a soft to tender but firm texture, a sweet taste, and a general acceptability rating of "liked moderately." The syruping method judged to be the best for dehydrated candied papaya was the 405060 degrees Bx, with and without citric acid. The sample with citric acid had a general acceptability rating "liked very much" while that without citric acid was "liked moderately." Among the waterblanched samples under the predrying treatment tests, the one blanched for five minutes was the best sample. The sample which was steamblanched for six minutes was best among the steamblanched samples. The sample treated with 0.250.5% sulfite was also best in the sulfited treatments. The pilotscale production of 200 kg, ripe papaya for dehydrated candied papaya gave a 10% yield. The small yield was due to the fermentation that took place during syruping. The finished product was very acceptable.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 24160

Purification and characterisation of à-Galactosidases from papaya


Soh, CP; Ali, ZM; Lazan, H
Department of Biochemistry and Botany;Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Bangi; Selangor

Second Asia Pacific Conference on Plant Physiology; Shah Alam; Selangor; 20-22 August 1996

Abstract:
Three forms of (-D-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22) from papaya (Carica papaya L. Eksotika), designated as 1,11 and III, was successfully purified through a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, cation exchange and gel filtration chromatogra phy. -Galactosidase 11, the dominant isoform with a native molecular weight of 170 kD, had 52 kd-sized subunits and was positively stained for glycoprotein. Both cc-galactosidase I and Ill showed single bands on a SDS-PAGE gel with the molecular weight of 32 and 29 kD respectively. The three isoforms of cc- galactosidase showed different least stability, losing 50% of their activity at 67'C, 50'C and 49'C respectively. The iso forms respectively showed optimal pH at 5.5, 2.0 and 3.5 whereas their optimal temperature were 75'C, 65'C and 55'C. Apparent values of Km for (-galactosidase 1, 11 and 111 were 1.36, 1.35 and 1.09 mM pnitrophenyi-(-D-galactopyranoside respectively, while their apparent Vmax were at 1.66, 4.17 and 2.42 unit/mg protein. These isoforms of (-galactosidase showed the ability to degrade galactans, thus suggesting of their potential in volvement in the softening of papaya fruit during ripening.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24288

Some learning points from a large scale cultivation of papaya


Yee, C.B; Harun, A.A; Ravindran, V
Guthrie Agrotech Industries, Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad

Conference on Chilli Pepper Production in the Tropics, 13-14 Oct, 1992, Kuala Lurnpur

Abstract:
The major problems experienced in the planting of a large area of Eksotika papaya wet, presented and discussed. Papaya being a sensitive plant, required intensive management to be productive. Planting in big scale might result in efficiency, it also magnified the many otherwise small problems unless the intensive element was addressed. It was proposed that in a large scale planting, an equivalent standard of intensive management system can still be maintained if the production system has been predesigned to be uniform and the practices standardised. This would minimise errors and reworks which, while could be overcome satisfactorily in a smallholder system, would create immense problems and affect production in a large scale planting. Mechanization is essential to improve productivity in the production system to cover the higher overheads incurred in large scale planting.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 24544

Papaya breeding in the 90's


Chan, YK
Fruit Research Division;MARDI, Serdang;Selangor

Proceedings of the 3rd. National Fruit Symposium 1991[Prosid ing Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan Ke-3, 1991];140-143p;24-26 September 1991;Genting Highlands;Pahang

Abstract:
Papaya breeding in MARDI was started in 1972 and one of the major achievements in the programme was the development of the Eksotika variety released in 1987. It was high yielding, had very good eating qualities and was widely accepted as an export fruit. However, it also has several weaknesses. Further im provement of the Eksotika was achieved through hybridization with its sib line, Line 19. The new F, hybrid (Line 19 x Ekso tika) was tolerant to fruit freckles, had better fruit cosmetics and storage life, and its yield was also 10-15% higher. Follow ing the success of this F, hybrid which showed hybrid vigour or heterosis even from a narrow cross, the emphasis for research in the 90's will be the development of other F, varieties using wide crosses and exploitation of hybrid vigour. The work so far has been in the determination of the compatibility of crosses between 6 selected inbreds developed at MARDI, and the produc tion of these hybrid seeds. Breeding for disease resistance is another area that will be extremely important in the 90's. This is particularly true for papaya ringspot virus (PRV) and Clados porium malformed top. Papaya ringspot virus was recently recorded in Johor afflicting Eksotika as well as the local varieties. Screening carried out at the National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan in 1989 also confirmed that the Eksotika and other local popular varieties were susceptible. One variety, Califlora from Florida was however, quite tolerant. Some re sistance was found against Cladosporium malformed top in varie ties like Subang and Morib, which Eksotika was extremely suscep tible too. Work is now in progress in transfering PRY resistant genes from Cariflora and Cladosporium resistance from Morib and Subang to Eksotika.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24547

Major virus diseases of fruit in Malaysia


Yaakob, D
Fruits Research Division;MARDI Serdang;Serdang;Selangor

Proceedings of the 3rd. National Fruit Symposium 1991[Prosid ing Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan Ke-3, 1991];24-26 September 1991;Genting Highlands;Pahang

Abstract:
Important virus diseases affecting four major perennial tropical fruits namely citrus, passion fruit papaya and banana are discussed with respect to occurrence, disease severity. symptoms and control measures. Citrus tristeza virus is the most important of all viruses affecting citrus worldwide. This virus is endemic to Malaysia. The symptoms induced vary with citrus species. Effective control measures include selecting budwood lines that carry mild virus strains and use of resistant root stocks. Passion fruit mosaic virus disease is endemic in Peninsu lar Malaysia and it is the only major disease affecting the golden passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The symptoms induced in passion fruit: include mosaic, mottling and curling of leaves and reduction in vigor of affected plants. A possible control measure would be to use tolerant varieties developed through breeding. Papaya ringspot virus disease (PRVD) is a very serious disease affecting papaya worldwide. This disease, presumably recently introduced, was first detected in June 1991 in Johor Bahru. The symptoms observed in cultivar Eksotika were: yellowing and stunting of infected plants; water soaked streaks on petioles and stems; and ringspots on the fruit. Growing tolerant varieties and use of cross-protection by mild virus strains were practiced to control the virus. Banana bunchy top virus disease is one of the most important diseases of banana worldwide. The disease has not been detected in Malaysia. The disease caused stunting of affected plants followed by severe yield reduction. Control measures include control of the aphid vector and roguing of infected plants.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24551

Fertilizer requirement of selected fruit species


Zabedah, M; Raveendranathan, P; Abd. Jamil, Z
Fruit Research Division, MARDI Serdang;Selangor

Proceedings of the 3rd. National Fruit Symposium 1991[Prosid ing Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan Ke-3, 1991];24-26 September 1991;Genting Highlands;Pahang

Abstract:
Fertilizer requirement of three selected fruit types namely papaya, banana and durian was discussed. A general recommenda tion on fertilizer requirement and method of application was described. The importance of three major elements such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus was also discussed. The requirement of certain elements such as copper for papaya, mag nesium, manganese and copper for durian and magnesium for banana and the method to overcome their deficiencies were also de scribed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24717

An evaluation of the exotica papaya grown from seeds


Chan, LK; Chris, KHT
School of Biological Sciences; University Sains Malaysia; 11800 USM; Penang; West Malaysia

The Planter; 68(1992); p235-242

Abstract:
The Exotica papaya grown from seeds showed variations in terms of quality and productivity. The stand had a sex ratio of 70.9 per cent hermaphrodite to 29.1 per cent female plants. The height of the plants varied from 125 cm to 249 cm at 48 weeks. Production of fruits per tree varied from 41 to 199. The weight of each fruit varied from 170g to 1 020g. The female fruit had a larger fruit cavity than the hermaphrodite fruits. The sugar content of the fruit varied from 52mg per 100g fruit pulp to 104mg per 100g.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24836

The effects of gamma radiation on the peroxidase activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya


Asmah, R; Poedijono, N
The National University of Malaysia;Bangi;Selangor

Sains Malaysiana 6(1): 43-51 (1977)

Abstract:
The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening, and the external colour can be used as a maturity index in some climacteric fruits, such as papaya. Of the three levels of gamma radiation used in these experiments (100, 200 and 300 Krad), the 200 Krad dose level was most effec tive in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The fruits irradiated with 200 Krad could be stored at fruits could be stored at least 8 days after irradiation, whereas unirradiated fruits could be stored for 4 to 6 days only. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least doubled (90 days) the shelf-life of fruits when kept in the cold, and of these radiation levels, the 100 Krad level was particularly effective. The development of yellow colour was also inhibited by gamma radiation. Therefore, it may be that gamma radiation prolongs shelf-life of papaya by inhib iting the ripening process. Gamma radiation was also found to inhibit synthesis of vitamin C in papaya, but it did not affect the previously synthesized vitamin C. It is suggested that fun gicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf-life, because some of the irradiated fruits were rotten due to fungal attack.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24977

Processing of Fruit Juices


Asbi, BA
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
The thermal resistance of pectinesterase in guava juice (Psidium guajava L.) was determined according to the thermal inactivation time tube method. The rate of inactivation of the enzyme was logarithmic. The value for thermal inactivation time (F value) of PE in guava juice was 1.0 at 100.50C. This is equivalent to 1.5D. Sterilized guava juice was canned and stored for ten weeks at different temperatures. Changes in acidity, sugar content, nonenzymatic browning and ascorbic acid were determined weekly. Changes in nonenzymatic browning were greater in juices stored at elevated temperatures. The loss of ascorbic acid increased with increasing Storage temperatures. The overall quality changes of stored guava juice was found to obey a first order kinetic model. Pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) (PE) was extracted and purified from papaya (Carica papaya L.), var. exotica. Maximum enzyme activity of 6.98 units/min/ml was obtained by extraction with 2M Na Cl solution, at pH 8 and for 5 hours of incubation time. Ammonium sulphate precipitation increased the purity of the enzyme 4 fold with 75% recovery. The procedure adopted for purification resulted in an approximate 250-fold increase in specific activity with a 45% recovery of PE activity. The enzyme was eluted in a single peak after CM-Sephadex and Sephadex G- 1 00 chromatography. SDS- electrophoresis showed that the pure enzyme was made up of four sub-units ranging in molecular weights of 18,500-33,000 daltons. pH profile and temperature profile of papaya PE showed a maximum activity at pH 8.0 and at temperature of 650C.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 39311

Pathogenicity and cultural characteristics of Fusarium solani from papaya


Quimio, TH
Kalikasan, Philippines Journal of Biology 5(2): 241-250(1976)

Abstract:
Fusarium solani isolated from papaya infected all parts of the host except the trunk. Wounding however, is a necessity in infection. Unwounded ripe papaya fruits became diseased but only after a longer incubation period. The organism can also infect fruits of a wide variety of food plants. Different isolates of the fungus differed in pathogenicity on papaya and in colony characteristics on potato dextrose agar. The effects of the light and temperature on growth and sporulation provided further evidence of cultural variation in F. solani.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 25019

Postharvest application of calcium on 'eksotika' papaya


Siti Hajar, A
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of postharvest application of calcium on ripening and anthracnose infection of 'Eksotika' papaya. Papaya fruits were dipped in six concentrations of calcium (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15%) and then evaluated for their ripening characteristics and anthracnose infection at three- day intervals until the fruits ripened fully. Calcium treatment significantly reduced rate of flesh softening and skin colour changes and had no effect on flavour. Fruits treated with calcium at 3 and 6% had a significantly higher soluble solids concentration than fruits treated with higher calcium concentrations. Fruits treated with more than 9% calcium had higher titratable acidity in the first six days of treatment than the lower concentrations of calcium. Calcium treatment had no significant effect on rate of ethylene production and resulted in higher skin than flesh calcium content. The lower concentrations of calcium reduced anthracnose lesions.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 25020

Comparison of disinfestation techniques on the keeping quality of papaya


Yusof, S
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

UPM Research Report; 1993

Abstract:
Several methods of beat treatment namely hot air treatment (HAT), vapour heat treatment (VHT), hot water dip (H") and double stage hot water dip with fumigation (2HWD+F) were carried out to compare the effectiveness of these techniques for the control or disinfestation of microbes that cause postharvest losses of papaya. Treated fruits were stored at 1O’C. Observations on the microbial load of fruits were made before and after treatment.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor




NO. 25073

Influence of harvest index on ripening processes in intact papaya fruit and excised tissue


Vasantha, M; Nair, H
Department of Botany;University of Malaya;Lembah Pantai;59100 Kuala Lumpur

Transactions of Malaysian Soc. Plant Physiol. 3;First Asia-Pacific Conference On Plant Physiology;10- 12 November 1992;Kuala Lumpur;p247-251

Abstract:
Fruit maturation and ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. var Eksotika) was monitored on the tree and after harvest. The developmental changes were compared with that occuring in excised cylinder cores of tissue isolated from single fruit at harvest. Fruit attained full size and reached commercial maturity (colour break), about 100 days after anthesis. Total soluble solids (TSS) in ripe Eksotika papaya (Carica papaya L.), harvested at the mature green stage (index 1), was lower (9%) than for fruit harvested at colour break i.e. index 2 (11%). Distribution frequency data show that TSS of mature green papaya at harvest vary considerably so that when the fruit ripened, the slight increment was not significant. A similarly high variation in TSS values, though less pronounced, was also obtained in fruit harvested at index 2. However, when experiments with excised tissue were carried out to compare the changes in TSS in the same fruit, at harvest and when the tissue ripened, these changes were much more pronounced. Respiration patterns show regular, uniform climacteric peaks for fruit harvested at colour break but irregular and sometimes double climacteric peaks for the mature green papaya. On ripening, fruit with a double climacteric peak gave lower TSS values. Changes in CO, and C2H4 within the cavity of attached papaya was followed through ripening and related to the differing respiration patterns. The presence or absence of ethylene within the cavity of detached mature green Eksotika papaya and its possible influence on the variability of TSS in ripe fruit harvested at index 1, is discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25341

The cultivation of papaya in Malaysia


CHAN, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Report No.38(1975)

Abstract:
The report includes a discussion on the recommended cultivars for table and processing fruits, agronomic aspects such as planting densities, fertilizer application, irrigation, weed control, disease and pest problems and control measures under Malaysian conditions.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25342

Studies on Sunrise Solo papaya in Malaysia


CHAN, YK; TEE, TS
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Report No. 36(1975)

Abstract:
The Sunrise Solo papaya, introduced into Malaysia in 1972, has some special features that suggest its potential as an ideal import substitute for fruits. Through some systematic breeding efforts in the University of Hawaii, the Sunrise Solo is gener ally recognised as a genetically stable, true-breeding variety. The quality of the fruit is excellent. Its mellow flavour, sweetness and smooth texture are distinctively different from the local types. The fruit size is, however, small and may not appeal to local consumers. Proper marketing strategy will be necessary to popularise its exquisite quality. A number of com parisons with local types was discussed and tabulated. An esti mated production cost was included to serve as a guideline for the cultivation of the Sunrise Solo.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25214

Introducing the MARDI Backcross Solo papaya - apromising variety suitable for table fruit


Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI Fruit Branch Info. Leaflet No 9;13pp;1982

Abstract:
The development of a new variety of table fruit papaya at MARDI using the backcross breeding method is described. A comparison of the performance of this new variety with the non-recurrent parent (Subang) and the recurrent parent (Sunrise Solo) indicated that the MARDI Backcross yielded far better than either parents. Further with uniform sized fruits of about 600 to 700 gm and high sugars and good flavour, the new variety has excellent potential as a table fruit papaya. The strategy in seed production for the new variety to produce sufficient stock to meet the local demands is also discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 90024

Pythium rot of papaya


Divinagracia, GG; Valencia, LD; Magtibay, PR
Philippine Phytopathology 26: 52;1990

Abstract:
Pythium sp. was readily isolated from infested soil by using pieces of eggplant fruit as bait. Affected plants showed rotting at the base near the roots, and eventual yellowing and consequent death of leaves. Morphological studies showed that the fungus was P. aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz. It grew well on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar. Papaya seedlings of different ages were inoculated with P. aphanidermatum. Older seedlings proved to be more resistant. Inoculations at 14 and 12 days after emergence (DAE) resulted in disease incidences of 93.71% and 7.82%, respectively, indicating that older seedlings were more resistant. Preliminary greenhouse screening of 103 papaya advanced lines and accessions showed that three were resistant and five were moderately resistant to the disease.

Availability :
Fruits Division;Institute of Plant Breeding;University of the Philippines; Los Baños;College;Laguna




NO. 90025

Detection of papaya ringspot virus in papaya seeds by ELISA


Espino, TM; Exconde, SB; Maldo, M; Bite, MP
Philippine Phytopathology 26: 51;1990

Abstract:
Different parts of the papaya plant including seeds were rapidly indexed against papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by using the diagnostic kit developed at BIOTECH. Diagnosis involved the double antibody sandwich ELISA wherein polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were used. PRSV was detected in all the assayed plant parts including the seeds obtained from samples from Bulacan. PRSV was detected in all the seed parts, particularly, in cotyledons. Seed samples from Davao tested PRSV-negative. Pretreatment of PRSV-infected seeds with Tween 80 and heat failed to eliminate PRSV which was later detected in the leaves, trunk and roots of papaya seedlings 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplanting. Highest concentration of PRSV was found in the roots. Transmission electron microscopic examination of infected leaf dip preparations showed that the morphology of the virus particles was similar to those of the purified PRSV particles. Detection of PRSV with the use of the diagnostic kit proved to be rapid and sensitive. With the use of the kit, PRSV was confirmed to be seed transmissible.

Availability :
Institute of Biotechnology, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 90026

Detection of papaya ringspot virus antigens by ELISA


Eusebio, AA; Bajet, NB
Philippine Phytopathology 28: 65 (1992)

Abstract:
Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti PRSV-coat protein (CP) serum diluted at 1:5000 and anti-PRSV virion serum diluted at 1:10000 from Taiwan was developed for the detection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) antigens in papaya from the field as well inoculated papaya and Cucurbita pepo seedlings. The technique uses goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin conjugate diluted at 1:8000 and an incubation of samples after addition of substrate at room temperature for 30-40 minutes. The procedure was effective when the leaf extracts were diluted 1:10; however, the absorbances of varying dilutions of different leaf positions did not indicate conclusive differences in concentration of antigens. The different plant parts of papaya did not show consistent differences in mean absorbances among the different samples tested. Absorbances of the different papaya seed samples were not significantly different than those of the healthy samples. These results indicate that a virus serologically related to PRSV is infecting papayas in the Philippines.

Availability :
Department of Plant Pathology; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 90033

Microbial antagonists of the papaya fruit rot pathogens


Villa, J; Ilag, LL
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Department of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines;Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 28: 62-63 (1992)

Abstract:
Twelve bacteria and two yeasts isolated from the surface of apparently healthy papaya fruit by dilution planting method were ineffective when tested against Fusarium sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in challenge culture plates. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (B2), Torulopsis candida, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces chevaliere, S. cerevisiae and Cheese isolate III all showed no zones of inhibition when challenged with Fusarium sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in potato dextrose agar. Yeast isolates A8 and A11, obtained from papaya fruit, significantly reduced rotting of fruit in the pressence of Fusariums sp. by 70 and 55 percent, respectively after 7 days of incubation. Isolates A8 reduced infection of C. gloeosporioides by 41 percent after 7 days of incubation. A bacteria isolate 001 from papaya controlled C. gloeosporioides infection by 36 percent 7 days after inoculation. The six other yeast isolates tested against C. gloeosporioides gave no significant reduction in infection.

Availability :
Department of Plant Pathology; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 90028

Epidemiology of papaya ringspot in the Philippines


Magdalita, PM; Opina, OS; Espino, RRC; Villegas, VN
Fruits Division;Institute of Plant Breeding;University of the Philippines; (Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philipine Phytopathology 25: 1-11;1989

Abstract:
Papaya ringspot (PRS) exhibited a focal pattern of spread. A plot between disease incidence and distance showed a shallow curve indicating long distance dispersal of the disease. The relationship between incidence and distance was explained by a second-degree polynomial model better than `Gregory and Kiyosawa and Shiyomi' models. The relationship was defined as Y = -4.12 + 3.52 X - 0.72 X2. A sigmoid curve was depicted by PRS and the progression with time was accureately described by the logistic growth model. The relationship of the transformed disease incidence (Y) relative to time (X), was defined as Y + -11.84 + 0.74 X. Infection rates were highly variable duration the epidemic. Apparent infection rate was estimated as 0.74 per unit. Infection rate was not correlated with the number of trapped aphids. Weather elements together with aphid population sample were similarly non-correlated with the rate of infection. Integration of relative isolation, rigid sanitation and vector control reduced the infection rate by three-fold and delayed the epidemic by as much as 15 weeks compared with the control. Chemical control of vectors was ineffective in suppressing the spread of PRS. Vander Plank's sanitation ratio was calculated as 0.16.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 90029

Diplocyclos palmatus L: A new weed host of papaya ringspot virus


Magdalita, PM; Bayot, RG; Villegas, VN; Espino, TM
Fruits Division;Institute of Plant Breeding;University of the Philippines; Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 26: 53-54;1990

Abstract:
The study was undertaken to identify possible weed host(s) of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in the Philippines. Weeds growing in papaya plantations with high incidence of papaya ringspot were observed closely for the presence of virus-like symptoms. Weed species with such symptoms were collected, their sap extracted separately using mortar and pestle and inoculated mechanically to healthy papaya seedlings. Out of the twelve plant species tested, only the sap of Diplocyclos palmatus was able to induce on papaya seedings symptoms which were very similar to those of papaya ringspot. D. palmatus, inoculated with crude sap of PRSV-infected papaya leaves, exhibited virus-like symptoms such as mottling, crinkling, rolling and narrowing of the leaves. Reciprocal inoculation of papaya seedlings with crude sap of infected D. palmatus also produced typical symptoms of papaya ringspot. This was further confirmed by aphid tranmission using Myzus persicae. PRSV-like particles were observed by electron microscopic examination of leaf dip preparations of papaya inoculated with infected D. palmatus sap. These tests prove that D. palmatus is indeed a weed host of PRSV.

Availability :
Fruits Division;Institute of Plant Breeding;University of the Philippines; Los Baños;College;Laguna




NO. 90030

Fungal flora of ripening papaya fruits


Manalastas, ET; Pordesimo, AN
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines;Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 18(1&2): 2;1982

Abstract:
Papaya (Carica papaya L.), a very important fruit crop in the Philippines, has been found to be infected by several fungi in storage at ambient temperature. According to the rate of preponderance the following pathogenic fungi were consistently found associated with the ripening papaya fruits: Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus nigricans, Corynespora cassiicola, Penicillium(sp.< and Phytophthora parasitica. Several species of saprophytic fungi have also been found and these were Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus nigricans and several species of Aspergillus - A flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii. The most severe disease- causing fungus was F. solani, capable of infecting harvested papaya fruits in any stage of fruit development viz., green mature, rare-ripe, and fully-ripe. It was found to cause surface fruit rotting and stem-end rotting. On rare ripe to fully-ripe papaya fruits the following were observed: typical anthracnose lesions caused by C. gloeosporioides, surface fruit rot and stem end rot cuased by B. theobromae and C. cassicola. R. nigricans was found to cause severe hydrotic fruit rotting. This fungus and Penicillum sp., commonly acted as saparodes on lesions incited primarily by pathogenic fungi. Pencillum sp. produced velvety of powdery lesions on fruit, and P. parasitica caused a water-soaked lesion on the fruit surface. The saprophytic fungi were isolated from surface washings of fruits or were found growing on late ooze from wounds and hydrotic tissues. The perceptible synergistic effect of pathogenic fungi with others is predisposition of the infected papaya fruits. They hastened disease development which destroyed the epidermal and sub- epidermal tissues and gave the fruits an unsightly appearance consequently imparing the quality and marketability.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 90032

Effect of application of alum on anthracnose infection in papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Villa, JE; Ilag, LL
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Department of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 29(1 & 2): 112 (1993)

Abstract:
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides in papaya was minimized by the application of alum on the fruits. The different concentrations of alum (5%, 10%, 15%) produced different anthracnose infection depending on the time of application. If alum was applied on the papaya fruit prior to inoculation of C gloeosporioides, 0.35% infection was observed but when the pathogen was inoculated before the application of alum, (same concentration) 22-27% infection was observed. These results indicate that timely application of alum on the papaya fruit is important in the control of C. gloeosporioides infection.

Availability :
Department of Plant Pathology; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 90027

Effect of latex on postharvest pathogens of fruits


Ilag, LL; Villa, J; Banasihan, N; Opena, J
Philippine Phytopathology 28: 62 (1992)

Abstract:
The latex that oozes out when newly harvested banana, mango, and papaya fruits are injured, was found to variously affect fruit-rotting pathogens. Latex from ripe, "tuning", and green papaya fruits stimulated conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus sp., both pathogens of papaya. On the other hand, latex inhibited the germination of spores of Fusarium sp. which causes papaya fruit rot. Mango latex strongly enhance germination of conidia of C. gloeporioides, the cause of mango anthracnose. Latex from banana crown reduced percentage germination and germ tube length of F. roseum and F. semitectum but it stimulated germination of spore. Thielaviopsis paradoxa. These fungi cause banana crown rot. The condition of papaya fruit extract to the latex negated the inhibitory effect of latex on the germination of Fusarium sp.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 91434

Postharvest loss assessment of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Limbon, Indang, Cavite


Geronimo, SDB; Mendoza, DB, Jr.
The Philippine Agriculturist 71(1): 85-97;1988

Abstract:
Papaya farmers in Limbon, Indang, Cavite did not generally regard proper cultural management as requisite to produce optimum and good quality yield. Consequently, they produced poor quality fruits (56% of them lumpy and 22% small-sized). Postharvest losses and damage due to lumpiness (28%), over-ripeness (13%), fruit-fly infestation (12%), decay (10%) and size defects (7%) could decrease farm receipts by as much as 25%. Over-ripeness and decay were the major causes of losses accounting for 13% of marketing costs. Losses, transport fee (47%) and permit/market fee (16%) were the major components of marketing cost. Postharvest damages like cuts, bruises, scratches, and indentation were mainly due to poor harvesting and transport practices. These reduced the price of fruits which in turn decreased the monthly average net returns by 4%.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 91560

Evaluation of apparent flavor intensity of canned fruit juices and blends with varying total soluble soils and acidity


Mabesa, LB; Novero, FA; Aquino, EP
The Philippine Agriculturist 65(3): 235-244;1982

Abstract:
Apparent flavor intensity of canned individual fruit juices (papaya, guyabano and pineapple) and blends at different levels of total soluble solids and acidity (expressed as citric acid, %) was determined by a series of sensory evaluation. Addition of sugar can improve the flavor intensity of canned papaya and guayabano juices but not of pineapple juice. The intensity of pineapple was enhanced more by the addition of citric acid. The degree of blending of canned blends of pineapple, papaya and guayabano juices was found to be more dependent on the amount of juices present in the formulation. Apparently the blends should have almost equal parts of the juice (50-50 for two juices and 33-33-33 for three juices) regardless of total soluble solid content and acidity.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 92229

How you can minimize the effect of the worst papaya disease


Sarian, ZB
Philippine Panorama; March 2, 1997; p39 (clipping)

Abstract:
One way to minimize the spread of the spread of the disease (ringspot virus, aphids etc) is to control the insects that transmit the virus. This can be done by not planting crops near the papaya trees that will serve as alternate hosts of vectors. You can also minimize the spread of the virus by putting barriers like fishnet to prevent direct exposure of papaya plants to insect vectors, intercropping of papaya with coconut (or the other taller cops) can also be very helpful. Farmers should also recommend to sterilize their farm tools used on infected trees before using them on healthy plants.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92338

Studies of papain production


Castro, IR
NSDB Techology Journal 6(2): 61-66 (1981); HERDIN Database; PC912148; MFN 007466

Abstract:
Papain was prepared from papaya latex using various methods of drying such as sun-drying,oven-drying and vacuum-drying following partial purification. The activities of papain obtained by these methods were determined and compared. The yield from fruits of various sizes, the effect of continuous tapping on yield and activity, the best time of collection and the effect of different storage conditions were also determined.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Resources and Development; UST-RCNS; UST España




NO. 92677

Establishment of sampling techniques in Papaya using the rapid nitrate test


Tantung, RL; Angeles, DE; Constantino, MH
The Philippine Agriculturist 79 (1 & 2): 65-70 (1996)

Abstract:
Using the rapid nitrate test, sampling techniques in papaya were established. The recently mature leaves gave the highest nitrate concentration when sampled at 9: 30AM. Petiole sap NO3-N concentration was higher at the vegetative stage (4 1/2mos old) compared to reproductive stage (6 1/2mos old).

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 93060

Purification and serological characterization of papaya ring-spot potyvirus


Eusebio, AA; Valencia, LD; Villegas, VN; Bajet, NB
Philippine Phytopathology 33 (1): 49-67 (1997)

Abstract:
Papaya ring-spot potyvirus (PRSV) was isolated by mechanical transmission of disease papaya extract to both papaya cv. 'Solo' and zucchini squash cv. Blackjack. The isolated was propagated and maintained in zucchini using the infected zucchini as inoculum. After 21-30 days, symptomatic leaves of zucchini were collected, homognized and the sap was extracted and clarified using two protocols. The first protocol involved extraction with 0.5M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 8.4 containing sodium sulphite and clarification using Triton X-10. The virus was precipitated in polyethylene glycol and sodium chloride by centrifugation. After re-suspension, virus suspension was centrifuged in 30% sucrose cushion and the pellet re-suspended in the buffer. The other protocol used 0.5M borate buffer pH 6.8 containing mercapto-ethanol and clarification using Triton X-100 followed by centrifugation in 30% sucrose cushion. The pellet was re-suspended and subjected to one cycle of differential centrifugation. Virus yield was approximately 4-12 mg/kg of tissue using either procedure. Anteserum (As) against the isolate was prepared in rabbits by a series of intra-muscular injections. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the As, especially when cross-absorbed, reacted strongly to PRSV-infected papaya and zucchini, and with purified virus preparations at dilution of 1:1,000 to 1:5,000. The As was able to probe the protein band corresponding to the viral coat protein in purified PRSV and infected zucchini in western blots. The As has been used for papaya disease surveys, screening for PRSV resistance of promising papaya hybrids and inbreeds, and in indexing of tissue-cultured papaya.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 93061

Management of papaya ring-spot by isolation and inter-cropping papaya


Opina, OS; Tomines, RL
Philippine Phytopathology 32 (1): 51-51 (1996)

Abstract:
The effects of crop isolation, inter-cropping and canopy structures of inter-crop on the epidemic development of papaya (PRS) was examined under farmer's field conditions. Degree of crop isolation from PRS was achieved by varying the relative distances of potential inoculum point sources from each papaya field. Crop canopy structures were altered by using crops with different canopy indices and heights. The progressions of PRS were monitored under the conditions described above. Results showed crop isolation and inter-cropping of papaya with crops having different canopy structures significantly delayed the onset and reduces the rate of PRS progression. The distance of potential inoculum sources from the papaya fields significantly delayed the disease onset by 10 and 14 week when the potential inoculum sources were located beyond 100 and 500m, respectively, from the papaya fields. It was apparent that the effect of inter-cropping was less related to the kind of crop planted along papaya, but rather more associated with the canopy structures of the crop such as canopy index or the ratio of canopy coverage relative to the ground area and crop height. Crop height appeared to exert more effects compared with canopy index. Higher crop canopy significantly delayed and reduced the rate of PRS progression, but further reduction of infection rate was achieved by increasing the canopy index. This study clearly demonstrated feasibility of satisfactory PRS management by integrating strict sanitation practices, crop isolation and inter-cropping of papaya with crops having greater and canopy index.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 93262

A program for development of papayas tolerant to the distribution ringspot virus


Conover, RA
Proceeding;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach, Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.229-231

Abstract:
A breeding program to develop papayas tolerant to the distortion rigspot virus was initiated a year ago at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead. Objectives of the program, and progress to date are presented , along with comments regarding the disease and its importance in cultivation of papayas.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93381

Purification and serological characterization of papaya ringspot potyvirus


Eusebio, AA; Valencia, LD; Villegas, VN; Bajet, NB
Philippine Phytophathology 33(1): 49-67(1997)

Abstract:
Papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) was isolated by mechanical transmission of disease papaya extract to both papaya cv.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 94797

Use of papaya seeds as dewormer in native chickens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal parasites


Flores, TG
Compilation of Abstracts 1993-1999;Vol. 1(1999);Department of Agriculture Central Luzon Integrated Agricultural Research Center (CLIARC) Sto. Ni¤o, Magalang, Pampanga

Abstract:
Two trials on the use of Papaya seeds as dewormer in poultry at the most effective dosage were conducted from Jan. to Dec. 1995 at Dau, Mabalacat, Pampanga. Trial 1 mad use of papaya seeds infusion at T1, 1/4 teaspoon; T2 1/2 teaspoon; and T3, control while trial 2 made use of whole papaya seeds at T1, 50 seeds; T2, 40 seeds;T3 30 seeds; and T4 control which were given orally to native chickens as dewormer. Treatments in both trials were effective in reducing the number of ova and adult parasites with T1 of trial 2 (50 seeds) being the most effective since no ova and adult parasite was left after treatment. The average weight gain in all the treatments in both trials showed that there were no significant differences attributed to the resistance of native chickens to diseases and effect of gastro-intestinal parasites. Papaya seeds may be used as dewormer for other breeds of chicken. In places or areas where there is an abundance of papaya, the seeds can be saved and use as anthelmintics/dewormer in chicken without any cost at all. Other methods of application like incorporating it with the feeds may be tried.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium




NO. 94840

Phenotypic variability assessment of different USMARC papaya (Carica papaya L.) population/selection


Canarejo, JD; Manceras, AD
8th National Fruit Symposium;Elvira O. Tan Hall, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD);Los Baños, Laguna;14-16 November 2000

Abstract:
The study was conducted from July 1999 to March 2000 at University of Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research Center (USMARC) Kabacan, Cotabato to a)assess the population variabilities of USMARC papaya selectins; b)recommend which population could be further improved through selection/hybridization and c)identity which among papaya populations/selections are adaptable under Kabacan, Cotabato.|This study was composed of the following treatments: Hs Solo, and T1R1, CO31, P2, Jx canning papaya selections.|Significant differences were observed among treatments in vigor rating, plant height, plant girth, bearing height, days to 50% flowering, TSS, fruit width, fruit length, number of fruits/plant and average fruit weight. No significant variation was revealed in percentage female trees, percentage hermaphrodite trees and girth increment.|Treatment 4 (CO31) had flesh thickness of 3.55cm, widest fruit of 12.85 cm, and the heaviest fruit of 2.65 kg. Hs selection has found to be earlier to flower at 115.65 days and had brix content of 13.8 degrees. However, Garcia (solo selection) exhibited 70% hermaphrodite trees (56.67).|Data showed that canning papaya had longer fruits of thicker flesh while the fresh fruit solo revealed sweeter fruits, more number of fruits/plant and early bearing. Both canning and fresh fruit solo can be grown commercially under Kabacan, Cotabato condition. However, solo papaya are more preferred by most local growers because of high demand in the local market.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 94314

An in-vitro study of the therapeutic effects of Carica papaya against superficial pyodermas


Canoy-Valencia, H; King-Joaquino, SVB
HERDIN Database 023747-PC970867;MMC Proc. 10: 21-23(1996)

Abstract:
Carica papaya L. extracts was studied for its possible antibacterial effect against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The Broth Dilution Sensitivity Testing Method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC). The MIC of the papaya extract against Streptococcus pyogenes was 1.04 mg/ml, while the MBC was determined at 8.3 mg/ml. The extract showed no activity against staphylococcus aureus. Recommendations include doing the study with control drugs, and testing the papaya extract against other Gram-positive organisms.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Resources and Development; UST-RCNS; UST España




NO. 94321

A comparative study of alkaloid content of three medicinal plants papaya, caimito and langka leaves


Panganiban, MEC
HERDIN Database 000016-PC900001

Abstract:
this work dealt with the comparative study of the alkaloid content of the leaves of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn), Langka (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) and Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito Linn.). The alkaloid was extracted from the leaves by continuous extraction using a soxhlet apparatus with 95 percent ethyl alcohol and sulfuric ether as the solvent. Purification was accomplished by alternate aqueous acid, Ammonia T.S., chloroform, until the chloroform extract was near colorless. The percentage yield obtained using alcohol as the solvent were:1.02 percent for the papaya, .024 percent for the langka, and .903 percent for the caimito was obtained. The extractive was treated with different alkaloidal reagents like Mayer's Wagner's and Valser's reagent which confirmed the presence of alkaloid.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Resources and Development; UST-RCNS; UST España




NO. 94437

Phenotypic characterization of selected papaya F1 hybrids derived from a diallel cross


Villegas, VN; Magdalita, PM; Anjile, AGC
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 25(sup.1): 60(2000)

Abstract:
Six papaya inbred lines were intermated following a full diallel crossing system. Thirty F1 hybrids were produced,14 of which were evaluated based on horticultural characterisitcs and tolerance to papaya ringspot virus. Two out of 14 F1 hybrids have moderate tolerance to papaya ringspot virus. They are also sweet(TSS-11.8 to 12.4degreeB), yellow-fleshed, semi-dwarf, prolific bearer, has firm flesh, and has pleasant flavor and aroma. Implication of the results for controlling Papaya Ring Spot Virus(PRSV) are discussed.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 94476

Comparison of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed suspension, papaya(Carica papaya) seed suspension and pyrantel pamoate suspension as antihelminthics among the MCU grade school students with ascariasis


Gironella, CG
Inventory of Health Researches: 131(1994-1996)

Abstract:
In the Philippines, ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infections affecting adults and children. It is most prevalent in the ages 5- 9 years old groups of children. Today our government thru the Department of Health is encouraging the use of the naturally available herbal plants to meet the primary health care needs of our people, especially in the rural areas. This study intends to prove the ipil-ipil seeds and papaya seeds possess antihelminthic property which is comparable to pyrantel pamoate when it comes to cure rate. It also hopes to find an alternative antihelminthic preparations with better acceptability and the least side effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94703

Correlation between aphid abundance and ringspot virus disease incidence in papaya


Rabara, RC; Valencia, LD; Sumalde, AC; Bajet, NB; Villegas, VN
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21(sup. 1): 58 (1996)

Abstract:
Aphididae are mainly polyphagous insects that can be served as vectors of virus disease in plants (e.g. papaya ringspot virus, PRSV). Aphid population and incidence of PRSV were monitored in a half-hectare farm in Bay, Laguna planted to different lines of papaya. Aphids trapped in ten yellow pans randomly placed throughout the farm were used estimate the seasonal abundance of aphids. Monthly visual disease ratings were made on papaya plants set out in the field during the last week of April. First incidence of PRSV was noted in the month of July, three months after planting. By August, PRSV incidence reached 91%. This coincide with the moth when aphids were most abundant in field. Entire stand of papaya was totally infected five months after transplanting.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 94706

Developing papaya ringspot virus resistance in Carica papaya


Drew, RA; Villegas, VN
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21(sup. 1): 9 (1996)

Abstract:
Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most serious disease of papaya worldwide, and is continuing to spread in many countries including the Philippines and Australia. Traditional plant breeding between papaya genotypes over many years has produced a few tolerant lines but has not been successfully in developing resistance. Consequently, two approaches are being used to develop papaya plants which are resistant to PRSV. The first approach is inter-specific hybridization with related species, followed by embryo rescue and development of hybrid plants via embryogenesis in vitro. The second approach is the development of transgenic plants using viral gene constructs of the coat protein or replicase genes. Advantages of inter-specific hybridization are that it uses as source of resistance to PRSV which has been consistent in the field over a long period of time, and the procedure is not subject to the restrictions and controls on testing and release associated with transgenic plants. Similarly, there are no patent obligations on PRSV resistance obtained from other species. Limitations of inter-specific hybridization is hybrid breakdown of hybrid plants resulting from wide crosses, associated high levels of infertility in hybrid plants and the need for a long backcrossing program. Gene transfer has the potential to add one or two novel genes without any other alterations to an elite genotype. However, because this is a new field the procedures are prone to unexpected difficulties and delays. Long term performance of transgenic plants is unknown, and single gene resistance may break down under field conditions. The potentials and limitation of both methods will be discussed.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 94718

Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.


Pimentel, RB; Villegas, VN
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21(sup. 1): 62 (1996)

Abstract:
A good tissue culture system is important in the genetic manipulation of papaya. Somatic embryogenesiswas successfully induced from 90-100 day-old embryos excised from immature fruits of 4 inbred lines and 2 hybrids that were cultured in Fitsch and Manshardt medium. Somatic embryos proliferated 50-60 days after inoculation. Very good response to somatic embryogenesis was obtained from 2 inbred lines (py-3 and Py-6) and the hybrid 'Sinta'. Subsequent studies on plant regeneration and cell suspension culture are underway.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 93966

The biological activities of bio-catalyzer a.p. no.11 (bio normalizer)


Bernas, G; Remo, G
Inventory of Health Researches : 119(1993-1994)

Abstract:
Bio-catalyzer a.p. no.11 (Bionormalizer) is a commercial natural health product made by the yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn and other tropical herbs. Its biological activities were investigated. Parts 1.Antimicrobial potentials against Enteric Microorganisms. A total of 141 bacterial isolates were obtained from 84 gastro-intestinal specimens of patients suffering from gastric ulcer, amoebic colitis, diarrhea, internal and external hemorroids. The clinical isolates identified were facultative organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus (1.42%), Gamma streptococcus (1.42%), Citrobacter freudii (4.9%), Edwardsiella tarda (2.13%), Proteus vulgaris (2.13%), Salmonella typhi (14.89%), Escherichia coli (31.9%), Enterobacter agglomerans (2.13%), Enterobacter sakazakii (2.84%), Enterobacter aerogenes (32.62%), and Erwinia sp.(0.71%).

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94007

Comparison of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed suspension , papaya (Carica papaya), seed suspension and pyrantel pamoate suspension as anti-helminthics among the MCU grade school students with ascariasis


Gironella, CG
Inventory of Health Researches : 89(1997-1998)

Abstract:
In the Philippines, ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infections affecting adults and children. It is most prevalent in the ages 5-9 years old groups of children. Today our government thru the Department of Health is encouraging the use of naturally available herbal plants to meet the primary health care needs of our people, especially in the rural areas. This study intends to prove the ipil-ipil seeds and papaya seeds possess antihelminthic property which is comparable to Pyratel pamoate when it comes to cure rate. It also hopes to find an alternative anti-helminthic preparations with better acceptability and the least side effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94080

An in vitro study on the diuretic activity of Carica papaya methanolic leaf extract on male Ratus ratus


Yu, DC; Tayko, L; Tinsay, I; Tioseco, J
Inventory of Health Researches : 142-143(1994-1996)

Abstract:
The diuretic activity of Carica papaya methanolic leaf extract was investigated using 51 male International Cancer Research-Charles River, Japan (ICR-CRJ) strain of mice and 30 male Spraque Dawley rats. Administration of extracts was through oral gavage. The approximate lethal dose was determined at 28.84 mg/kg body weight and median lethal dose was analyzed by Probil Transformational Analysis and established to be equivalent to 33.651 mg/kg body weight. A metabolic cage method was used to determine urine output, specific gravity,pH,sodium,potassium,chlorine,glucose concentration among the negative control group(NSS), positive control group (Furosemide), and the test drug group (papaya leaf extract). The ANOVA revealed significant differences for the urine volume, potassium chlorine, protein,ph and specific gravity for the three treatment groups but not for sodium. Turkey's Multiple Comparison Test showed that papaya leaf extract was significantly different from furosemide but not from NSS in relation to protein concentration. Furosemide is significantly different from papaya extract and NSS in terms of urine volume. There was no significant difference between the treatments in relation to sodium concentration in the urine. T-test revealed same results as Turkey's Multiple Comparison Test.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94289

Use of papaya seeds as dewormer in native chicken naturally infected with gastro-intestinal parasites


Flores, TG
DA Research Highlights : 50(1995-1996)

Abstract:
Two trials were conducted using Papaya seeds infusion and whole dried papaya seeds as dewormer in native chickens. For trial 1,papaya seed infusion, findings showed that T1 which made use of 1/4 teaspoonful of infusion had an average number of 460 ova before treatment and 400 after treatment, making a difference of 60 ova. T2 with 1/2 teaspoonful of the infusion showed an average of 500 ova before treatment and 200 after for a difference of 300. For the control group, which in the untreated, there was no difference in the number of ova. Trial 2 made use of whole Papaya seeds,T1 used 50 species Papaya seeds which showed an initial average of 480 to 0 ova after treatment for the difference of 480;T2,40 pieces papaya seeds had an average of 360 before and after, the difference being 200;T3,using 30 pieces had an average of 400 before and 360 after with 40 as difference. There was no difference in the number of ova in the untreated group or control. In both trials, there were no significant differences on average weight gain between the treated the untreated group.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 94167

Screening of papaya fruit pulp extract for its antifertility activity in female mice


Leveriza, L
Inventory of Health Researches : 150(1994-1996)

Abstract:
The anti-fertility activity of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit pulp extracts was compared with an oral contraceptive by determining the effect on the number of fetuses conceived by female mice. Papaya fruit pulp extract produced a 50% reduction in fertility rate of experimental animal, although the positive control was 30% more potent than papaya as an antifertility agent.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 95675

Effects of sarcotesta and seed treatment on the germination and seedling growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Rgasac, RB; Olazo, JH
CMU (Central Mindanao University) Journal of Science 7(1): 140-141 (1994)

Abstract:
A laboratory experiment was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, to determine the effects of sarcotesta and seed treatment on the germination and seedling growth of papaya. A Completely Randomized Design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement with four replications was used in this study. The treatments with and without sarcotesta served as Factor A and the four levels of seed treatment served as Factor B. The results showed that sarcotesta significantly influenced the number of roots and leaves and the height of the seedlings. On the other hand, seed treatment affected not only the rate and percentage germination but also the number of roots and leaves, the height and the weight of the seedling. It was found out that removing the sarcotesta and washing and sundrying the seeds for four hours (A2B3) induced a higher percentages of germination, more number of roots and leaves, and taller and heavier seedlings compared to seeds sown with sarcotesta treated with the same kind of seed treatment.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95723

Germination, seedling growth and field performance of seeds from the basal, central and apical portions of the fruit of solo and Cavite papaya (Carica papaya L.)varieties


Gallego, EO; Flauta, EF; Cabahug, LM
CMU (Central Mindanao University) Journal of Science 7(1): 158-159 (1994)

Abstract:
The general objectives of the study was to determine the effects of the varieties and portions of the fruit as sources of seeds on the germination, seedling growth and field performance of Solo and Cavite papaya. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement replicated three times with 30 seeds per replication for seed germination and ten experimental plants per replication fro field experiment. The varieties of papaya (Solo and Cavite) served as Factor A and the portions of the fruit (Basal, Central and Apical) as source of seeds as Factor B. Ther results revealed that the solo variety of papaya (A) significantly gave a higher percentage germination (47.02%) and seedling growth performance. Likewise it produced taller plants (1084.47 cm) at 7 months after seed germination. However, it developed a relatively low percentage of female (56.66) and hermaphrodite (76.43) plants. On the other hand, the Cavite variety produced the most number of hemaphrodite plants. The study also showed that among the portions of the fruit where the seeds were taken, the apical portion (R1) significantly gave the hihgest percentage seed germination (62.15%) and height of seedlings (59.24cm) but had the least number of leaves of 8.9 per seedling. The central portion (B2) had an average height of 54.2 cm and 9.1 leaves per seedling. The basal portion (B1) had significantly the least seed germination of 33.48 and height of 51.27cm, however, it produced the most number of leaves. For a successful fruit production venture, planting of seeds from the apical portion of the fruit of the Cavite variety (AB) wil give the most number of hemaphrodite plants.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93260

Plastic and hay mulches for tropical fruit crops:observations and economics


Balerdi, CF
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp. 234-236

Abstract:
Plastic and stable hay mulches were used in newly planted avocado, mango, and papaya groves. Drip irrigation, and sprinkler irrigation were installed with the plastic mulch and the stable hay, respectively. Good tree growth adn excellent weed control were obtained with the plastic mulch. There was unsatisfactory weed control with hoeing or hay mulching. Weed control adjacent to the plastic strip and around the tree hole was obtained with herbicide and fiberglass mats, respectively. Major causes of mulch deterioration were unnecessary walking on mulch during drip irrigation installation and planting, adn the careless handling of equipment while moving, digging tree holes, and cultivating. When emitters discharged water on the plastic mulch rather than on the tree hole due to shifting by pipe contraction water failed to reach tree roots. Costs of laying the plastic and stable hay mulches, and hoeing are discussed.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 95842

Hybrid papaya


Villegas, VN
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1996; 192p.; Lantican,CM and Cabangbang,MVDF(eds); pp.9

Abstract:
'Sinta', the first Philippine-bred hybrid papaya, was developed by IPB was evaluated in papaya-growing areas affected by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Seeds available at IPB-UPLB in 1-, 2-, and 5-g packs. The institute is also accpeting advance order for ready-to-plant seedlings. A technoguide for its cultural requirements is available.|The following are the features of 'Sinta': 1).A cross between Line No. 5 and Line No. 3; 2).Matures early in 8-9 months; 3).Produces 17-50 fruits/tree; 4). Weighs 1.2-2.0 kg/fruit (medium size);5).Flesh is yellow, sweet, sweet(11.45 degree Bx,) and firm (2.42 cm thick); 5).Tree is semi dwarf and moderately tolerant to PRSV and is recommended for both backyard and plantation areas to rehabilitate PRSV-ravaged areas of Cavite, Laguna, Rizal and Quezon.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 95862

Papaya varieties tolerant to ringspot virus with horticultural traits


Villegas, V
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '99; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2000; 143p.; Belen,EH(ed); pp.56-57

Abstract:
Villegas (UPLB-IPB) conducted a breeding project entitled "Varietal Development of Papaya"specifically aimed to: hybridize advanced lines; test the field performance of selected advanced lines and promising hybrids; screen the reaction of hybrids and inbred lines against Phytophthora root rot; and test the performance of micropropagated 'Sinta' hybrid (the first Philippine papaya hybrid). Results of four ongoing studies namely: hybridization and selection;inbred line production;on-farm trial of promising lines and hybrids;and breeding related studies were reported.|Hybridization and selection. From the 13 F1 hybrids last year, Py 5x Py6 showed tolerance to PRSV. This yellow-flesh hybrid was planted at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit, Bay, Laguna to further evaluate fruit quality and determine yield stability. In 23 hybrids planted 8 of these entries from experimental lot 8 had ripe fruits. Only one entry Py 5xPy6 were found productive despite of the presence of PRSV. Meanwhile, 15 hybrids evaluated at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit were rated for PRSV reaction. Based on fruit productivity and PRSV symptoms, a new hybrid Py 5 xPy7 was observed to have PRSV tolerance. The hybrid solo developed inherited remarkable traits such as, solo fruit-size, low bearing trees, mild PRSV tolerance and prolific fruiting habit. Selected trees from the 12 advanced breeding materials at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit, Bay, Laguna are currently self/sib pollinated for advancement. 22 advanced breeding stocks were now grown in the field for selection and advancement. Seeds from inter-crossing, selfing and sibbing of four inbred lines (Py3, Py4, Py5, and Py6) were produced. Production of 'Sinta' planting materials (seeds and seedlings) is a continous activity at UPLB-IPB to meet the increasing demand of papaya gowers in Luzon. For commercial production of 'Sinta'planting materials, the technique of producing this hybrid is still in the transferring process to East-West Seed Company.|Inbred Line Production: selected trees of 8 inbred lines(Py2,Py3,Py4,Py5,Py6,Py9,Py10 and Py11) were self/sib pollinated to produce new intra-inbred selections. On-going selection of trees and self/sib pollination for 2 F2 and 2 F1 lines advancement. Self seeds from selected trees of 8 PRSV tolerant accessions with outstanding horticultural traits were now grown in the greenhouse. These new selections were extracted from the field evaluation of 12 accessions from Negros Occidental and 1 accession from Japan. These include tree selectionof red and yellow solo entries that showed high productivity and tolerance to PRSV.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 25539

Somatic embryogenesisis of papaya (Carica papaya l.) immature embryos var eksotika


Vilasini, P; Latipah, Z
Biotechnology Programme; Strategic Environment and Natural Resources Research Centre, MARDI, P.O. Box 12301, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The Second National Congress on Genetics; 13-15 November 1996, Genetics Society of Malaysia, p 446-450

Abstract:
Embryogenic callus cultures were obtained on half- strength MS medium, with full strength vitamins and various levels of 2, 4-D. The optimum level of 2,4-D was found to be 10mg/1 where a high percentage of zygotic embryos produced embryogenic callus or sometimes direct somatic embryos were formed on the apical dome. Sucrose at 6% (w/v) was found to be a better carbon source then maltose. Germination of somatic embryos occurred when transferred to MS (full strength), 3% sucrose and a combination of NAA (0. 1 mg/1) and BAP (0. 1 mg/l). Abnormality of germinated plants was reduced by the addition of ABA to the medium before it was transferred to the germination medium. The transfer of the somatic embryos to hormone-free medium for one subculture of 4 weeks before placing them on germination medium was also found to be helpful in decreasing the incidence of abnormal plants. Plants were successfully rooted and transferred to a vermiculite:sand:soil (1:1:1) mixture to the glasshouse, after it was acclimatised for 2 weeks under high humidity and extra light conditions. This method of somatic embryo production opens the gateway to manipulate or genetic engineer papaya embryogenic cells for resistance to PRSV and the lengthening of shelf-life of the fruit.

Availability :
Rosli;Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor




NO. 25612

Cloning and construction of Antisense gene cassette of eksotika papaya b-galactosidase CDNA


Lam, PF:Abu Bakar, UK; Tan, CS; Pillai, V; Hassan, MD; Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 12th National Biotechnology Seminar; Lumut; Perak; 12-15 November 2000; p461-464

Abstract:
A B-galactosidase CDNA was obtained by RT-PCR using total RNA from ripe Eksotika papaya fruits. CDNA, called PBGAL1, has 1043 bp and its deduced amino acid sequence has 347 residues. It is high homology to the other 0- alactosidase 11 sequences from the protein database. Two antisense gene constructs were made using the vector PUC19 as backbone, one construct contains the double 35S promoter, antisense PBGAL1, nos terminator, 35S promoter, NPT 11 and 35S terminator and other construct contains the double 35S promoter, antisense PBGAL1 and nos terminator without the selectable marker gene, NPTII. These constructs will be used in papaya transformation and to study the effect on fruit softening.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25798

Evidence of interactions among softening enzymes in affecting cell wall modifications during papaya fruit ripening


Soh, CP; Zainon, MA; Roohaida, O; Hamid, L
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p37-40

Abstract:
a-Galactosidase 2, and ß-galactosidase 2A and 2B, the predominant isoforms in ripe papaya fruit tissues, were capable to act on cell wall material (CWAP, prepared from unripe, mature papaya .fruit tissues, albeit with varying preferences. Both a-galactosidase 2 and ß-galactosidase 2A seemed to prefer pectic polymers enriched with uronic acid while ß-galactosidase 2B did not show such distinction though capable of afflicting composition and structural changes to the pectic fractions. Nevertheless, both ß-galactosidases demonstrated higher affinities towards hemicelluloses vis-a-vis a-galactosidase 2. The effects catalysed by these enzymes, however, were not independent ftom one another; these enzymes may interact in a synergistic or antagonistic manner when incubated together in a two-enzyme combination and the presence of all three enzymes seemed to restore their initial catalytic mode.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25799

Expression of softening genes and proteins in ripening papaya fruit


Zainon, MA; Soh, CP; Razean Haireen, MR; Nor Mayati, CH; Ng, SY; Roohaida, O; Hamid, L
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p41-43

Abstract:
Expression of several softening-associated genes and proteins were investigated in ripening papaya fruit Via Western blotting, ß-galactosidase I was found to be ripening-specific; its protein was only detected after the breaker stage and increased concomitantly with loss of tissue firmness (Ali et al. 1998). The protein level of a-galactosidase 2, however, was low during maturation of papaya fruit and accumulated during ripening (Soh 2001). At gene level, both PBGII and carXET1, encoding for ß-galactosidase and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase respectively, were found to be ripening-specific. The Northern blot analysis indicated that these genes were up- regulated during ripening andpeaked at 75%-yellowing-of-skin stage.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25797

Cell wall ultrastructure and disassembly during ripening of papaya fruit


Soh, CP; Zainon, MA; Tham, CH; Tay, WS; Roohaida, O; Hamid, L
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p33-36

Abstract:
Papaya fruit softening during ripening was found to be associated with extensive dissolution of the cell wall ultrastructural analysis revealed that loss in lamellation and disintegration of the wall matrix was increasingly pronounced as ripening progressed. The results suggest disassembly of wall materials and this is corroborated by chemical analysis of extracted cell wall material that was subsequently fractionated. Substantial dissipation of cell wall carbohydrates was attributed by loss of polyuronides and non-cellulosic neutral sugars from carbonate-soluble pectic and 4 M alkali-soluble hemicellulosic fractions respectively. The decrease in carbonate-soluble polyuronides along with depolymerisation of both water- and carbonate-.voluble pectins epitomised early ripening event. Degradation of the 4 M alkali-soluble hemicelluloses also partially characterised the early episodes of ripening, however, depolymerisation of I M alkali- soluble hemicelluloses constitute the later ripening event.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25800

PCR amplification and cloning of papaya a-Galactosidase


Roohaida, O; Kasazlinda, J; Zainon, MA; Soh, CP; Hamid, L
Molecular Plant Physiology Group; School of BioSciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p44-46

Abstract:
a-Galactosidase has been purified from papaya fruits and believed to p* an important role in fruit softening during ripening (Soh et al. 1998). In an effort to study its involvement during ripening, papaya a-galactosidase cDNA has been cloned. One set of heterologous degenerate oligonucleotide primers was designed. The forward primer was synthesised according to the amino acid sequence of the first 30 amino acids at the N-terminus of the enzyme whereas the reverse primer was designed based on several conserved amino acid regions in the a-galactosidase protein family. Total RNA was extracted from papaya fruit tissues at all ripening stages for use as template in the reverse- transcription PCR reactions. Two primers, AGF and AGA were used to PCR amplify papaya CDNA, The PCR reaction produced one band of the expected size - 1kb. The PCR products were then purified and cloned into pCR2.1-TOPO cloning vector. The clones were analysed and one clone, PPAG, which consists of 820 nucleotides was sequenced completely. Analysis of the sequence revealed a high homology with other fruit a-galactosidases such as coffee bean, kidney bean, soybean and tomato. Other analysis and characterizations of the clone will also be discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25728

Expression of gluthathione-S-transferase in papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika) after heat shock and cold storage


Roohaida, O; Lawrence, S; Zainon, MA; Hamid, L
Plant Molecular Physiology Group; School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor

13th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference: "Towards Sustainable Development in Agroforestry: New Paradigm for Plant Physiologists"; Kuala Lumpur; 10-12 September 2002; p22

Abstract:
Subtracted CDNA library of papaya that was heat-treated (HS) and stored under chilling temperature was constructed. A clone, designated pHS3, was randomly picked and sequenced. The partial sequence was compared with database sequences and it showed homology to gluthathione-s-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). The northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of pHS3 is repressed both during heat treatment and after cold storage.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25780

Effect of modified atmosphere coating on chilling injury and softening enzymes activities in papaya


Elmy Suhana, S; Nur Shahidah, I; Zainon, MA; Hamid, L
Plant Molecular Physiology Group; School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Sciences and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001); Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001; p136- 139

Abstract:
Effect of modified atmosphere coating (AMC) with a permeable formulation called EX 1000 on chilling injury (CI), texture, and activities of softening enzymes in low-temperature (LT) storage papaya (Carica papaya L. cy. Eksotika) fruits upon transfer to ripening temperatures was investigated. During storage at LT for 30 days, fruit's texture particularly of those stored under MAC, decreased slowly. Activities of the softening enzymes -pectin methylesterase (PE), a- and ß- galactosidase - were also markedly suppressed by LT. When control, non-MAC fruits were returned to ambient, their tissue firmness increased dramatically, as did the activities of the so the softening enzymes, PE and ß-galactosidase. MAC treatment seemed to have retarded this rapid increase in the post-LT storage softening enzymes activity as well as it sustained the level of tissue firmness. The coating treatment seemed also to be effective in reducing CI symptoms, thereby was capable to extend the storage life and maintaining the quality. An apparent drawback for MAC was that the fruits were unable to develop full yellow color when returned to ripening temperatures.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 96395

Preliminary screening of Carica papaya x C.quercifolia interspecific hybrids for resistance to papaya ringspot virus


Magdalita, PM; Valencia, LD; Sajise, AGC; Villegas, VN
Pest Management Council of the Philippines, Inc. 2002 Proceedings; 33rd Anniversary and Annual Scientific Meeting; "Pest Management in the Age of Information and Technology"; May 8-10, 2002, Grand Men Seng Hotel, Davao City; 118pp. p.106

Abstract:
A preliminary screening for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) involving Carica papaya, C.quercifolia and interspecific hybrids of these species was conducted. Plants were manually inoculated with PRSV in the glasshouse and the reaction assessed 30 days later by symptomatology and by a plate-trapped atigen-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA). All interspecific hybrids and C.quercifolia plants were positive for PRSV symptoms while C.papaya plants were positive for PRSV in PTA-ELISA tests. Further screening of the interspecific hybrids using back-inoculation tests and exposure to heavy PRSV inoculum in the field will be pursued. Implications of the results in breeding for PRSV resistance will be discussed.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96415

Growing 'sinta' hybrid papaya


Faylon, PS; Lopez, EL; Joven, JEA
R & D Milestones: Crops 3: 77-78 (2002)

Abstract:
Oversupply of mango fruits depresses its price to the disadvantage of the growers. To alleviate this problem, excess mango fruits can be processed into a more stable form, such as the popular mango juice. The production of instant mango juice offers convinience that consumers look for. It also lowers the storage and transportation costs of the product. The production of instant mango juice would also diversify the use of mango juice since it is in a powdered and more stable form.|Sprayed-dried, powdered mango juice was developed using a mobile minor spray drier. The powder had good solubility and sinkability. The reconstituted powder also resembled the taste and color of fresh mango juice. Based on product study, instant mango juice powder is very competitive in the local market in terms of its natural mango taste, consistency, and price.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 26004

Trace Element Concentration in Mango (Mangifera indica L.), Seedless Guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Grown on Agricultural and Ex-mining Lands of Bidor, Perak


Ang, LH; Ng, LT
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); P.O. Box. 201, Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur

Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 23(1): 15-22(2000)

Abstract:
Fruits namely mango, papaya, and seedless guava grown on agricultural and ex-mining lands in Bidor were sampled for analyse of heavy metal contamination. The concentration of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in the fruits were analysed. The results showed that, with the exception of Hg in mango and Pb in guava, fruits grown on agricultural land have higher levels of heavy metals than those grown on ex- mining land. The concentration of heavy metal in all fruits of both soil types ranged from 0.06 to 0.55 mg kg-l for Cd, 0.02 to 0.78 mg kg-1 for Hg, 0.63 to 8.71 mg kg-1 for Ph, 5.20 to 12.22 mg kg-l for Zn, and 2.01 to 5.74 mg kg-1 for Cu. Both Cr and Ni were not detected in papaya grown on mine spoils, whilst As was not detected in all fruits grown on both types of soils. The findings indicate that all fruits contained unacceptably high levels of Hg and Ph. The probable causes of contamination are discussed. Further studies are required to investigate the cause of heavy metal contamination in these fruits.

Availability :
University Malaysia Sabah




NO. 26085

Effect of ethylene absorbent in individual packing of Eksotika papaya
Kesan penggunaan penyerap etilena dalam pembungkusan buah betik Eksotika secara tunggal

Latifah, MN; Ali, ZM; Lazan, H
MARDI Headquaters; Kuala Lumpur

MARDI Research Journal 24(2): 155-162 (1996)

Abstract:
The effect of ethylene absorbent in individual packing of papaya (Carica papaya r L. cv. Eksotika) using polyethylene bag was studied during storage at 10 'C for 5 weeks, and subsequently upon transferring the fruit to ambient temperature (28 'C). The levels of internal CO2 and C2H4 were low with the inclusion of ethylene absorbent in the bag. Occurrence of chilling injury was pronounced upon transferring the fruit to ambient temperature. The injury seemed to be influenced by the levels of internal CO2 and C2H4 in the fruit. No change in colour occurred in the packed fruit during storage at 10 'C regardless of the use of ethylene absorbent. However upon ripening, fruit packed with ethylene absorbent exhibited better colour development. The values of acidity and total soluble solids of the ripened fruit were found to be inconsistent throughout the 5-week storage period.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26087

Will the renifonn nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) affect papaya crop?]
Nematod reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) menjejaskan tanaman betik?

Abdul Karim, S; Salbiah, H
MARDI Headquaters; Kuala Lumpur

MARDI Research Journal 24(2): 181-184 (1996)

Abstract:
The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is commonly found on the roots and in the soil surrounding papaya crop in Malaysia. In this experiment the reniform nematodes were inoculated on the roots of papaya seedlings cv Exotic which were then transplanted in the field in Serdang. The effectiveness of two chemicals Nemacur (fenamiphos 10%) and Miral (isazophos 3%). for the nematode control was tested. The reniform nematode did not reduce the growth and yield of papaya crop significantly (p >0.05). The treatment of fenamiphos at 20 g Nemacur per tree per 4 months was found effective in reducing the reniform nematode population. Isazophos treatment at 100 g Miral per tree per 4 months was also found effective in reducing nematode population but caused phytotoxicity to the papaya plants.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26120

Effect of irrigation intervals on evapotranspiration and growth of papaya


Aeshah, I
University Putra Malaysia [UPM]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; 1994; p121

Abstract:
Papaya a crop with potential for expansion is sensitive to drought and waterlogging. Although in Malaysia irrigation is provided to supplement the uneven rainfall distribution, reliable data on crop evapotranspiration are required to design a proper irrigation system so as to apply the correct amount of water at the right time. An experiment was conducted to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET) of papaya plant and the effect of irrigation intervals on crop growth. Papaya seedlings were transplanted into containers and observed for about 38 weeks under glass. They were irrigated through emitters at irrigation intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. ET varied between the four treatments. The daily-irrigated plants gave the highest ET, an average of 5.9 mm/day, and those with an 8-day interval, the lowest, an average of 3.1 mm/day. The plant height, number of leaves and girth measurements did not show a marked difference. However, flowering occurred only in plants subjected to daily and 2-day irrigation intervals and not in the other treatments.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 96694

Production and testing of diagnostic kits for indexing viral diseases of identified fruits


Espino, TM
Proceedings 12th STARRDEC Regional Symposium on Research and Development Highlights, Rizal State College, Tanay, Rizal. Philippines, 20 August 1999

Abstract:
The non-availability of effective diagnostic tools for detection of plant viral infection leads to the failure of disease prevention and control. With this technology, spread of disease will be limited since the kit can detect infection at the earliest possible time. The kit are now used in the regular screening/indexing of plant samples being submitted in laboratories. The technology has been applied continously to diagnose virus infection both in papaya and banana samples submitted.

Availability :
Southern Tagalog Agriculture Resources Research and Development Consortium One Stop Information Shop




NO. 96714

Development of ringspot virus resistant papaya through genetic engineering


Magdalita, PM; Valencia, LDC; Ocampo, ATD, Villegas, VN
Proceedings 15th STARRDEC Regional Symposium on Research and Development Highlights, Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite, Philippines. 15 August 2002

Abstract:
The development of genetically modified crops is one of the options in controlling the outbreak of major crop disease like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This study attempted to use the coat protein gene technology, and microprojective bombardment as a method of gene transfer to develop genetically modified papaya that will resist PRSV infection.

Availability :
Southern Tagalog Agriculture Resources Research and Development Consortium One Stop Information Shop




NO. 96651

Micropropagation of the hybrid papaya "sinta"


Mercado, JC; Pimentel, RB; Valencia, LD; Villegas, VN
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 20 (1): 29 (1995)

Abstract:
"Sinta" is a yellow hybrid papaya with very good fruit quality that is moderately tolerant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). the nutritional and growth regulator requirements for micropropagation of this papaya hybrid were established using varying levels of NAA, BA, GA3, sucrose and two basal media (MS and de Fossard). Parameters used in evaluating in vitro growth response were numer and length of internodes, number of leaves, shoot and shoot weight.; ptimum shoot growth was obtained using full-strenght MS+0.125uM GA3 + 58 uM sucrose. Full strenght de Fossard medium containing similar hormonal and sucrose levels gave a comparable response. Micropropagation opens the possibility of producing virus-free "Sinta" for trasport to PRSV-free islands.

Availability :
MinSCAT [Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology] Main Campus Library; Alcate, Victoria, Oriental Mindoro; Philippines




NO. 96648

Embryo rescue, isozyme analysis, and preliminary screening for resistance to papaya ringspot virus of Carica papaya x C. pubescens interspecific hybrids


Sison, MA
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 20 (1): 1 (1995)

Abstract:
Carica papaya cv. Cavite and Solo were haybridized with C. pubescens as an initial step towards transfering the resistance of the latter to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) to C. papaya. Embryos were excised 90 days after pollination and cultured to maturity on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + 400 mg/l glutamine, 60 g/l sucrose, and 20% (v/v) coconut water. The embryos, which tended to proliferate in this medium, were germinated on MS + 400 mg/l glutamine, 30 g/l sucrose, 0.5 mg/l alpha naphthalene acetic acid and 0.4 mg/l benzyladenine. Subsequent trasfer of the seedlings to MS + 80 mg/l adenine sulfate and 170 mg/l NaH2PO4. H2O ensured rapid and balanced growth. Thirty plants were established 6 to 7 months after excision. Porphologically, the hybrids were intermediate between C. papaya and C. pubescens. Isozyme analysis for malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate machanical inoculation even though they tested positive for PRSV antigens by indirect ELISA. Their response to PV infection was tentatively classified as tolerance. It was recognized that changesin sysmptom expression and virus multiplication may yet occur in them with time.

Availability :
MinSCAT [Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology] Main Campus Library; Alcate, Victoria, Oriental Mindoro; Philippines




NO. 26456

The effect of papaya leaves on the development of rice moth, Corcrya cephalonica


Ja'far, AB
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p36

Abstract:
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of papaya leaves Carica papaya L on the development of rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica ( Stainton ). Three formulations tested were dried leaf, water extract and crude extract. All the formulations were added to the rearing media at the concentration of 5% and lO%. The three larvae instar stages used in the experiment were instar l, 3 and 5. Three parameters used in this experiment were the percentage of adult emergence, development period from the larvae until adult and fresh body weights of adult. Based on these parameters, it was observed that the treatment of dried leaf on first instar was the most toxic on the development of (C.cephalonica. This treatment reduced the percentage of emergence (40%) and adult body weights (14.32mg) of C.cephalonica. Therefore, the dried leaf formulation is the most suitable preparation to be used as botanical insecticide to control C.cephalonica.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26457

Studies on fungi isolates from diseased Malaysian fruits


Yap, TY
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p41

Abstract:
A study was undertaken to determine common fungi associated with postharvest diseases on banana, papaya and mango fruits commercially sold in Serdang, Selangor. Colletotrichum musae, Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified from anthracnose, crown rot and black end disease on banana fruits respectively. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium spp. were isolated from lesions on diseased papaya fruits, while C. gloeosporioides and Aspergillus spp. were respectively isolated from anthracnose lesions and hazy, greyish spots on diseased mango fruits. C. gloeosporioides isolates were confirmed to be pathogenic and caused anthracnose disease on banana, papaya and mango fruits. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by consistent reisolation of C. gloeosporioides from the infected tissues of the inoculated fruits.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26467

Somatic embryogenesis from Carica papaya and histological study on somatic embryo development


Lemba, J
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2003; p39

Abstract:
Immature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. var Eksotika were used as explants in this study. This study involved two experiments: Experiment 1, which was induction of somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryo and Experiment 2, histological study on somatic embryo development. In Experiment 1, zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium with 2,4-D treatment at different concentrations. The concentrations of 2,4-D were Omg/l, 3mg/l, 5mg/l and 7mg/l. The results showed that 5mg/l 2,4-D was the most effective concentration for the formation of somatic embryogenesis. In Experiment 2, histological study showed that the first step of somatic embryo formation was the formation of globular structures initiated by swelling of the apical dome of shoot axis. Globular structures were formed at the middle of the swelling apical dome. Globular structures developed to formed heart shaped somatic embryos. Heart shaped somatic embryos continued to develop and formed torpedo structures. Torpedo structures then differentiated to form cotyledonary stage somatic embryos.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26494

Antibacterial activity effect from Carica papaya extract


Mohd Shamsuri, AK
Department of Biomedical Sciences; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract of Research and Health Science (Abstrak Penyelidikan dan Sains Kesihatan) 1996-1999; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The antimicrobial activities of the Carica papaya flesh and seeds at 3 different maturity stages (unripe, half-ripe and fully ripe), latex, flowers and leaves were Investigated in vitro on 4 pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aernginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Alicrococcus luteus, All these parts (except the latex), were extracted using two different methods: water-soluble extraction and lipid-soluble extraction. Using the agar (well) diffusion method, It was demonstrated that the growth of E. coli was inhibited by aqueous extracts from unripe and half ripe papaya flesh. No activity was demonstrated by ripe papaya flesh against all the bacteria. The aqueous extract from the seeds of unripe papaya inhibited growth of all the bacteria. But the aqueous extract from the seeds of half-ripe papaya inhibited only the gram- positive bacteria. The aqueous extract from the seeds of fully ripe fruit did not show any inhibition. The growth of S. aureus was inhibited when the aqueous extract of papaya flowers and leaves were used. Ethanol extract of unripe papaya flesh showed an antibacterial activity towards M. luteus. No activity were recorded towards any bacteria when ethanol extract of half-ripe and fully ripe papayas flesh were used. The ethanol ex1ract from the seeds of unripe papaya meat inhibited E. coli and M. luteus growth. There was no antibacterial activities when the ethanol extract from the seeds of half-ripe and fully ripe papaya flowers and papaya leaves were used. Papaya latex showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and gram-positive bacteria.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26604

Somatic embryogenesis from petiole explant of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika)


Panjaitan, SB; Aziz, MA; Rashid, AA; Saleh, NM
Department of Agriculture Technology; Faculty of Food Sciences; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p39

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to induce somatic embryogenesis from petiole explants of papaya cultivar Eksotika using different concentrations and combinations of 2.4-D and BAP. Petiole explants were aseptically cultured on a modified MS medium with half-strength macro nutrients and supplemented with 500 mgL-1 of glutamine, 0.2 % of phytagel and 1.0,2.5,5.0 and 7.5 mgL-1 of2.4-D in combination with 0, 0.001,0.005 and 0.010 mgL-1 of BAP. Treatment containing 7.5 mgL-1 of2,4-D without BAP produced the highest percentage of callus formation (89 %). Highest percentage of somatic embryo formation (20 %) occurred in treatment containing 5.0 mgL -1 of 2,4-D. In this treatment the mean number of somatic embryos produced per explant was 12.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26601

Isolation of papaya peptidase CDNA clone during ripening


Chong, HL; Roohaida, O
Centre for Gene Analysis and Technology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Bangi, Selangor

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p38

Abstract:
Proteolysis plays key roles in a variety of processes such as development, defense and ripening. The biochemical and physiological changes which affect colour, texture and flavour of fruits during ripening are associated with alterations in the activities of a large number of enzymes including proteinases. A papaya cDNA clone coding for a peptidase has been isolated from a ripening papaya cDNA library. The expected amino acid sequence shared high homology with peptidase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana which may be involved in specific proteolytic events during development and/or pathogenic attack. Subsequent sequence comparisons with other plant cDNA sequences showed that the papaya cDNA clone aligned to the middle part of other plant proteinases hence indicating truncation at the 5'-end of the clone. Further analysis of the papaya peptidase sequence was also performed for several features common to this enzyme family. Isolation of this clone is in line with previous findings that a subtilisin protease is involved during papaya fruit ripening.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26612

A fruit specific and ripening related endopoly Galacturonase gene from Papaya (Carica papaya L.)


Roohaida, O; Tan, WF; Zainon, MA; Hamid, L
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 12(2003); Proceedings of the 14th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference 2003; Genting Highlands; Pahang; 23-25 September 2003; p26-30

Abstract:
Fruit ripening is caused by a series of coordinated physiological and biochemical processes resulting in changes in its texture. Fruit softening is associated with extensive solubilization and degradation of cell-wall polysaccharides, which result from the action of a number of cell-wall hydrolytic enzymes including polygalacturonase. Endopolygalacturonase has been extensively studied in tomato fruit where it accumulates during ripening and is responsible for the degradation of polyuronides in the fruit cell wall. A fruit specific and ripening related endopolygalacturonse clone 2.5kb in length has been isolated from papaya cDNA library using differential screening method. The papaya endopolygalacturonase transcript showed increasing expression during fruit ripening but was undetectable in other tissues hence indicating its specificity in ripening fruit tissues.

Availability :
Mohd Rizal Kassim




NO. 26632

Direct shoot regeneration on petiole and leaf explants of papaya cv. Eksotika using BAP and NAA


Panjaitan, SB; Aziz, MA; Rashid, AA; Saleh, NM
Department of Agriculture Technology; Faculty of Food Sciences; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 12(2003); Proceedings of the 14th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference 2003; Genting Highlands; Pahang; 23-25 September 2003; p171-176

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to determine the most suitable concentration of RAP (6- Benzylaminopurine) and NAA (Naphthaleneacetic Acid) for direct shoot regeneration from petiole and leaf explants of papaya cv. Eksotika. Explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with 500mgL-1 caseine hydrolysate, 0.2% phytagel and different combinations and concentrations of RAP and NAA. For petiole explant, MS medium containing 1.0 mgL-1 RAP and 0.05 mgL-1 NAA produced the highest percentage of shoot formation (60.24%) and mean number of shoots per explant (9.5), while MS medium containing 0.1 mgL-1 BAP and 0.05 mgL-1 NAA resulted in the highest shoot length (0.69 cm). No shoot formation occurred on MS medium without BAP. With leaf explants, MS medium containing 1.0 mgL-1 BAP and 0.05 mgL-1 NAA produced the highest percentage of shoot formation (70.07%) and mean number of shoots per explant (46.5). The treatment also showed significant difference on mean number of shoots formed per explant compared to other treatments including the control. The treatment also resulted in high shoot length I (0.48 cm). Shoot formation did not occur on MS medium without BAP.

Availability :
Mohd Rizal Kassim




NO. 26660

Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. Cv. Eksotika)


Aziz, MA; Panjaitan, SB; Rashid, AA; Saleh, NM
Department of Agriculture Technology; Faculty of Food Sciences; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Agriculture Congress 2004; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 4-7 October 2004; p167-170

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to determine the most suitable concentration and combination of 2.4-D and BAP for induction of somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of papaya cv. Eksotika. Leaf explants were cultured on a modified MS medium with the macro nutrients reduced to half-strength and supplemented with 500 mgL-¹ glutamine, O.2% phytagel and 1.0,2.5,5.0 and 7.5 mgL-¹ 2.4-D in combination with 0, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.010 mgL-¹ BAP. Treatment containing 7.5 mgL-¹ 2,4-D without BAP produced the highest percentage of callus formation (90.5%) followed by 5.0 mgL-¹ 2,4-D (89.5%). Highest percentage of somatic embryo formation (26.5%) occurred on medium containing 5.0 mgL-J 2,4-D. For this treatment the mean number of somatic embryos produced per explant was 24.

Availability :
Azarudin




NO. 26705

Changes in the skin colour during the ripening of eksotika papaya at ambient conditions


Ruzita, A; Abdul Manan, DM
School of Industrial Technology; Universiti Sains Malaysia; 11800 Minden; Penang

Journal of Bioscience Vol 11(1& 2): 86(2000)

Abstract:
A study on the changes in the peel colour of the Eksotika papaya was carried out using a tristimulus colourimeter. A sensory evaluation test was also carried out using panel members who were asked to identify the colour of the Eksotika papaya using the colour indices developed by MARDI. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out for both studies. Instrumental colour measurement was significantly correlated with both ripening days and sensory panel scores (P
Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26790

The potential and success of planting papaya and Mas banana on commercial basis: EPA's experience


Vincent, C
Eastern Plantation Agency (Johor) Sendirian Berhad; Ulu Tiram Estate (Johor); Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p70-74

Abstract:
The involvement of Eastern Plantation Agency (EP A) as a plantation based company in commercial tropical fruit cultivation is part of its diversification program into horticultural crops. This paper discusses some important aspects of EP A 's experiences in the commercial cultivation of papaya and banana. Special attention is given to tissue cultured golden banana in terms of selection and field planting results of clonal material derived from its own research effort.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26819

Evidence for de novo synthesis of ß-galactosidase and its implication on the control of ripening of papaya fruit


Hamid, L; Zainon, MA; Chai, HY; Azimahtol Hawariah, LP
Postharvest Biology Laboratory; Departments of Botany and Biochemistry; Faculty of Life Sciences; National University of Malaysia; 43600 Bangi; Selangor

Transactions of The Malaysian Society Plant Physiology 2 (vol.2); 27-28 August 1991; University Putra Malaysia; p159-162

Abstract:
The level of ß-galactosidase immunogenicprotein monitored via an ELISA technique, increased during ripening of Carica papaya L., and this increase correlated positively with the increase in tissue softness as well as in the enzyme activity. The de novo appearance of the cell wall degrading enzyme suggests that the increase in ß-galactosidase activity was attributable to expression of a ripening-specific gene rather than to enzyme activation. Thus there appears to be a possibility for manipulating ripening of this tropical fruit via regulation of gene action.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26826

Growth analysis of papaya Carica papava


Zainudin, M
Fruit Research Division; P.O. Box 43; MARDI; 33000 Kuala Kangsar; Perak

Transactions of The Malaysian Society Plant Physiology 2 (vol.2); 27-28 August 1991; University Putra Malaysia; p207-213

Abstract:
The manner in which plants partition products of photosynthesis into various plant parts is important in determininq qrowth rate and yield. Quantitative technique usinq qrowth analysis method was attempted to detect dry matter distribution. Papaya cv "Hybrid" was planted at a plantinq density of 1600 plant per ha. Plant parts such as leaves, petioles, stems, flowers and fruits were separated individually and oven-dried for a week. Samples were taken monthly beginninq at initial reproductive staqe until oneyear period. Results indicated that maximum Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) were 36.15 and 11.58 g/sq. m/ day respectively at LAI 4.7 commenced after 30th week of plantinq. Partitioninq percentaqe of plant parts proqressed with time and hiqhest fruit dry weiqht percentage was only 16.6% of total dry weiqht. Papaya contributed much of its dry matter to stem more than 50% particularly at production period.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26874

Local horticultural seed production


Tee, TS
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

National Seed Symposium; Serdang; Selangor; February 4, 1976; p5

Abstract:
Seed plays an important role in the activities of the horticultural crops industry in Malaysia and large quantities of vegetable seeds are imported annually to sustain the industry. Although seed production for many vegetable crops is not economical under Malaysian conditions, some tropical vegetable seeds are preferably produced Locally. These include bayam and okra. Methods of seed production for okra is discussed. Of the other horticultural crops, seed production in tobacco is unique, involving farmers and government agencies. The high production cost and ZCRJJ seed value do not foster commercial ventures in tobacco seed production. Seed production in local fruits is confined to papaya. The sex inheritance of papaya trees complicates production procedures. Various mating systems are discussed and the most promising system for seed production is suggested.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26900

Chilling injury of papaya fruits: Effects on ethylene metabolism


Zaharah, R; Zainon, MA; Hamid, L
Department of Biochemistry; National University of Malaysia; Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 17th Malaysian Biochemical Society Conference; 23-24 September 1992; Bangi; Selangor; p61-67

Abstract:
The results appear to suggest that not only aminocyclopropane carboxylix acid (ACC) synthase, but also ethylene oxidase (ethylene forming enzyme) activity ere suppressed in the chilled fruits.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27183

Plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from leaf explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. Cv. Eksotika)


Panjaitan, SB; Maheran, AA; Azmi, AR; Norihan, MS
Department of Agriculture Technology; Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang; Selangor.

16th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference (MSPPC 2005); 27-29 September 2005; Port Klang; Selangor

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to induce somatic embryogenesis using leaf explants cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mgL-1) in combination with BAP (0, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 mgL-1). The highest percentage of somatic embryo formation (55%) and mean number of somatic embryos formed per explant (76.6) were obtained on medium containing 5.0 mgL-l 2,4-D. An experiment was also conducted to germinate the somatic embryos obtained from the above experiment on germination medium containing NAA at 0,0.01,0.02 and 0.03 mgL-1 combined with BAP at 0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3 mgL-i. The highest percentage of somatic embryo germination (92.5%) and normal plantlet production (83%) occurred on medium containing 0.02 mgL-1 NAA and 0.1 mgL-1 BAP.

Availability :
Elizabeth Philip




NO. 96995

Constituent analysis of dried pineapple, papaya and camias products of regional communal food processing center (RCFPC)


Carigaba, JS; Pico, VT; Calub, MLA; Diaz, RG
The Mitochondria SKPSC [Sultan Kudarat Polytechnic State College] Research & Development Journal 9 (2): 25-33 (July-December 2003)

Abstract:
A study on the consituents of dried pineapple, papaya and kamias was conducted at USMARC Central Laboratory, Kabacan, Cotabato from November 2002 to March 2003. The study was undertaken to determine the Vitamin C, protein, crude fiber, crude fat and starch content of dried pineapple, papaya and camias products of SKPSC-RCFPC at Isualan, Sultan Kudarat.|Statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference among the dried pineapple, papaya and camias products in terms of their Vitamin C, protein, crude fiber, crude fat and starch content.|Dried papaya and camias obtained the highest Vitamin C and crude fat. Dried papaya showed the highest percentage protein while dried camias gave the lowest protein content. In terms of crude fiber, dried camias obtained the highest value while dried papaya gave the lowest value. Dried papaya, on the other hand, has highest starch content while dried pineapple and camias showed the lowest but comparable values.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 27009

Breeding for better eksotikas


CHAN, YK
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p8-12

Abstract:
The Eksotika papaya was released by MARDI just over two years ago. Its petite fruit size and good eating qualities make it a suitable fruit for the local and export markets. Two major weaknesses of Eksotika are high incidence of carpellody in Line 19 and susceptibility to freckling in Line Hybridization of the two lines produced an 1:1 that showed both hybrid vigour in yield together with a reduction in the incidence of the two maladies compared with the susceptible parent. The increase in yield of the Fl Hybrid ranged from 11 % to 23% over the average of the two parental lines. Procedures hybridization and seed production of the Hybrid are discussed.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27010

Micropropagation of papaya and preliminary field performance


Nathan, J; Tan, EH
Plantek International (Pte) Ltd; Singapore

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p13-18

Abstract:
Commercial propagation of papaya has been traditionally done via seeds. This introduces variability due to the sexual expression of the seed progeny as well as in the form and quality of fruits produced. In an effort to overcome this problem and to improve the performance of field-grown plants, three mature hermaphrodite trees of MARDI 'Backcross Solo origin were selected in a commercial farm i.e. Young Farmers Sdn. Bhd. Excised axillary buds were initiated and the responding cultures were used 10 produce 5 000 rooted plantlets at Plantek International (Pte) Ltd. Clean tissues responded well in culture media and multiplied at a satisfactory rate. After one year in the production scheme, plantlets were sent to the field for planting. Preliminary field data indicate that tissue cultured plants remained true to type and performed as expected. In some cases, outstanding individual trees have also been identified. These will be monitored closely for further evaluation and selection for the improvement of papaya.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27011

Agronomy of eksotika


Raveendranathan, P
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p19-28

Abstract:
The various agronomic practices essential for the successful commercial cultivation of the Eksotika is discussed in this paper. Considerations for site selection include soil type and prevailing climatic conditions. For good seedling propagation in the nursery, the right soil mixture and shade should be provided. The papaya field should be clean weeded at all times. In addition to proper fertilization, liming the field prior to planting promotes both earlier crops as well as higher yields. Multiple-point planting to increase percentage of hermaphrodite plants in the farm and the need for irrigation in drought prone areas is emphasized.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27012

Major pests of papaya and their management


Mohd. Shamsudin, O
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p29-34

Abstract:
Major insect pests discussed in this paper are thrips, Thrips parvispinus; scale insects, Aspidiotus orientalis and Aonidiella orientalis; fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis; and mites, Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Pests considered of minor importance are nematodes and rat and are briefly mentioned. Some aspects of insects related to pollination requirement of the crop is also discussed. Since virus diseases are major limiting factors for papaya cultivation, vector management to control the diseases is also mentioned.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27013

Major diseases of papaya and their management


Lim, WH; Yaakob, D
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p35-42

Abstract:
This paper discusses the major papaya diseases in Malaysia and their control. Included are bunchy/ malformed top, Corynespora leaf spot, Phytophthora stem, root and fruit rot, seedling blight, fruit anthracnose, and internal fruit blight. Important n on-parasitic maladies are also briefly described e.g. root rot due to waterlogging, lumpy fruits, clawed leaves, freckles and herbicide damage. Potential serious diseases not present in Malaysia e.g. papaya ringspot virus, black spot and powdery mildew are also discussed. Emphasis is given to papaya ringspot virus because of its devastation of the papaya industry in Taiwan and neighbouring countries.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27014

Further studies on weed management in papaya cv. eksotika


LEE, SA
Fruit Research Division; MARDI; Jalan Kebun; Klang; Selangor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p43-63

Abstract:
This paper discussed five main aspects of efficient weed management. First, evidence showed that various weed species can reduce the leaf production by 33-50% and the plant height by 40% after 5 months of competition. Non-chemical methods include the use of mechanical ploughing of weeds before planting followed by rototilling. This method has been successfully used in the 40 ha PKPS papaya project near Bangi. Two layers of oil palm fronds last 3 to 5 months; non-flowering lalang foliage has also been used, lasting the same period. However, plant/leguminous covers are not used because they are extremely competitive to papaya. Mucuna cochinchinensis, for instance, reduced the growth of papaya and caused a delay in the period to maturity of the crop. Chemical methods have become increasingly popular because of labour problems. A new experiment showed that soil application of glyphosate (Roundup), glufosinate (Basta), paraquat (Grarnoxone), paraquat + diuron (Paracol) and 2, 4-0 Amine (Shell Amine 80) resulted in considerable injury to papaya seedlings. When these chemicals were applied to the stems of papaya seedlings, all, except glufosinate, caused medium to complete damage to the plants. In the field, circle application of glufosinate or paraquat has been used in commercial farms, and this is often integrated with pre-plant mechanical ploughing and rototilling, and post-plant mulching with synthetic ex-fertilizer bags. The agricultural significance of various approaches to cost-effective weed management is discussed.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27015

Commercial cultivation of eksotika papaya: a case study


Lim, CH
Vita Tenggara Fruit Industries Sdn. Bhd. Bandar Penawar; Johor

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p69-88

Abstract:
MARDI Eksotika papaya has a good market potential as a commercial crop especially for the overseas market due to its size, fragrance, flavour and sweetness. The average fruit size is approximately 500 g with 14% Brix content (TSS) and an aromatic fragrance. For the European market, the sizes requested range between 250 to 350 g per fruit to match the Hawaiian Solo papaya. From our field experience, the major problems are: i) Nursery setup, planting and maintenance ii) Field irrigation system iii) Postplanting pest and disease control and maintenance iv) Harvesting and packaging. The problems are not insurmountable and we strongly feel that Eksotika papaya has tremendous export potential in addition to the underdeveloped local market. The paper will attempt to highlight the problems and provide solutions based on actual practical experience, to potential investors in this crop.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27016

Potential and outlook of eksotika as an export fruit


Ahmad Tokimin
Director-General; FAMA; Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p89-116

Abstract:
It is amazing how a petite fruit like the Eksotika could bring us all together in this seminar room I evoke so much questions related to its propagation, agronomy, pest and disease control, research hnology, management and the like. If you would all permit me, I too, would like to join in the dission of this fruit that is causing so much consternation today. The topic of my discussion today is on future outlook of the Eksotika as an export fruit. In other words, I am inviting you to explore the potentials of exporting the Malaysian Eksotika to foreign markets.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 27017

Processing of papaya


Mohd. Nordin, MS; Adinan, H
Food Technology Division; Malaysia Agriculture Research and Development Institute [MARDI]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings MARDl-MAPPS Seminar Eksotika Papaya, Johore Bahru, 1989; Chan, YK; Raveendranathan, P (eds); p125-134

Abstract:
Traditionally, papaya cultivation in Malaysia has been a smallholder crop and it is primarily targeted for fresh consumption. In 1987, a superb variety, the Backcross Solo or Eksotika was introduced. This variety has high sugar content (13 to 14% TSS), red flesh, firm texture and fruit size ranging from 600-800 g, thus making it suitable for dessert (ANON, 1986). There has been much interest shown by entrepreneurs in planting the Eksotika on a large scale and it is forecast that by year 2000, close to 4000 ha of papaya is expected to be grown in Malaysia (ANON, 1984). As in other fruit industry, not all fruits from the farm will be able to meet the grade for fresh consumption. Unused, culled fruits such as those that are undersize or of poor shape will find application as raw materials for the processing industry. There has been no work done so far in MARDI regarding the utilization of Eksotika papaya. This paper however, will highlight some of the potential products from papaya, its processing techniques, taking the Hawaiians' experience in utilizing the Solo variety as the basic raw materials for processing.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 96098

Modified atmosphere storage (MA) for banana, papaya and pineapple


Serrano, EP
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Lorica, MV; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; p 50-51

Abstract:
MA packaging has been shown to delay ripening of some fruits. Serrano (UPLB-PHTRC) sought to optimize the application of MA storage in commercially cultivated varieties of banana,papaya and pineapple.|A. Banana. Polyethylene bag (PEB) -enclosed 'Lantundan' bananas exhibit delay in ripening when shipped from Davao to Manila. Control fruits attain fully yellow color or tbale rip stage (TRS) 14 days after harvest, while MA-packed fruits are still green and attain TRS 12 days after bag opening. MOre mature fruits (harvested 12 weeks after shooting) reach TRS 4 days earlier than the less mature fruits (harvested 11 weeks after shooting). The beneficial effect of ehtylene absorbent in delaying ripening is observed in MA-packed mature fruits. HArdening of some pulp portion at TRS is observed in MA-packed less more fruits;but is absent in the control and MA-packed mature fruits.|In similar shipment trial, completely enclosed 'Lakatan' bananas at different maturities (80 and 90 days after shooting) in PEB provided with ethylene adsorbent extend the green life 2 weeks longer compared with the control. Control fruits ripen 2 weeks after harvest. More mature fruits ripen ahead than the less mature fruits regardless of the number of adsorbent used. Further enclosure for more than 4 weeks further delays ripening, but the ripening behavior after bag opening is impaired or abnormal with high crown rot disease incidence (30%). Results point out that fruits must be treated with fungicide before MA packaging and that on bag opening, fruits must be treated with ripening agents to have normal ripening and good sensory attributes.|B.Papaya. Laboratory and commercial shipment trials on 'Solo' papaya fruits from Misamis Orriental to Laguna show a favorable response of the fruits, particularly at peel color index 2 (with inge of yellow at the ridges) towards MA packaging. The optimum conditions that bring about 6-to 8-day delay in ripening during nonrefrigirated interisland transport are enclosure in pEB with 16 diffusion holes and six ethylene adsorbents per 15-18 kg fruits. Further extension of the postharvest life of the fruits for about 3 weeks longer is attined by applying these conditions and storing under low temperature (15 degree C).|Waxing 'Solo' papaya fruit at peel color index 2 with mineral oil delays ripening for 4 days longer compared with the control. The use of coconut oil is detrimental, producing balck spots on the skin. Other wax formulations such as sucrose oleate from coconut oil and a commercial was (Sta.Fresh) do not delay ripening, but produce some cosmetic effects. Commercial transport trial on the use of waxing to reduce bruises does not show advantageous results.|C.Pineapple. Waxing 'Queen' pineapple fruits at peel color index 1 (green, with two layers of shell at the base showing wideing and yellowing of the grooves) with mineral oil emulsion ( 1 part oil:18 parts 0.2% thiabendazole fungicide: 1 part liquid detergent) delays ripening by 4-5 days more than the control at ordinary condition. Storing unwaxed fruits under low temperature (below 18 degree C) extends the shelf-life by 1 week;waxed fruits by 2-3 weeks longer. However, both unwaxed and waxed fruits developed a chilling injury symptom called endogenous brown spot (EBS). Waxing, however, reduces the severity of EBS symptom. The severity is minimal (less than 10%) of the total pulp area affected) in fruits waxed with mineral oil as compared with unwaxed fruits (more than 50% of the total pulp area affected). The use of Sta.Fresh alleviates the EBS on prolonged xposure to cold storage.|In a transport trial of 'Queen' pineapple fruits in bulk using a jeepney from Daet to Baguio City, waxing effectively delays fruit ripening. About 95% of the waxed fruits are still at peel color index 1 and in a very good condition 5 days after treatment as compared with unwaxed fruits which are already almost half-riped.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96120

Papaya seeds as dewormer for native chickens


Flores
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Lorica, MV; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; p 102-103

Abstract:
In the study by Flores (DA-CLIARC) different dosages (1/4 and 1/2 tsp) of papaya seeds infusion (Trial 1) and varied amount (50,40 and 30) of whole papaya seeds (Trial 2) were given orally as dewormer to groups of native chickens which were infected naturally with gastrointestinal parasites.|There is a significant (P<0.01) reduction in the number of ova in the chicken excreta 2 weeks after the treatment period. Chickens which are given 1/4 tsp of the seed infusion have two adult roundworms and 6 adult tapeworms, while those chickens which are given 1/2 tsp of the seed infusion have one roundworm and four tapeworms. The control chickens have numerous roundworms and tapeworms. There is a significant (P<0.01) reduction in the number of ova in the excreta after the treatment period. Chickens which are given 50 seeds of whole papaya seeds have no ova and adult gastrointestinal parasite in the excreta, while those chickens which were given either 40 or 30 whole papaya seeds have two and four tapeworms present in the excreta, respectively.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96206

Papaya varieties tolerant to ringspot virus with horticultural traits


Villegas, V
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '99; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2000; 143p; Belen, EH (ed); pp. 56-57

Abstract:
Villegas (UPLB-IPB) conducted a breeding project entitled "Varietal Development of Papaya"specifically aimed to: hybridize advanced lines; test the field performance of selected advanced lines and promising hybrids; screen the reaction of hybrids and inbred lines against Phytophthora root rot; and test the performance of micropropagated 'Sinta' hybrid (the first Philippine papaya hybrid). Results of four ongoing studies namely: hybridization and selection;inbred line production;on-farm trial of promising lines and hybrids;and breeding related studies were reported.|Hybridization and selection. From the 13 F1 hybrids last year, Py 5x Py6 showed tolerance to PRSV. This yellow-flesh hybrid was planted at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit, Bay, LAguna to further evaluate fruit quality and determine yield stability. In 23 hybrids planted 8 of these entries from experimental lot 8 had ripe fruits. Only one entry Py 5xPy6 were found productive despite of the presence of PRSV, Meanwhile, 15 hybrids evaluated at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit were rated for PRSV reaction. Based on fruit productivity and PRSV symptoms, a new hybrid Py 5 xPy7 was observed to have PRSV tolerance. The hybrid solo developed inherited remarkable traits such as, solo fruit-size, low bearing trees, mild PRSV tolerance and prolific fruiting habit. Selected trees from the 12 advanced breeding materials at IPB's experimental lot in Mainit, Bay, Laguna are currently self/sib pollinated for advancement. 22 advanced breeding stocks were now grown in the field for selection and advancement. Seeds from inter-crossing, selfing and sibbing of four inbred lines (Py3, Py4, Py5, and Py6) were produced. Production of 'Sinta' planting materials (seeds and seedlings) is a continous activity at UPLB-IPB to meet the increasing demand of papaya gowers in Luzon. For commercial production of 'Sinta'planting materials, the technique of producing this hybrid is still in the transferring process to East-West Seed Company.|Inbred Line Production. Selected trees of 8 inbred lines(Py2,Py3,Py4,Py5,Py6,Py9,Py10 and Py11) were self/sib pollinated to produce new intra-inbred selections. On-going selection of trees and self/sib pollination for 2 F2 and 2 F1 lines advancement. Self seeds from selected trees of 8 PRSV tolerant accessions with outstanding horticultural traits were now grown in the greenhouse. These new selections were extracted from the field evaluation of 12 accessions from Negros Occidental and 1 accession from japan. These include tree selectionof red and yellow solo entries that showed high productivity and tolerance to PRSV.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 27081

Antioxidant properties of some selected ulam and medicinal plants


Umi Kalsom, Y; Saidatul Husni, S; Faridah, A; Nurfarah Zaikah, K; Nurul Munirah, M; Asmah, R
Department of Biology; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Antioxidant properties of the leaves from eight local plant; Premna serratifolia (bebuas),Morinda citrifolia (mengkudu), Diplazium esculentum (paku tanjung), Stenochlaena palustris (lemiding), Manihot esculenta (ubi kayu), Carica papaya (betik), Amoranthus gangeticus (bayam) and Polygonum minus (kesum) were determined. All samples were extracted using methanol and distilled water. B-carotene bleaching method was used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the crude extracts and the activities were compared with two standard antioxidant positive markers; butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and quercetin. The antioxidant properties were calculated using antioxidant activity (AA) and antioxidant activity coefficient (AAC). The calculation of AA was based on degradation rate of B-carotene's orange colour and the degradation rate was based on the first-order kinetics and expressed as the percentage of inhibition relative to the control's absorbance for 120 minutes incubation. The AAC measurement of antioxidant is an estimation of the relative oxidation in the presence and absence of extracts. Water extract of Amaranthus gangeticus has the highest antioxidant properties for both calculations and water extract of Amaranthus gangeticus and both extract from Polygonum minus leaves showed no significance differences from standards' antioxidant activities (p<0.05).

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27105

Molecular basis of papaya fruit ripening


Roohaida, O
Centre for Gene Analysis and Technology; School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Bangi; Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Fruit ripening involves the concerted effect of a repertoire of enzymes and proteins causing changes in colour, flavour, aroma and texture. During softening, the cell wall polysaccharides undergo sequential disassembly which is a highly complex and genetically programmed process. Considerable efforts have been made in investigating the biochemical aspect of papaya fruit ripening with purification of specific cell wall enzymes such as x- and B-galactosidases which consist of several isoforms. In elucidating the molecular basis of papaya fruit softening, a few approaches have been undertaken including differential hybridisation, differential display and specific gene isolation. These techniques had allowed cloning of several ripening-related genes from papaya, and full length sequences have also been obtained using RACE-PCR technique. Expressions of these genes were observed during developmental and ripening stages as well as in different organs. Although they were ripening-related, most of the genes were not fruit specific with presence of transcripts also seen in other tissues such as seeds and leaves. Many of these papaya genes were also shown to be members of multigene families which are common phenomena for cell wall metabolising genes nonetheless in line with the observed expression pattern. In addition, recombinant proteins have also been produced to determine the function of these genes. Characterisation of these papaya ripening genes provides valuable information in understanding papaya fruit ripening which complement other biochemical and physiological studies. Nevertheless, the actual functions of these genes during ripening require establishment of mutant lines as strong support for the results observed here. Furthermore, research in papaya fruit ripening may benefit immensely from the genomics resources publicly available for other fleshy species such as tomato and grape.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27204

Recombinant protein expression of papaya subtilisin


Nuraziyan, A; Roohaida, 0
Centre for Gene Analysis and Technology; School of Biosciences and Biotechnology; Faculty of Science and Technology; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Bangi; Selangor

16th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference (MSPPC 2005); 27-29 September 2005; Port Klang; Selangor

Abstract:
Subtilisin-like proteases in plants have various functions including during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the role of subtilisin in papaya ripening process, the full-length cDNA clone has been isolated. The subtilisin clone is 2.3kb in size with the predicted polypeptide containing 772 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence coding for the mature protein of papaya subtilisin was subcloned into the E. coli pET32b expression vector for intracellular expression. Transformants were randomly selected for further analysis by PCR and the positive clone was expressed upon IPTG induction. SDS-P AGE analysis showed that a protein with a molecular mass of more than 90 kDa was successfully expressed. Activity of the recombinant protein was then determined on zymogram gels with gelatine but no activity was observed. To confirm the identity ofthe clone, it was then sequenced fully. A stop codon was discovered to be inadvertently introduced at the C-terminal of the protein due to a base substitution causing premature termination. This mutation could possibly be introduced during PCR amplification of the gene for the mature protein. Therefore, to obtain the wild-type recombinant protein, the PCR amplification was repeated using Taq polymerase with higher fidelity. Following sub cloning into the expression vector and subsequent induction step, the recombinant protein produced was then analysed using SDS-P AGE which showed over expression of a ~ 99 kDa protein. Western blotting using antibody against the C-terminal his-tag showed that only the wild-type recombinant protein having the intact C- terminal amino acid residues gave a signal on the blot. When both the wild-type and mutant recombinant subtilisins were analysed on zymogram gels, neither showed any protease activity on gelatine. Hence, this lack of activity is probably due to the fact that the recombinant proteins have not been renatured properly. Once correct refolding has been achieved, it would be interesting to see the effect of the C-terminal mutation on papaya subtilisin activity.

Availability :
Elizabeth Philip




NO. 14368

Papaya varieties in Thailand
Phan malako thi na sonchai

Nopphakhunwong, U
Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Centre, Thailand

Witthayasan Sthaban Wichai Phutsuan [Journal of Horticultural Research Institute] 13 (9): 73-76 (1990-1991)

Abstract:
Descriptions of 10 local and introduced papaya varieties are presented.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 13931

Papaya seed quality as affected by seed moisture content and storage conditions
Khwam chun khong malet lae unnahaphum nai kan kep raksa to khunnaphap khong malet malako phan khaekdam

Photchanachai, S; Sukprakan, S; Sanguansapphayakon, C
Department of Horticulture;Faculty of Agriculture;Kasetsart University; Bangkok;Thailand

Abstract of The 31st Kasetsart University Annual Conference;Bangkok; ;Kasetsart University;1993;p68

Abstract:
Papaya seeds with 9-10, 7-8, and 4-5% initial moisture content were packed in vacuum aluminum foil bags at room temperature for 15, 10, and 12 months. The germination percentages and vigor of seeds with an initial moisture content of 4-5 and 7-8% were better than those with 9-10% moisture content. The storability of the seeds at 5, 10, and 15 oC was better than those kept at room temperature.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14233

Study on the control of papaya ringspot virus by cross protection and development of resistant papaya variety
Khrongkan suksa kan pongkan kamchat rok bai dang malako duai withi cross protection lae kan phatthana phan malako thonthan rok bai dang

Prasatsi, W
Northeast Regional Agricultural Centre;Khon Khaen;Thailand

NEROA Newsletter 21(1): 16-22 (1992)

Abstract:
Papaya is one of the most important fruit crops in northeast Thailand. Production in the area is estimated at 123,190 tons from 46,948 rai (2.5 rai= 1 acre) which was 20% of the total requirment. Ring spot virus disease was responsible for the reduction of papaya production in the area as much as 50%. The disease was under control by means of cross protection and the development of resistant papaya variety. Detailed information on both methods are given.(prepared abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14245

Papaya: medicinal application
Malako-rong ngan phalit ya thi mai tong longthun arai mak

Anonymous
Than Kasettakam (Agricultural Base Magazine) 33(3): 54-55 (1985)

Abstract:
Medicinal properties of papaya were described.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14283

Occurence of papaya ringspot virus disease in Thailand in relation to the migration of aphids


Prasartsee, V; Kongpolprom, W
Northeast Regional Office of Agriculture;Tha Phra;Khon Kaen;Thailand

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 26(4): 321-329 (1993)

Abstract:
Papaya ringspot virus causes serious production losses in papaya in northeast Thailand. The most prevalent aphid vector is A. gossypii which has acquisition-feeding period as short as 25-60 seconds. Hysteroneura setariae, cereal aphid was found to be a new vector of PRV. Aphid population collections showed that higher aphid populations occur in the cool winter months of October to February, with the lowest in the hot-dry summer of April-July. Observation of virus spread in a virus-free village prior to replanting, revealed that initial infection and spread of the virus paralleled the population and migration of the aphid vectors. (authors' abstract)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14443

Control of papaya ringspot disease by cross protection


Khositrattana, W; Thawichai, N; Attathom, S; Hongprayun, R; Chatchawankanphanit, O
Department of Plant Pathology;Kasetsart University;Nakhon Pathom;Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasat(The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science Supplement Issue) 25(5): 33-39(1991)

Abstract:
Eight isolates of mild strain PRV were obtained from this study. Papaya seedlings inoculated with these midl strains remain symptomless or showed mild mottling with no reduction in plant size and leaf-shape. The mild strains designated as PRV-C1 and PRV-F1 gave better production than others. The results revealed that the naturally collected mild strain of PRV could be used for cross protection of papaya ringspot virus.(Revised authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14728

General studies in Carica papaya L.


Dinesh, MR; Iyer, CPA & Subramanyam, MD
Division of Fruit Crops; Indian Institute of Horticultural Research; Hessaraghatta; Bangalore 560089; India

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 25.

Abstract:
A 6 x 6 complete diallel analysis was carried out using the cultivars Washington, Thailand, Coorg Honey Dew, Pink Flesh Sweet (II HR Selection), Sunrise Solo and Waimanalo. Heterosis over mid parent, better parent and best parent was calculated. Combining ability analysis was carried out by method 1, modell of diallel analysis suggested by Griffing (1956). Heterosis was observed for all the characters studied except the characters, number of leaves, reducing sugars and total sugars. The combining ability analysis showed that the characters, stem girth, number of leaves, yield, fruit weight and fruit volume are controlled by non additive effects and the characters plant height, plant spread, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit breadth, pulp thickness, TSS, fruit cavity index, reducing sugars and total sugars are controlled by additive effects. Cytoplasmic inheritance was observed for the characters plant height, yield, fruit length, fruit breadth, TSS and reducing sugars. The study that commercial exploitation of heterosis is feasible in papaya.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14720

The introduction of tropical American fruit species into the Philippines


Coronel, RE
Institute of Plant Breeding; UP Los Ba$os College; Laguna; The Philippines

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 16.

Abstract:
Tropical America, which is some 10,000 miles from the Philippines but similar latitudinal range as the latter, has contributed some 60 species off ruits and nuts to the Philippines. An interesting aspect of this fruit introduction is its intimate link with the colonial history of the Philippines dating back in the early 16 th century. Two of the major fruits of the Philippines todays, pineapple and papaya, are native of tropical America. Thirteen other tropical American fruits are also economically important but have not attained the status of major fruits. Of the other 19 fruits which are still rare, at last three can become economically important if better varicties become available. Brief notes on some economically important tropical American fruita in the Philippines are given.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14723

Prospect of non-citrus tropical fruit development in the subtropics with special reference to the Mediterranean basin


Sauco, VG
Department of Tropical Fruit; Centro Investigacion Technologia Agrarias. Apdo. 60; La Laguna 38080; Tenerife (Canary Island) Spain

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 19.

Abstract:
Besides specific problems of soils and water quality for irrigation, tropical fruit crops in the subrtopics experienced stress due to temperature extremes. Although physiology and breeding need comprehensive research, many tropical species are surprisingly hardy, as witnessed by the spectacular expansion in recent years of several crops in these areas. Main countries currently producing tropical fruit in their subtropical regions are Australia, Chile, Egypt, Israel, South Africa, Spain and U.S.A., with the crops such as avocado, banana, cherimoya, macadamia, and guava are prominent. Mango and lychee although still minor crops, are acquiring increasing importance. Of the subtropical regions bordering the Mediterranean, mainly Spain and Israel produce commercially important quantities. If the current pace of research in evaluation crop adaptability and technological development (tissue culture, greenhouse production, etc.,) is maintained, together with the added incentive of attractive prices, several tropical fruits should soon be seen throughout the Mediterranean, namely banana, papaya, lychee, cherimoya, macadamia and possibly, carambola. This is equally applicable to other subtropical areas of the world.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14746

Breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits


Chan, YK
Fruit Research Division, MARDI, P.O. Box 12301, General Post Office, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 45.

Abstract:
The breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits was didcussed in the breeding strategies used and achievement obtained at the Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). The first step in the breeding programme, to many an understatement, but nevertheless of foremost importance, is to set priorities and objectives clearly. Ther are more than 150 tropical fruit species and at MARDI, focus is given only to 16 that have the best potential. The clientele's preference of the fruit characteristics must be known throughproduct specification studies so that breeding objectives become clear. Such studies, however, must be intelligent enough to predict the preferences some time in the future to take into consideration the time gap required for varietal development. The fruit collection and germplasm centres for fruits should be established to provide characterized and comprehensively documented to rpovide the genetic inventory for breeding research. There are, at present, 3 major centres for fruit germplasm in MARDI i.e. Serdang, Kemaman and Bukit Tangga and evaluation and characterization for some fruits notably banana, papaya, citrus, durian, starfruit, ciku and mango have been completed.The breeding strategies adopted for clonally and seed propagated fruit species were different. For clonally propagated fruit species, the main strategy was to identify and select promising maternal trees and testing them over time and space to establish their repeatibility' (adaptibility) of their performance. The success of this strategy depends on the existing variation which may be indigenous or generated through hybridization or recombination. Since in many cases the propagation requires the use of rootstocks, the breeding propramme should also take into consideration their influence and suitability to the scion variety.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14762

Influence of fruit coating on papaya quality


Edna, P & Rosa, M
Department of Fruit and Vegetable Storage; Agricultural Research Organization; The Volcani Center; P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250; Israel.

International symposium on tropical fruits. theme: frontier in tropical fruit research. Working abstract. May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 63.

Abstract:
Papaya fruits cv. Sella were individually wrapped in a high density polyethylene film (Cryovac) or dipped for 1 min.in density wax 18% (Brochar 551). The control fruits were just washed with water. Differences in ripening processes were observed during 9 days of storage at 17 oC. The control fruits showed a normal climacteric rise of CO2 and ethylene production. However, the fruits were coated either with Cryovac film or wax did not exhibit climacteric rise of CO2 or ethylene as detected by analyses. Checking the atmosphere in the fruit cavity revealed that the level of internal oxygen was the highest in the control during 9 days of storage, dropping from 21% to 14%. While, in the coated fruits the internal oxygen levels were much lower. The control fruits sowed an increased production of internal ethylene during storage while the coated ones did not. Only, internal CO2 levels were the highest in the wrapped papaya and the lowest in the control fruits while the waxed fruits showed intermediate levels. Neither the wax nor the Cryovac film caused accumulation or remaintation products in the fruit although the low oxygen levels in the cavity. The control and the wrapped fruit showed a normal development of the peel color while the waxed fruit showed an inhibition in its development. The firmness of the control and wrapped fruit ahowed a progressive decrease from the beginning of the storage while waxed fruit remained firm. The percentage of weight loss was low in the costed (Cryovac 0.19%,wax 2.5%) in comparison with the control (6.6%). Wrapping the fruit individually with a polymer (Cryovac) showed to be the most effective way of storing papaya cv. Sella, since it prevented weight loss, delay climacteic rese of CO2 and ethylene, but still kept a normal ripening process.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14770

Factor influencing ex vitro rooting of tissue cultures papaya shoots


Kataoka, I & Inou, H
Laboratory of Pomology; Faculty of Agriculture; Kagawa University; Miki; Kagawa; Japan.

International symposium on tropical fruits. theme: frontier in tropical fruit research. Working abstract. May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 77.

Abstract:
The effects of medium composition on in vitro shoot growth and subsequent ex vitro rooting of papaya were studied. Addition of 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l to the medium enhanced shoot elongation, while concentrations higher than 3.0 mg/l retarded shoot growth and caused severe vitrification. The best root formation ex vitro was obtained from the shoots produced with 0.5 mg/l. Increasing the agar concentration in the medium reduced shoot elongation and the number of vitrified shoots. The best rooting ex vitro was obtained from the shoots produced in the medium containing 1.2% of agar Lowering the concentration of MS macro-nutrients to half strength shoot growth suppressed shoot vitrification. The shoots from the medium containing one and half strength of MS macro-nutrients rooted best. The sucrose concentration slightly affected shoot growth but not wx vitro rooting. Dipping the shoots in either IBA was highly effective for ex vitro rooting, particularly IBA at 2500 mg/l. The results suggested that shoot quality which is determined by medium composition markedly affects the subsequent ex vitro rooting.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14830

Dry weight partitioning of papaya (Carica papaya)


Meon, Z
Fruit Division; P.O.Box 43; MARDI; 33000 Kuala Kangsar; Perak; Malaysia.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 170.

Abstract:
Quantitative analysis of dry matter distribution using growth analysis technique (Watson, 1952) was attempted on papaya cv hybrid. Planting density was 1600 plant ha-1. Plant parts were partitioned and oven-dried at initial reproductive stage for one-year period. Results indicated that LAI 4.7 was observed at 22nd week after planting and the maximum Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) was 36.15 and 11.58 g m-2 day-1 respectively. Partionning percentage was 16.6% of total dry weight. Papaya contributed much of its dry matter basically to stem more than 50% particularly at rerpoduction stage. From this study, partictioning would provide another yield component for papaya yield prediction.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14831

Growth of papaya seedlings under different shade levels


Masri, M
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Lot 9, Bander Barn Laka Temin, 06050 Bukit Kayu Hitam, Kedah, Malaysia

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 171.

Abstract:
The effect of different levels of shading on growth and development of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedling studied in the nurseries. Treatment consisted of 70%, 50% and 30% shades with unshaded seedlings as controls. Results indicated that papaya seedlings required shade for optimum growth. Seedling height was positively correlated with shade levels. Dry matter production were relatively low at higher shade levels. Maximum stem size, dry matter production and crop growth rate attained at shade levels of 43%, 40% and 42%, respectively.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14865

Diseases of papaya in Bangladesh


Mortuza, MG
Mango Research Station; Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute; Nawabganj-6300; Bangladesh.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 217.

Abstract:
Eight diseases are known to occur in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Bangladesh. Mosaic caused by papaya mosaic virus is the most serious disease of papaya. This disease is prevalent in almost all areas of the country and limits the productivity of the crop. Stem or foot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Eds.) Fitst can be serious depending upon by Tobacc leaf curl virus also considered as a major problem. Anthracnose on fruit (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.), Fruit rot (Ascochyta caricae pat.), Leaf spot (chowdhury), Seedling blight (Macrophomina phaseolina) and Root Knot (Melodogyne incognita (Kefold and White). Chitwood are considered as minor for their extent of damage.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14867

Bagging of fruit on the tree to control diseases


Kitagawa, H; Manabe, K & Esguerra, EB
Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology; Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 219.

Abstract:
Japan imported 773,723 tons (metric) of banana, 135,383 tons of banana, 135,383 tons of pineapple, 5,744 tons of papaya and 5,966 tons of mango from tropical countries in 1989. The biggest problem of papaya and mango during marketing in Japan is anthracnose. To increase the import, the control of anthracnose which is a very troublesome disease in high rainfall area is most important. When European fruits were introduced to Japan in the early 20 th century, it was found that diseases were yevy serious due to high rainfall during the growing season. Fruit growers developed two methods to control the diseases. One is growing fruit trees in glass houses, and the other is bagging where in each fruit is covered with paper bag on the tree before the infections occut. In this paper we will report the Japanese way of bagging. Bagging not only controls diseases but also enhances the appearance ot the fruits.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14892

Growth of papaya seedling under different shade levels


Masri, M
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Lot 9; Bandar Baru Laka Temin; Kedah; Malaysia.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits-Theme: frontier on tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p.252-253

Abstract:
The effect of different levels of shading on growth and development of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedling were studied in the nurseries. Treatment consisted of 70%, 50% and 30% shades with unshaded seedlings as controls. Results indicated that papaya seedlings required shade for optimum growth. Seedling height was positively correlated with shade levels. Dry matter production were relatively low Laka Temin, 06050 Bukit Kayu Hitam, Kedah, Malaysia at higher shade levels. Maximum stem size, dry matter production and crop growth rate attained at shade levels of 43%, 40% and 42%, respectively.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14852

Effect of lime and boron on the quality and yield of papaya fruits


Ahmed, A; Biswas, MM & Hossain, AKMA
Horticulture Research Centre; Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute; Joydebpu; Gazipur-1701; Bangladesh.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 198

Abstract:
A study was carried out at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research institute, Joydebpur during 1988-89 to investigate into the effect of lime and boron on the yield and quality of papaya fruits cv. one promissing line p-011. There were two levels of Cao (o and 1.0 kg plant-1) and three levels of boron (0,5 and 10 g plant-1). It was revealed that number (44.1 plant-1) and weight of fruits (618.5 g fruit-1) were significantly increased by the application of one kilogram Cao per plant. Boron on the other hand, significantly influenced production of uniform and healthy fruits (97.2%) and helped production of maximum number of fruits (47.2 plant-1). Both rate of boron was found highly useful. The combination of lime and boron was found significant in respect to the production of uniform fruits and higher fruit yield per plant. However, boron with or without Cao, was found to be responsible for producing uniform fruits. The treatments having one kilogram lime along with five or 10 g boron per plant were considered equally good for higher yield and uniform fruits

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14891

Effect of paclobutrazol on vegetative growth and flowering of Euphoria longana Lamk. var. do and var. haeo
Chaitrakulsub, T; Subhadrabandhu, S; Powsung, T; Ogata, R & Gemma, H

Faculty of Agriculture; Chiang Mai Universth; Chiang Mai 50002; Thailaind.
International Symposium on Tropical Fruits-Theme: frontier on tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p.250-251

Abstract:
First trail: paclobutrazol was applied as soil drench around the frunk soil line at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 gm A.I./cm. of stem 0/plant from Arpil to september, 1989. Second trail: paclobutrazol was applied as soil drench at 0.75,1.00,1.25 gm A.I./m2 of leaf conopy. Third trail: paclobutrazol was applied as single spray at 700, 1000, 1300 ppm. in October, 1988. It was found that, in first trial, the vegetative growth of four months lod var. do, treated with 8, 16, 32 and 64 gm A.I./cm. of stem 0/plant were strongly reduced more than the plants treated with 2 and 4 gm A.I./cm. of stem 0/plant, whereas plants treated with I gm A.I./cm. of stem 0/plant showed slighter effect. There was no different among chemical treated for yellow leaf symptom, while paclobutrazol did not show neither phytotixicity nor lethal effect. For second trial, all chemical treatments did not affect percentage of flowering and leaf flushing of 4 years old longan var. do. But in the Third trial, spraying of 500 of 1000 ppm. promoteed flowering of 9 years old longan var. do to 80% which was more than untreated control and other treatments about 20% while leaf flushing was not affected by any treatment.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15018

Comparative study on some characteristics of introduced and local papaya cultivars


Chalermsri Nontaswatsri & Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Department of Horticulture; Maejo University; Chiang Mai 50290; Thailand

Thai Journal of Agricultual Science 30: 335-342 (l997)

Abstract:
Some characteristics of three papaya (C. papaya) cs. Khaek Dam, Tainung #5 and Eksotika #20 were studied. It appeared that the characteristics of vegetative and reproductive growth in the hermaphrodite and female plants did not differ significantly except for days to flowering when the female plants flowered earlier than the hermaphroditic plants. Eksotika #20 took a longer time to flower; the position of the first flower and the first fruit was high on the plant; the circumference around the trunk when the first flower sprouted was the greatest; and there were more nodes from the soil level up to the first fruit and more fruits/plant/crop which differed significantly from Tainung #5 and Khaek Dam. The vegetative and reproductive growth of Khack Dam and Tainung #5 were not different except for days to flowering and the number of fruits/plant/crop. Tainung #5 had a shorter time to flowering and more fruits/plant/crop than Khack Dam. The female plant had round fruits which was typical of fruits from all cultivars where as fruits in the hermaphroditic plants of Khaek Dam and Tainung #5 were longer; however, in the Eksotika #20 round fruit was seen. Sex had no influence on the weight of fruit; Eksotika #20 had the lowest weight and differed significantly from Khaek Dam and Tainung #5 but fruits from Khaek Dam and Tainung 5 were not different. Fruits from the hermaphroditic plant had smaller cavities than those from the female plant. Eksotika #20 had the smallest cavities and Khaek Dam had the largest cavities. Fruits from the female plants had thicker flesh than hermaphroditic plants; however Khack Dam female fruits had the same flesh thickness as the hermaphrodite. Tainung #5 had the highest flesh thickness and Eksotika #20 had the lowest flesh thicknes compared to other cultivars. The sex of the flowers had no influence on flesh firmness and %TSS; Khaek Dam had the lowest flesh firmness and % TSS, which differed significantly from Tainung #5 and Eksotika #20; the latter two cultivars were similar in % TSS. The sex of the flowers had no influence on the number of seeds/fruit and Eksotika #20 had more seeds/fruit which differed from Tainung #5 and Khaek Dam.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15767

A study on the inheritance of some characters in two cultivars of papaya.


Wasee, S.; et al.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 13: 134(1988)

Abstract:
The inheritance of fruit weight, fruit shape, cavity percentage, thickness and firmness of flesh, and total soluble solids of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were studied in Line 10 Solo, Cocoa, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by using generation mean analysis. Characters controlled mostly by additive gene effects were fruit weight, fruit shape, thickness of flesh and total soluble solids. High narrow sense heritability was found in fruit weight, thickness and firmness of flesh and total soluble solids. Simple mass selection or other recurrent selection methods can be employed for cultivar improvement for these characters.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14447

Tropical fruits: the social, political and economic issues


Buchanan, A
7 Power street; Hawthorn; Victoria 3122; Australia

Proceedings of an International Conference: Postharvest Handling of Tropical Fruits; 19 –23 July 1993, Chiang Mai – Thailand; Champ, BR, Highley, E & Johnson, GI (eds); Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra; ACIAR Proceedings no. 50; p18-26

Abstract:
Most tropical fruits, apart form bananas and pineapple used to be grown mainly in home for local consumption. Recently, many tropical fruit export markets have been developed through large-scale production in plantations. Improved technologies, longer storage life, improved marketing, improved prices for tropical fruit, and changing food (Author's abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Thailand Country Office, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 76060

Somatic embryogenesis in Papaya (Caria papays L.) improvement.
Cong nghe pho roma trong cong tac giong Du du (Caria papays L.).

Bui thi Tuong Thu; ao
Tropical Biological Institute

Tuyen tap cac cong trinh nghien cuu khoa hoc (1993-1998) [Selection of Scientific works 1993-1998]. Agricultural Publishing House, Hochiminh city, 1978. page: 421-423.

Abstract:
There are many methods in propagation of Papaya. Someatic embryogenesis is the best way in micropropagation by mass production of embryonic cells on agitated shakers or batch culture and regenerate more easier on semi solid medium. Roots were favourable explants for embryogenic induction in vitro. More that 100 plantlet could be produced from embryogenic ce;s in one flask.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76061

Micropropagation of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Vi nhan giong cay du du (Caria papays L.)

Bui Tuong Thu; ao
Tropical Biological Institute

Tuyen tap cac cong trinh nghien cuu khoa hoc (1993-1998) [Selection of Scientific works 1993-1998]. Agricultural Publishing House, Hochiminh city, 1978. page: 424-430.

Abstract:
Application of micropropagation techniques in multiplication of papaya showed that multiplication rate was high and a large quantity of clean seedlings could be produced in the shortest time. This is an effective way to avoid the yellow leaves diseases caused by virus infection.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 15758

Oriental red mite management in Ratchaburi Province.


Sungphaibun, C.; Charonnasi, W.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 13: 123(1988)

Abstract:
Oriental red mite (Eutetranychus orientalis Klein) is the most predominant insect pest to papaya in Ratchaburi Province. In order to control it effectively, studies in details were conducted and the results indicated its characteristic of short life cycle, living in clutter on various host plants, rapid reproduction and clump distribution. No spreading of this insect pest was observed in the rainy season except in the long period of rain shortage. Field survey indicated that its most natural enemy was Stethorus sp. which also has short life cycle, long adult period and rapid reproduction. Temperature and relative humidity can affect its hatching percentages and nymph growth Stethorus sp. in famine condition would have better ability to find and consume food. Appropriate method for Stethorus sp. multiplication and many effective chemical control on red mite without causing papaya leaf blight or any injury to the Stethorus sp. were also found. The results of studies thus help the preventive control of oriental red-mite in Ratchaburi Province.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16508

Effect of packaging films on quality and shelf life of shredded green papayas (Carica papaya L.) treated with calcium chloride.


Supapyanich, S.; Kyu, K. L. and Kaniavanarat, S.
Division of Postharvest Technology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand

20th SEAN2/2nd APEC Seminar on Postharvest Technology 'Quality Management and Market Access', 11-14 September 2001; Lotus Hotel Pang Suan Kaew Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001; p 83.

Abstract:
The effect of packaging films such as linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on quality and shelf life of shredded green papayas treated with 0.5% CaCl2 and stored at 5 °C was studied. Shredded green papayas placed in LLDPE film had better quality than those placed in PVC film. Firmness of shredded green papayas packed in LLDPE film was more than those in PVC film and LLDPE film could control weight loss of shredded green papayas better than PVC film. Colors of shredded green papayas that packed in both plastic films were no difference. Modified atmosphere occurred in both packages was no effect on quality of green papaya shreds during storage. In this study, it was found that shelf life of green papaya shreds placed in both plastic films was 1 0 days and LLDPE film was proper film to maintain quality of shredded green papayas during storage.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16507

Effect of calcium chloride treatments on physicochemical changes of shredded green papayas (Carica papaya L.) cv. kaek dam.


Supapvanich, S.; Kvu, K. L. and Kanlayanarat, S.
Division of Postharvest Technology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand

20th SEAN2/2nd APEC Seminar on Postharvest Technology 'Quality Management and Market Access', 11-14 September 2001; Lotus Hotel Pang Suan Kaew Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001; p 82.

Abstract:
The effect of calcium chloride on physicochemical changes cell-wall enzyme activity of shredded green papayas (Carica papaya L., cv. Kaek Dam) was studied. Shredded green papayas were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1.0% CaCl2 and stored at 5 and 10 °C with > 95% RH, for 10 days. Low storage temperature, 5 °C, was the proper temperature for keeping shredded green papayas, compared to high temperatures, 10 °C. A 0.5% CaCl2 treatment maintained firmness and weight loss of shredded green papayas during storage better than other concentrations. Calcium chloride also controlled whiteness, respiration rate and soluble pectin level during storage but concentration of calcium chloride had no impact on these changes, except respiration rate. High concentration of calcium chloride, 1.0% CaCl2, controlled respiration rate better than lower concentration, 0.5 and 0% CaCl2. Cell-wall enzymes, such as pectinmethylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities of shredded green papayas stored at 5 °C were than those stored at 10 °C. Calcium chloride treatments inhibited PG and PME activities. In this study, it was found that shredded green papayas treated with 0.5% CaCI2 stored at 5 °C had the best quality during storage.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16623

Effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Dry root powder on lactation of albino rats


Tossawanchuntra, G. and Aritajat, S.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. (gasine092@hotmail.com)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 431. (2003)

Abstract:
Effects of Carica papaya root (CP) on lactation of rats were studied using the aqueous extract from dry powder in various doses for 15, 21 and 30 days. The lactating rats were fed with distilled water and the aqueous extract of CP twice a day at doses of 400, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day. The level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), prolactin and total protein in mammary gland were measured.In case of rats fed with CP for 15 days, the average weights of mammary glands of fed rats at all doses were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the control groups. The level of ALP in rats fed with CP at 500 mg/kg/day was highest while the level of prolactin in rats fed with CP at 400 mg/kg/day was significantly higher than other groups. Rats fed with CP at 400 and 1,000 mg/kg/day contained higher protein content than the control groups. As for rats fed with CP for 21 days, 400 mg/kg/day had higher level of ALP and average weight of their mammary glands was significant higher than the control groups. The levels of prolactin in rats fed with CP at 400 and 500 mg/kg/day were significant higher than the control ones. Mammary glands of rat fed with CP at all doses contained higher protein content than the control groups. For rats fed with CP for 30 days, there were no significant differences in weight of mammary gland, ALP, prolactin and protein contents among the fed and control rats. It was concluded that feeding lactating rats with CP for 15 and 21 days could activate higher lactating ability by increasing the weight of mammary gland, ALP, prolactin and protein content.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16635

Radical scavenging activity in fruit extracts


Kaewsutthi, S.; Surakarnkul, R. and Surinrut, P.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 460. (2003)

Abstract:
Photochemicals in plants, vegetables and fruits have been reported to prevent oxidative strees related diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, brain and immune- system dysfunction and inflammation. Many plant phenolic flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant activity. In our study, the polyphenolic content and the radical scavenging activity of a number of Thai fruit extracts were determined by Folin-Ciacalteu reagent and scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical respectively. We found that grape skins, mulberries, star fruit, mango, lichee and guava possess strong activity to scavenge the DPPH radical (IC50 from 1.10 to 9.60 mg/ml). Moderate antioxidant activity were found in mangosteen, pamelo, papaya and grapes (IC50 from 11.18 to 29.76 mg/ml). Low antioxidant activity (IC50 from 50.62 to 113.89 mg/ml) were found in orange, rose apple and jackfruit.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16803

Boron in Leaf and Petiole with Boron Deficiency in Difference Soils
That Boron nai bai lae kan kap kan khat that boron khong malako nai din chanit tangtang.

Ta-oun, M.; Panchaban, S.; Pruangka, S. and Therajindakajorn, P.
Department of Land resources and Environment, Faculty of Aghculture, Khon Kaen University.

The Procedings of 42nd Kasetsart University Annual Conference 2004, Feb 3-6, 2004; Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand.: o188_01. (in CD ROM)

Abstract:
To study the relationship of boron concentration in leaf and petiole of papaya to boron deficiency in difference soil of the Northeast by using semi-structured interview method together with field survey revealed that B deficiency can cause deformation and bumpy unsmooth appearances to papaya fruits. B concentration in leaf and petiole ranged from 13.7-14.3 and 12.9-14.3 ppm. respectively and B in soil 0.23- 0.27 ppm. In case of extreme deficiency there would be a flow of liquid from stem, infertile seeds and changing color from while to brown and concentration of B in leaf and petiole was lower into 11.0-13.2 and 10.8-13.9 ppm. respectively. B concentrations in petiole of papaya grown on coarse or sandy soils, loamy or sandy loam and fine texture or clay soils in farmers fields for the healthy papaya got an average concentrations for B of 23, 26 and 31 ppm. respectively. Papaya plants that get older than 2 years would have a lower B concentration than less than 1 year plant which have average for 26 and 41 ppm. respectively. B concentration in petiole of native variety was higher than Cocoa, Dumnern, Khaekdum Thaphra, Khaekdum, Khaeknual and Youngkhaw which have the average of 43, 38, 38, 36, 24, 22 and 20 ppm.B. respectively.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16729

Greenhouse and field tests in thailand identw transgenic papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus
Kan thotsop lae khat lueak malako tat to san phanthukam tanthan rok chut wong waen malako

Prasartsee, V.; Sarihdu, N.; Sakuanrungsirikun, S.; Chaikiatiyos, S.; Siriyan , R. and Gonsalves, D.
Department of Agriculture; Cornell University.

The Fifth National Plant Protection Conference, Processing 1 : Oral Session , November 21-23, 2004; Felix Riverkhwae Hotel, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.: 301 (2002).

Abstract:
Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.). in 1997 Promising RO transgenic papaya finest developed in a collaboration between Department of Agriculture .(DOA) and Cornell University were transferred to DOA in Tha Pra. Subsequent screenhouse tests of Progenies from RO plants identified 186 R1 plants that show resistance to PRSV from Thailand. In field tests, 1 60 of the 1 86 plants show resistance. R2 progeny of selected R l plants were screened in greenhouse showed excellent resistance to Khon Kaen isolate of PRSV. Plants of four R2 lines also showed high resistance (90 -100%) to PRSV isolates from 4 different regions of the country. These transgenic lines hold much promise to control PRSV in Thailand.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16824

Boron in Leaf and Petiole with Boron Deficiency in Difference Soils
That Boron nai bai lae kan kap kan khat that boron khong malako nai din chanit tangtang.

Ta-oun, M; Panchaban, S; Pruangka, S; Therajindakajorn, P
Department of Land resources and Environment, Faculty of Aghculture, Khon Kaen University.

The Proceedings of 42nd Kasetsart University Annual Conference 2004. On 3-6 Feb, 2004; Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand. (in CD-ROM)

Abstract:
To study the relationship of boron concentration in leaf and petiole of papaya to boron deficiency in difference soil of the Northeast by using semi-structured interview method together with field survey revealed that B deficiency can cause deformation and bumpy unsmooth appearances to papaya fruits. B concentration in leaf and petiole ranged from 13.7-14.3 and 12.9-14.3 ppm. respectively and B in soil 0.23- 0.27 ppm. In case of extreme deficiency there would be a flow of liquid from stem, infertile seeds and changing color from while to brown and concentration of B in leaf and petiole was lower into 11.0-13.2 and 10.8-13.9 ppm. respectively. B concentrations in petiole of papaya grown on coarse or sandy soils, loamy or sandy loam and fine texture or clay soils in farmers fields for the healthy papaya got an average concentrations for B of 23, 26 and 31 ppm. respectively. Papaya plants that get older than 2 years would have a lower B concentration than less than 1 year plant which have average for 26 and 41 ppm. respectively. B concentration in petiole of native variety was higher than Cocoa, Dumnern, Khaekdum Thaphra, Khaekdum, Khaeknual and Youngkhaw which have the average of 43, 38, 38, 36, 24, 22 and 20 ppm.B. respectively. Key Words: Boron in Leaf and Petiole, Boron Deficiency, Difference Soils

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16973

Research and development of genetically modified crops in Thailand : National perspectives and policies


Attathom, S
Department of Plant Pathology, Kasart University; Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom 73140 Thailand

The Forth International Conference on Biopesticides: Phytochemicals and Natural Products for the Progress of Mankind on February 13-18,2005, Imperial Mae Ping Hotel, Chiang Mai, Thailand: 4 (2005)

Abstract:
The rapid advancement of biotechnology especially genetic engineering offers new opportunity for agricultural production. Thailand, the leading agriculture exporting country in the region, recognizes the potential of GE technology for the development and improvement of agricultural products. Crop qualities such as insect and disease resistance, high productivity and tolerance to abiotic stress are needed to retain the competitiveness of the country in the world market. Preliminary R&D in genetically modified crop was carried out at the Plant Genetic Engineering Unit, a specialize laboratory of the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) and Kasetsart University (KU). Food crops like papaya, pepper and tomato were genetically engineered for disease resistance. With the increasing R&D activities at the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, universities and research institutes, the roadmap for genetically modified plant was laid out for the country in 2004. Key strategies leading to the successful application of GE technology were identified as following ; technological capability/availability, biosafety management, management of intellectual property rights and resources, public policy management and market and public acceptance. Despite all the potential benefits of GE technology, there are some concerns on the associated risks derived by genetically engineered products. At present, commercialization of any transgenic plant is not allowed. Introduction of genetically modified plant must have an official approval and only for research purpose. Thailand is also in the process of formulating the national policy on GMOs. The public debate will be focused on three options, full support of GM crops, coexistence and a complete ban on GM crops.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15962

Effect of calcium chloride treatments on physicochemical changes of shreded green papayas (Carica papaya L.) cv. Kaek Dam


Supapvanich, S.; Kyu, K. L.; Kanlayanarat, S.
Seminar on Postharvest Technology. p.82 (2001)

Abstract:
The effect of calcium chloride on physicochemical changes cell-wall enzyme activity of shredded green papayas (Carica papaya L., cv. Kaek Dam) was studied. Shredded green papayas were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1.0% CaCl2 and stored at 5 and 10?C with ? 95% CaCl2 treatment maintained firmness and weight loss of shredded green papayas during storage better than other concentrations. Calcium chloride also controlled whiteness, respiration rate and soluble pectin level during storage but concentration of calcium chloride had no impact on these changes, except respiration rate. High concentration of calcium chloride, 1.0% CaCl2, controlled respiration rate better than lower concentration, 0.5 and 0% CaCl2. Cell-wall enzymes, such as pectinmethlesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities of shredded green papayas stored at 5?C were than those stored at 10?C. Calcium chloride treatments inhibited PG and PME activities. In this study, it was sound that shredded green papayas treated with 0.5% CaCl2 stored at 5?C had the best quality during storage.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16354

Papaya
Malako

Israngkura, R.
Thai National Documentation Center, 1974. Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. Bangkok. 1:107-108.

Abstract:
The three types of flowers of papaya are described. Growing practices in Australia are discussed. Topics included are varieties grown, seedbeds, transplanting, soil and fertilizer requirements, cultural practices, plantation management, harvesting, hand pollination to improve fruit setting, and controlled hand pollination to maintain varietal purity.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 71309

Planting techniques of banana, ananas, papaya and Momordica
Ky thuat trong chuoi, dua, gac, du du

Dang Xuan Nghiem; Nguyen Van Sieu
Hanoi, Rural Publishing House, 1961; 45 p

Abstract:
The book mentions factors that affect growth and development of 4 plants (ananas, banana, papaya and sweet gourd), such as rainfall, day light, environment, and terrain. Breeding, planting techniques and protection against insect attacks are also mentioned.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70128

Papain from papaya used adjutants and investigation on its enzyme activities
Papayin tu cay du du: ta duoc su dung va theo doi hoat tinh men

Nguyen Xuan Thang
College of Pharmacy;Hanoi;Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (2): 22-24(1991)

Abstract:
Some adjutants which are used to make papain containing pills can maintain and survey the activity of the ferment in the product. In our conditions, the use of yellow roasted amidon is useful for the preservation of papain , and easy for users. It has good perspective for users in small scale.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology




NO. 71791

Papaw - tree
Cay du du

Nguyen Huu Doanh
Ky thuat trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting Technic of Fruit plant in garden] Thanh Hoa Pub., 1992. - pag. 44-46

Abstract:
Papaw-tree is one of tropical fruit-tree and have high nutritious-value. There 90 gam water, 1 gam protit, 0.1 gam acid-organic, 7.7 gam gluxit, 0.02 mg B1, B, 54 mg vitamin C... in 100 gam papaw. It can able to make jam, canned food by papan, papan gives fruit year round and is suitable with powdered soil.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71811

Planting technic of papaw plant
ky thuat trong du du

Dang Xuan Nghiem; Nguyen Van Sieu
Ky thuat trong chuoi, dua, gac, du du [Planting technic of banana, pineapple, momordica, papan], Hanoi, Rural Publishing House, 1961. pag. 12-20.

Abstract:
Composition and uses of papaw fruit. The growth and development condition of papan-tree. It is suitable with hot climate. Botanical characteristics of papan-tree. Planting papan-tree in Vietnam. Planting technic of papan-tree. Taking care of papan-tree. Preventing the insects for papan-tree and harvesting papan-tree.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 71824

Papaw plant
Cay du du

Mong Hung
So tay sinh ly mot so cay trong o Vietnam [Han book on physilogy of some cultivar plants in Vietnam] Hanoi, Science Pub. House, 1966. vol. 2: 145-168

Abstract:
Papaw plant is suitable with warm and hot climate. Papaw plant should to plant on sand-loam soil and fertilizer soil. Its planting time is from March to October.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 73120

Carica papaya L.
Du du

Vo Van Chi
Nhung cay thuoc thong thuong [The Popular Medical Plant] Dongthap, Dongthap publising house: 124-125 (1988)

Abstract:
Carica papaya L. is distributed everywhere. There are 95 water, glucose, lipid, CA, P, Mg, FE, vitamin A, B, C,... in its fruit. Its seeds can be treated oxyuris, low temperature. Its roots: jungle fever, disinfect. This species is harvested all year round.

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73250

Carica papaya
Du du

Vu Cong Hau; Le Quang Mai; Dinh Van Duc
Trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting Fruit Trees in the Garden] Hanoi, Agricultural publishing house: 130-150 (1982)

Abstract:
Carica papaya is popular fruit tree in Vietnam. It's a tropical tree but can't stand the hoa-frost and cold. It needs 1800-2000 mm/year rainfall for development. The alluvial near river, fertile lands are best for the papayer. The fruit can be edible when it's young or ripe.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73290

The papaya
Du du

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; pp. 110-111

Abstract:
This tree is planted popularly in Thanh Hoa for getting fruits. The roots, fruit, flowers, resin and leaves are used as medicines. They can be harvested after 2 years from the propagation. They can treat a constipation, headache, cough and kidney's diseases.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73749

Carica papaya L.
Du du

Vo Van Chi
Cay rau lam thuoc [Vegetables for medicine] Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publ. House: 85-87 (1998)

Abstract:
In Vietnam, C. papaya is cultivated commonly as fruit plant. Its green is used as vegetable, its matured fruit are very nutrious and delecious, in 100 gram matured contains 87.1% water, 0.5% protein, 0.1% lipid, 11.8% sugar, vitamin B1, A, C, B2, P, minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na). The leaf is used to treat wound; the flower is used to trewat a cough.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78394

Carica papaya L.
Du du

Le Tran Duc
Cay thuoc Viet Nam: Trong, hai, che bien va tri benh ban dau [Medicinal plants of Vietnam: planting, harvesting, processing and treating diseases] Agricultural Pub. House. Hanoi, 1999. p. 654-655

Abstract:
Carica papaya is cultivated widely in familly gardens as fruit-tree. The ripe fruits can be used to relief a constipation, The leaf can treat a wound, The resin can treat a scabies. The resin has also a high export value because it's used as meterial to process some medicines.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78460

Biotechnology of Papaya (Carica papaya L.): Somatic emoyogenesis via root culture
Cong nghe sinh hoccay du du (Carica papaya L.) phat sinh phoi soma (qua nuoi cay re).

Tran Van Minh; Bui Thi Tuong Thu; Nguyen Van Uyen
Tap san khoa hoc ky thuat Nong Lam Nghiep [Journal of agricultural sciences and technology] 3: 116-117 (2000).

Abstract:
There are many methods in propagation of papays. Somatic embryogenesis is the best way in micropropagation by mass production of embryonic cells on agitated shakers or batch culture. Roots were favourable explants for embryogenic cells inductions in vitro. One flask could be produced more 100 plantlets from embryogenic cells.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78653

Anti-tumour effects of some medicinal plants on in vivo Experimental cancers
Tham do tac dung cua mot so duoc lieu tren ung thu thuc nghien in vivo (Thong bao so 1)

Pham Kim Man; Nguyen Minh Khai; Nguyen Bich Thu; Vu Kim Thu
Tap chi duoc lieu [Journal of Meteria Medica].-1998, N0 4 – pp 115-118

Abstract:
Preparations A (extracted from leaves of carica papaya L.) B (extracted from leaves of Crinum latifolium L.) and C (extracted from tubers of Panax pseudo-ginseng wall.) have been tested for anti-tumour effect by sarcoma TG-180 inducing model. All the three preparations showed fronounced inhibition on tumour development and improved blood indices in tumorous mice.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam