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NO. 37067

Erosion study involving semi-temperature fruit trees and vegetable on sloping areas of Benguet


Balaoing, J; Jaramillo, P
La Trinidad; Benguet; BSU

Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; BSU; 1986; Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development - BSU Project; Management Information Systems Division; 22 p

Abstract:
This study determined the effect of intercropping on the growth and development of fruit trees, soil properties, erosion and moisture conservation. A 281.935 sq m lot with approximately 20.25% slope was divided into two, and later subdivided into five plots. Apple seedlings were planted on the first five lots, while lemon seedlings were also planted on the next. Recommended rate of fertilizer was applied to the fruit trees yearly and other recommended cultural practices were followed. During the rainy season, sweet potato was planted in each plot excluding the control plots. During the dry season, vegetables such as white (Irish) potato, sweet potato, garden pea, tomato and pepper were planted in between rows of the fruit trees. In both orchards, intercropping was done in the following manner: no intercrop (control), sweet potato-pepper, garden pea-white potato, tomato-sweet potato, and white potato-garden pea. Data gathered during the first year showed that fruit trees without intercrops had the greatest amount of soil loss (49,963.63 kg/ha and 54,725.70 kg/ha for apple and lemon orchards), respectively. On the second, third, fourth and fifth year of operations, soil loss was greatest in the control plots in both orchards. This was followed by those planted to trees intercropped with sweet potato and pepper, then those intercropped with white potato and garden pea. Vegetable yields were also found higher in the lemon orchard. Mean value of the initial and final height of the fruit trees indicated that in the apple orchard, the tallest height (1.60 m) was observed from A1 (no intercrop) while the lowest (1.02 m) was taken from the trees in A4 (with tomato sweet potato intercrops). On the other hand, the tallest plants (1.00 m) in the lemon orchard was found from L4 (with tomato sweet potato intercrops) and the lowest (0.76 m) was taken from L5 (with potato-green pea intercrops). Intercropping vegetables (such as those used in the study) with fruit trees like apple and lemon in sloping areas is a suitable cropping scheme in minimizing erosion and also improving soil physical and chemical properties and at the same time providing additional farm income.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 50021

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and nuts


Verheij, EWM (ed); Coronel, RE (ed)
Department of Tropical Crops; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1992; 447 p

Abstract:
This volume testifies to the great wealth and diversity of edible fruits and nuts in South-East Asia. The appreciation of these fruits and nuts is reflected in the many ways they are put to use and their role in cultural traditions. However, they generally yield erratically rather than prolifically. Where low productivity is the root of the problem, there is much to say for a shift in emphasis in research work from the fruit to the tree. Recent developments in South-East Asia suggest that traditional skills can provide the necessary clues for a breakthrough towards much higher yield levels. Among the 120 crops included are sugarapple, cherimoya, cashew, ananas, breadfruit, mango, durian, black and white sapote, mangosteen, avocado, tamarind, langsat, guava, carambola, bilimbi, salak, peach palm, passionfruit, macadamia, pummelo, lychee, longan, rambutan, sapodilla, starapple, canistel, sweet orange, pilinut, loquat, kumquat, bel fruit, galo nut, bignay, ketupa, rambai, gandaria, papaya, grape and strawberry. Brief characteristics of another 270 minor species are included. A total of 382 species producing edible fruits and nuts but with other primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of edible fruits and nuts. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 66938

In vitro shoot/bud and embryo cultures of citrus germplasms from Sumatra


Imelda, M; Atmowidjojo, S
Annales Bogorienses 2 (1): 12-16 (1992)

Abstract:
An in vitro method was adopted for the field collecting of citrus in the four provinces of Sumatra. Apical and lateral shoot tips were collected and inoculated onto MS media provided with fungicide and antibiotics. In the laboratory the shoot buds were transferred to a multiplication medium containing 1 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA, whereas the embryos were cultured in a similar medium without phytohormones. The proliferating shoots were separated and rooted in a one-half strength on MS medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 0.5 mg/l NAA. Plantlets derived from 14 varieties were acclimatized in a transplant medium consisting of sterilized soil and sand (1:1) in polythene bags for 2-3 weeks. Thirty of the 53 varieties which had been collected were successfully cultured. In comparison to embryo, culture of shoot tips was less successful. The ability of shoot proliferation varied between varieties, but the highest rate was attained by 'limau kunci' variety which formed 80 shootlets from one shoot tip. Uncontaminated plantlets gave higher success rate of acclimatization than contaminated ones.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 20022

Studies on Phytophthora palmivora, the causal organism of patch cancer disease of durian


Huan, TL
Division of Agriculture; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

The Malaysian Agricultural Journal 48 (1): 1-9 (1971)

Abstract:
Morphological features of Phytophthora palmivora from durian have been described. The fungus forms oopores in paired cultures with Phytophthora palmivora from cocoa and Phytophthora botryosa from rubber. The cardinal temperatures for growth are, minimum 12 °C, optimum 25 - 30 °C and maximum 35°C; favourable temperature range for oopore production is 15 -20 °C. Under experimental conditions it is capable of infecting the roots and barks of durian seedlings. When it is artificially inoculated on the bark of 9 different types of seedlings it is found to be pathogenic only to durian and papaya seedlings.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Jalan FRIM; Kepong; Karung Berkunci 201; 52109 Kuala Lumpur; Selangor; Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 50261

Citrus aurantium L. cv. group Bouquetier


Oyen, LPA; Jansen, PCM
PROSEA Publication Office; Department of Agronomy; Wageningen Agricultural University; P.O. Box 341; 6700 AH Wageningen; the Netherlands

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 19. Essential-oil plants; Oyen, LPA & Nguyen Xuan Dung (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, Prosea Foundation, 1999; p 78-83.

Abstract:
A comprehensive knowledge on Citrus aurantium cv. group Bouquetier, reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id
info@proseanet.org|prosea@indo.net.id




NO. 24555

Postharvest pathogens on fruits and their plant quarantine significance


Ganapathi, AN; Chinnathambi, C
Asean Plant Quarantine Center and Training Institute; Post Bag 209, UPM Post Office; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Proceedings of the 3rd. National Fruit Symposium, 24-26 September 1991, Genting Highlands, Pahang

Abstract:
A study was conducted on the postharvest fungal and bacterial diseases of local and imported fruits. This study reported on the pathogens intercepted from fruits, that appeared, not fit for consumption. This project was conducted from 1985 untill 1990. Fruits were selected on the basis of the appearance of lesions on the surface. Fruit samples were collected from the wholesale market, supermarkets, fruit stalls, night markets, growers, fruit packers, exporters, importers and even individuals who harvest from their home garden contributed fruit samples for this study. Pathogens intercepted include Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Chalara sp., Verticillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Thielaviopsis sp., Oidium sp., Absidia sp., Botryodiplodia sp., Alternaria spp., and some bacterial isolates of plant quarantine importance. The plant quarantine significance of these pathogens in the fruit trade was also discussed. Selected postharvest treatment for fruits, included hot water treatment, vapour heat treatments irradiation, cold treatment, hot air treatment and pesticide solution dipping. Research findings by fruit technologist suggested that the postharvest treatment together with proper handling of fruits could prove beneficial in controlling of pathogens growing on fruit surface. Constraints of the Malaysian Fruit Industry was discussed with constructive development strategies for better trade. This project paper concluded with the need for organizations like MARDI, FAMA, DOA, Universities, ASEAN PLANTI, etc. to regularly organise forums on the current developments in fruit technology, and utilisation for growers, exporters and traders engaged in fruit based industries.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 20688

Strategies and achievements in fruit breeding and selection at MARDI


Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Prosiding Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Fruits], April 8-9, 1986; Serdang, Selangor; MARDI, 1986, p 185-199

Abstract:
The fruit collection and germplasm centres for fruits were established at MARDI to provide breeders with the basic resource, i.e. genetic variation for crop improvement. The accessions in the fruit collection consisted of varieties, cultivars, clones or advanced breeding lines and was started in 1972 at Serdang. The germplasms were collected at random and restricted only to indigenous fruit species, started in 1982 at Kemaman. This was a joint effort with the IBPGR. Characterization and evaluation, important in providing an inventory of the genetic variation, were completed for papaya and banana and partial1y completed for perennial fruits, like durian, mango and cashew nut. In breeding and selection of clonally propagated fruit species, the basic step was to identify and select the 'winners' and subsequently testing them over time and space to establish the repeatabitily (stability) of their good performances. These, winners' were, however, time related, because of the changing consumer preference and industry demands. They will form the base for further improvement of the varieties in terms of increasing yield, developing pest and disease resistance and other requirements demanded by the industry from time to time. For clonally propagated fruits, selection of rootstocks and increasing productivity of durian clonal populations using mixtures of compatible genotypes were also given consideration. For seed propagated fruit species, the breeding and selection methodology for improving open-pollinated species (watermelon) and self-pollinated species (papaya) were included. The achievements of the breeding, programme on the whole were discussed in the light of the development of 'Nanas Johor' pineapple, the 'MARDI Backcross Solo' papaya, new accessions of 'Mas' and 'Rastali' bananas, the 'C11' cashew nut clone, and recommendation of mixtures of durian clones based on compatibility and xenic effects of the pollination.

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; P.O. Box 12301; phone: (60) (3) 894 37 111; fax: (60) (3) 894 83 664




NO. 24522

Development of new types of essential oils from some Malaysian plants for industrial uses


Ibrahim, J
Pharmacy Department; National University of Malaysia; Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

Eight Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Spices and Other Natural Products, 12- 16 June 1994, Malacca; Malaysia

Abstract:
In the study to exploit the tropical rainforest plants as potential sources of new types of essential oils, some species of the following genera were investigated: Dipterocarpus, Cinnamomum, Litsea, Lindera, Xylopia, Piper, Citrus, Clausena, Gaultheria, and Leptospermum. The chemical cmpositions and biological properties of the oils were determined . Efforts were also undertaken to develop technologies to process aromatic plants on a large scale and production of finished products from the oils such as perfumes, insect repellents, analgesic liniments and herbal shampoos. The results of these studies encouraged further work into the development of 'rainforest products' and domestication of the wild aromatic plants into plantation crops for essential oil production.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 24105

Essential oils of selected Malaysian plants and their potential uses


Ibrahim, J; Abu Said, A; Abdul Rashih, A; Nor Azah, MA; Zaridah, MZ; Azizol, AK
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor; Malaysia

Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research, 3-4 October 1995; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong; Selangor; 1995

Abstract:
The essential oils of several Malaysian plant species (Dipterocarpus, Cinnamomum, Litsea, Lindera, Piper, Citrus, Clausena, Gaultheria and Leptospermum) were investigated for their chemical and biological properties. The oils were mainly complex mixtures of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, except for those of some Cinnamomum and Gaultheria species which were made up mainly of one constituent. Lethality bioassays of the oils revealed that the oils of Litsea elliptica and Piper aduncum were highly toxic to mosquito larvae and benzyl benzoate-containing oils of some Cinnamomum species were highly toxic to brine shrimp. The oils of Litsea elliptica, Cymbopogon nardus and Cinnamomum mollissimum showed high repellency effect against adult female mosquito of Aedes aegypti. The oils were used as main ingredients in the development of herbal products such as perfumes, analgesic ointments and liniments, and insect repellent creams and lotions.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 50293

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 19. Essential-oil plants


Oyen, LPA (ed); Nguyen Xuan Dung (ed)
PROSEA Publication Office; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1999; 277 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with the plants of South-East Asia that produce essential oil, particularly the ones producing oils used as fragrance material. It complements the PROSEA volumes on edible fruits and nuts, medicinal and poisonous plants, spices, and plants producing exudates, which deal with plants that produce essential oils as important by-products. Fragrance materials play a much more important and varied role in life than is often realized. Incense is burnt in religious ceremonies all over the world. In luxury perfumery, fragrance is used to subtly please the senses of the user and those nearby. Some body care products are equally important as perfumery products (aftershaves, antiperspirants); others have essential oils added to make their use more pleasant (creams, soaps, shampoos, deodorants). Functional perfumery covers a very wide range of products, from soaps and detergents to domestic cleaning products. Although the fragrance materials used in many cosmetic and household products are now largely synthetic, natural essential oils still play a central role in food and luxury perfumery, as the richness of their odour is unrivalled by synthetics and because the use of synthetics in food is subject to stricter government regulations. Most of the 38 important crops covered in this volume are grown in South-East Asia, but several crops widely grown elsewhere and potentially useful in parts of South-East Asia have been included as well. A further 31 species of minor importance are treated briefly, while 400 species producing essential oils but having another primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of essential-oil plants. A table on standard physical properties of some essential oils is included. A glossary is also included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 102004

Traditional medicinal plants for fever in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces
Tanaman obat tradisional untuk sakit panas/demam di Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan dan Kalimantan Timur

Sa'roni; Pudjiastuti; Adjirni
Research and Development Centre for Pharmacy; Ministry of Health; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 1; p 177-182

Abstract:
In 1989 a survey had been conducted to study the utilization of traditional herbs by local people to overcome their health in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces. One of the results showed that some of the traditional herbs were used for healing fever. Some of them had been examined using laboratory animal for antipyretic and hypothermic effects.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 71809

The orange, lemon, mandarin and grape-fruit
Cam, chanh, quyt, buoi

Tran Phuong Tuan; Tran Van Hoa; Duong Minh
Cay an trai dong bang song Cuu long [The fruit plants in Cuu Long river's delta); Hanoi, Publishing House of Education, 1992; p 37-85

Abstract:
Introduction to different breeds, their botanical and chemical properties, sending method, current situation and harvesting of the orange, lemon, mandarin and grape-fruits in Cuu Long Delta.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71818

Orange tree
Cay cam

Mong Hung
So tay sinh ly mot so cay trong o Vietnam [Handbook on physiology of some cultivated plants in Vietnam]; Vol. 2, Hanoi, Science Publishing House, 1966; p 12-17

Abstract:
The author described some physiological characteristics of orange-tree and gave out the methods of propagating, tending and preventing insect pests. In Vietnam orange is distributed in Ha Bac, Hai Duong, Vinh, Can Tho and Vinh Long provinces.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 50699

Citrus amblycarpa (Hassk.) Ochse


Jansen, PCM
Prosea Publication Office, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands

Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 13: Spices; de Guzman, C.C. & Siemonsma, J.S. (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, PROSEA Foundation, 1999; p 250

Abstract:
A brief information on Citrus amblycarpa (Synonyms: Citrus limonellus, Citrus nobilis), reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 71118

Lemon, orange, mandarin, grape fruits and their essential oils
Chanh - cam - quit - buoi va cac chat thom che tu chanh, cam, quit, buoi

Do Tat Loi
Cac phuong phap che tinh dau [Methods for the production of essential oil]. Scientific Publishing House, Hanoi, 1962; p 43-45

Abstract:
Description of morphological characteristics of lemon, orange, mandarin, grape fruits and their geographic distribution in Vietnam are presented. Their value and methods of production of essential oils from fruits are discussed.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71156

Intensive farming of oranges and mandarin
Tham canh quit

Dinh Van Lu; Tran Nhu Y
Hoi dap ve tham canh cay an qua [Questions Answers of intensive farming of fruit trees] Scientific and Technical Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam: 1978; p 3-72

Abstract:
Economic value of oranges and mandarins, source of seeds in Vietnam, methods of propagation, choosing soil for planting and manuring, diseases and pests are discussed.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71308

Handbook on physiology of some cultivars in Vietnam vol. 2
So tay sinh ly mot so cay trong o Viet Nam

Mong Hung
Nha xuat ban Khoa hoc [Scientific Publishing House], Hanoi, 1966; 125 p

Abstract:
The book deals with physiological characteristics of 17 cultivar plant's and describes planting methods of each cultivar.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71504

Introduction to some exported plants
Gioi thieu mot so cay trong xuat khau

Nguyen Ky Tam
Department of Industrial plants, Ministry of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam

Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi 1975; 123 p

Abstract:
Introduction in brief to economic value, productivity, development situation in Vietnam and in the other parts of the world, export standards, some cultivation methods and processing of some industrial plants is presented.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 110237

The effects of shallot extract, AgNO3 and NAA to organogenesis of adventitious roots and shoots of leaf cuttings of (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) cv. Eureka
Pengaruh ekstrak bawang merah, AgNO3 dan NAA terhadap organogenesis akar dan tunas stek daun jeruk lemon (Citrus limo Burm. F.) kultivar eureka

Harnelis, I
Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

S1 thesis; Bandung; Faculty of Agriculture; Padjadjaran University; 1997; 152 p

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to find out the effects of shallot extract, AgNO3 and NAA on the growth of lemon leaf cuttings. The experiment was conducted in the Hydrophonic Nursery, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor from March 1996 until June 1996. A completely randomized design was used with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: shallot extract 5 000 ppm (A1), 10 000 ppm (A2), 25 000 ppm (A3); AgNO3 5 ppm (B1), 15 ppmn (B2), 45 ppm (B3); NAA 1 ppm (C1), 2.5 ppm (C2), 7.5 ppm (C3), and control (K, untreated). The results showed that shallot extract, AgNO3, and NAA applied on lemon leaf cuttings did not give the better effect than the control on the growth of adventitious roots and buds.

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Padjadjaran University




NO. 14900

Control of head lice (Pediculus capitis) by the use of medicinal plants and vegetable oils


Soonwera, M
Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

The 34th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 30 January-1 Febuary 1996, Bangkok; p 3

Abstract:
Preliminary studies on 5 species of medicinal plants, custard apple (Annona squamosa), leech lime (Citrus hystrix), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and castor bean (Ricinus communis) and 3 vegetable oils (rice bran oil, olive oil and castor bean oil) for controlling head lice (Pediculus capitis) were tested at the Wat Huaymuang School, Amphur Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom province. The results showed that tobacco had the greatest knockdown effect, followed by castor bean oil, custard apple, olive oil, castor bean, rice bran oil, and blue gum. The number of head lice were decreased by castor bean oil, rice bran oil or olive oil, greater than by custard apple, leech lime, or blue gum.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14165

New records of edible fruit crops insect pests in Thailand
Malaeng champhuak phisua sattru maiphon thi phop mai nai prathetthai

Liuwanit, A
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithaya [Journal of Entomology and Zoology] 12 (4): 249-251 (1990)

Abstract:
This paper reported new records of insect pest species and of host plants, and the synonyms of some insect pests.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14319

Kind and number of spiders in citrus plantations treated with pesticide-producing plants and chemical pesticides
Chanit lae pariman maengmum nai suan som khieowan thi chai san sakat chak phut samun phrai

Wangsilabat, W
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithaya [Journal of Entomology and Zoology] 15 (1): 20-35 (1993)

Abstract:
Effects of chemical and natural insecticides were compared in citrus plantations. Number of spiders in the plantations were counted for the year round. The results showed that the number of spiders in the plantation treated with natural insecticide was more than that in the plantation treated with chemical insecticides.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 71802

Orange and mandarin
Cam Quyt

Nguyen Huu Doanh
Ky thuat trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting techniques of fruit plants in garden]; Thanh Hoa Pub., 1992; p 5-8

Abstract:
Orange and mandarin have high nutrient value: protein 0.9 g, acid 1.0g, vitamin B1 0.08 g, B2 0.03 g, vitamin C 48-55 g, vitamin PP...in 100 g of fruit. They are distributed in Xa Doai, Van Du, Hai Duong, Bo Ha... They can be used to made jam, juice, wine, canned fruits. The fruit peel is used to treat cough and cold.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14180

Betel nut palm, a low input and profitable crop of Samphran District, Nakhon Pathom Province
Mak phut seam thi ton thun tam tae rai dai di khong chao amphoe samphran

Decho, S
Kheha Kan Kaset [House Agricultural Magazine] 16 (5): 42-45 (1992)

Abstract:
Intercropping of areca nut palm with pummelo gave a good result with monthly income of 3000-4000 baht for a 3 acre plot. General husbandry and management were discussed.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 25239

Fungi associated with diseases of citrus and their growth response to Blumea balsamifera extract


Sepiah, M; Abd Jalil, Y
Faculty of Resource Science, UNIMAS, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Malaysian Science & Technology Congres'99; Symposium A: Agriculture, Biology, Marine, Medicine, Social Science, Basic Sciences, 25-27 October, 1999; Kuala Lumpur; p 142-148

Abstract:
The common leaf diseases of citrus tree growing in Samarahan area were melanose, sooty mould and anthracnose, and the main diseases on the fruits were black spots, brown spots and scab. Fungi associated with the diseases of citrus were determined by tissue plating method on potato dextrose agar. Of the leaf diseases, Phomopsis sp. from melanose, Fusarium sp. from bird eyespots, Botryodiplodia theobromae from blotches and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from anthracnose were found on 50% or more of the total samples examined. The major fungi isolated from the leaf infected by sooty mould were Botryodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Curvularia sp, and Pestalotiopsis sp, but they were found on only 10, 4, 35 and 28%, respectively, of the total plated samples. Of diseased fruits, the major isolated fungi were Phomopsis sp (50%) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (40%) on black spots, Fusarium sp (72%) on fruit rot and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (50%) on brown spots. There were a few fungal species isolated from sooty mould and scab of the fruit; however, each was present on not more than 40% of the total samples. The effects of Blumea balsamifera leaf extract on growth of the fungi was tested on 5 isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae, 3 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, 3 isolates of Curvularia sp, 7 isolates of Fusarium spp, 2 isolates of Pestalotiopsis sp and 3 isolates of Phomopsis sp. Two levels of concentrations of the extract incorporated into potato dextrose agar were considered. The lower concentration (0.1%) of the extract enhanced growth of 12 of the total 23 isolates of the tested fungi. However, at the higher concentration (1.0%) of the extract, the growth of the fungi were inhibited, except for two of the seven isolates of Fusarium sp. The most affected fungus was one of the Phomopsis sp isolated from melanose leaf disease, with average growth rate reduction by 71.7%.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 101994

Knowledge and utilization of medicinal plants in Apauping village and its surroundings, Pujungan subdistrict, East Kalimantan
Pengetahuan dan pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat di desa Apauping dan sekitarnya, Kecamatan Pujungan, Kalimantan Timur

Susiarti, S
Research and Development Institute for Botany, LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 1; p 103-112

Abstract:
Knowledge and usage of medicinal plants by Dayak Kenyah in Apauping village have never been reported previously. Therefore, a research was conducted in Apauping village and surrounding, Pujungan subdistrict, East Kalimantan Province by interview and observation methods of 30 out of 53 families in the village. Results indicated that there were 92 species of plants belonging to 86 genera and 45 families used for this purpose. They were used for about 45 kinds of diseases such as skin diseases, fever, toothache and stomach-ache.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 101952

The role of homeyard as a food resource for the Kutai and Dayak Kenyah societies, East Kalimantan
Peran pekarangan sebagai sumber pangan bagi masyarakat Kutai dan Dayak Kenyah, Kalimantan Timur

Setyowati, FM
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 2; p 342-356

Abstract:
Many people do not realize that homeyard has an important role in fulfilling life requirements, especially in villages. By planting homeyard with various food crops such as vegetables and fruits, families can have additional earnings. A study was carried out on the utilization of homeyard as a source of food for Kutai and Dayak Kenyah people in East Kalimantan. The results of field observation and interviewing local people showed that in Kutai 42 and in Dayak Kenyah 73 plant species were planted in homeyard. The most common belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, Solanaceae, and Zingiberaceae.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 95456

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity potential of decoction and infusions from Philippine medicinal plants


Lim-Sylianco, CY; Concha, JA; San Agustin, J; Panizares, I; Pablo, C
Bulletin of the Philippine Biochemical Society 3 (1&2): 54-65 (1980)

Abstract:
The Philippine National Formulary lists Philippine plants whose decoctions and infusions are used for medicinal purposes. Mutagenicity potential of these decoctions and infusions were studied without metabolic activation and after metabolic activation. Without metabolic activation, decoction from leaves of Plantago major and from leaves and bark of Pittosporum pentandrum induce frameshift mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium. After metabolism in the experimental mice, these induced both base-pair and frameshift mutagenesis. Decoctions from bark of Pithecellobium dulce induced base-pair mutagenesis without metabolic activation. Upon metabolic activation in the mice, this tendency was lost. Instead it induced frameshift mutations. Decoctions from stems of Arcangelisia fava, induced noth base-pair and frameshift mutations without metabolic activation. However, this mutagenic property was lost upon metabolism in the experimental mice.

Availability :
Library; Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI): College of Forestry and Natural Resources (CFNR), College, Laguna, Philippines




NO. 92008

Moist storage of agriculture products


Gutierrez, HM
Greenfields 22 (1): 40-45 (1994)

Abstract:
Fruits and vegetables can be stored up to eight months when storage temperature was kept between 1 °C to 15 °C. Storage life can be prolonged by controlling the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the storage air. Under these conditions, the activities of microorganisms and enzymes, the rate of respiration, and product wilting and shivering can be reduced or eliminated.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 72530

Chelidonium argentatum Dalman
Sau duc canh cam

Dao Trong Hien
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (9): 25-27 (1974)

Abstract:
Schoenobius incertellus has appeared since 1968 in Phu Quy dictrict, Nghe An province. It has one brood/year, and is active at noon. Methods of prevention and control are: using DDT 25 +wofatox 1/1000 when it is grown- up, cutting the branches that are damaged by this worm, spray wofatox 1/1000 to worm holes in October-November.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 93321

In vitro propagation of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.


Belarmino, MM; Posas, DB
Annals of Tropical Research 19 (1): 19-35 (1997)

Abstract:
A system for in vitro propagation of pummelo or Citrus maxima was established using shoot-tip and single-node stem segments taken from young seedlings. The procedure involved the initiation of shoots from explant tissue, followed by shoot proliferation, in vitro rooting, and finally hardening of plantlets and potting out in soil. The agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 30 g/l sucrose and supplemented with 0.2 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IBA and 40 mg/l adenine (MSP medium) was optimum. Eight-week old shoots efficiently produced roots in agar-solidified MS medium containing 0.5 to 1.0 mg/l IBA compared with 4-wk-old shoots, indicating the importance of an adequate shoot growth prior to root induction. Using this system,126 transplantable plantlets and 494 6-wk-old shoots can be produced from one nodal explant in a 4-month micropropagation cycle. One shoot tip explant can produce 26 transplantable plantlets and 50 6-wk-old after 4 months.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 93341

Use of potassium sorbate and natamycin to inhibit the growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus 299 in improved binagol


Palomar, LS; Bullerman, LB
Annals of Tropical Research 12 (1-4): 18-24 (1990)

Abstract:
Binagol (pH 6.3) was reformulated using lemon juice to lower the pH to 5.5, 5.0 and 4.5. Sensory evalution was done to determine the acceptability of the binagol with lower pH, using the original binagol at pH 6.3 as the control. Sensory evaluation showed that binagol can be acidified to pH 5.5 without noticeable differences from the original. Potassium sorbate and/or natamycin were used to inhibit growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus in the original and modified binagol. Shelf life was improved by using the inhibitors at the lower pH. At pH 5.5, a combination of potassium sorbate and natamycin extended the shelf life of binagol to 21 days. A synergistic effect to increased aflatoxin inhibition was observed when potasium sorbate and natamycin were combined at half of the effective levels needed for each one alone.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna




NO. 70740

Experiences on manure supply to orange and tangerine
Kinh nghiem bon phan cho Cam, Quit

Bui Ngoc Son
Department of Agricultural Production, Vietnam

Tap chi Khoa hoc & Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Science & Agricultural technology] (4): 269-271 (1977)

Abstract:
In the cultivation technological process of Citrus, the manure supply has to be adjusted to time. In the harvested orange garden manure supply should be finished in early December. One plant should be supplied with 25 kg of the organic fertilizer, 0.3 kg superphosphate, 0.5 kg amonisulphate, and 0.2-0.25 kg KCl. When autumn is coming it should be supplied with 30-60 kg organic fertilizer, 0.9-1 kg superphosphate, 0.7-1.2 kg amonisulphate and 0.7-0.9 kg KCl.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Centre for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70768

Preliminary studies on the mosquito larvicidal killing activity of essential oil of the grape fruit (Citrus maxima) peels
Ket qua nghien cuu buoc dau ve tac dung diet bo gay cua tnh dau vo Buoi (Citrus maxima)

Nguyen Manh Pha; Vu Ngoc Lo; Vu Duc Huong
College of Pharmacy, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (1): 23-25 (1993)

Abstract:
The essential oil of grape fruit peel (Citrus maxima) has killing impact on the larvae of 3 mosquito species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritraeniorhynchus and Aedes aegypti. It can kill 90% larvae with 0.02 ml of mentioned essential oil in one liter of water, and 100% larvicidal are killed by 0.02 ml of mentioned essential oil mixed with dispersing agent in one liter of water.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Centre for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70777

Study on some botanical characteristics of some shaddock forms in North Vietnam
Nghien cuu mot so dac diem thuc vat cua mot so chung loai Buoi mien Bac Viet Nam

Nguyen Manh Pha; Tran Cong Khanh; Vu Ngoc Lo
College of Pharmacy of Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (4): 12-14 (1992)

Abstract:
Some characteristics of flowers, leaves, fruits of shaddocks i.e. sour-white, sweet-white, rose shaddock, were studied. Generally, each of the shaddock form had particular botanical characteristics. The number of essential oil glands of one cm² of fruit-skin (upper, middle, lower parts) of different shaddock form was also very different.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Centre for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 15654

Antifertility activity of Citrus hystrix DC


Piyachaturawat, P; Glinsukon, T
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 12: 22-23 (1987)

Abstract:
Citrus hystrix is a major component used in the preparation of indigenous Thai medicine for the stimulation of menstruation and termination of early pregnancy. An investigation was conducted to find out the antifertility effect of the alcoholic extract of the shredded dry skin of the fruit on early pregnant rats. Administration of the extract at a dose of 250 mg/100 g body weight once a day from day 2 through day 5 of pregnancy produced 75% of antiimplantation effect. When the extract was given at post-implantation period from day 8 through day 10 of pregnancy, a complete resorption of all fetuses in the uterine horns was found in 46% of pregnant animals. This abortifacient effect was found in all of the pregnant animals (100%) when the extract was given twice a day. The mechanism of antifertility induced by Citrus hystrix is still being investigated.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Center, Bangkok




NO. 70989

Initial evaluation of Citrus pest problems in northern provinces during the past ten years
Buoc dau danh gia ve sau benh hai cam, quit o cac tinh phia bac trong may chuc nam qua

Vu Khac Nhuong
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 128 (2): 19-22 (1993)

Abstract:
Citrus pest population is not only abundant in species, but also in density. The major pests and diseases of Citrus are borer, fruit fly, sucking moth, hopper, black aphid, canker, gummosic disease, brown rot and virus mycoplasma in particular.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 75951

A study on the probability of growing some lemon cultivars in pot
Danh gia kha nang trong chau cua mot so giong chanh

Phan Quynh Son
Tap chi Khoa hoc Ky thuat Rau, Hoa, Qua [Journal of Sciences and Technology of Vegetables Flowers and Fruits] 1: 19-20 (1997)

Abstract:
With the purpose of growing lemon to be used in daily life in balconies of storied living inhabitants, the author carried out a study on the propagation of lemon by cutting to determine their growing and development in the condition of potting culture. Results showed that lemon can be propagated by cutting. All cultivars used in the experiment rooted in 40 days after cutting, of which Daochum and Daoci (local varieties) have been considered to be the best ones. In comparison with the traditional method of growing in the garden, lemon grown in pots have no difference and they flower sooner.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 39317

Translocation and movement of the greening pathogen in citrus


Martinez, AL
Philippine Phytopathological Society, c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, U.P. Los Baños, College, Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 9 (1&2): 16-18 (1973)

Abstract:
The greening pathogen failed to move upward or downward through the girdled portion of the stem of seedlings of Lud, Ponkan and Szinkom mandarin and Madam Vinous sweet orange, suggesting that it is translocated in the phloem. The pathogen passed from the inoculum buds into the seedling stocks of Laud and Ponkan in a period of 7 days.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 39318

Response of the etiologic agent of citrus greening disease in the Philippines to treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics


Martinez, AL
Philippine Phytopathological Society, c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, U.P. Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines

Philippine Phytopathology 11 (1&2): 58-61 (1975)

Abstract:
The etiologic agent of citrus greening disease in the Philippines was inactivated by treatment with 1,000 ppm concentration of the broad spectrum antibiotics like achromycin, bonnacycline, tetrachel, isphamycin, pharcycline, terramycin, septamycin, chloramphenicol and technical tetracycline. These results strongly support the earlier reports that the pathogen is not a virus but a mycoplasma-like organism.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños; College; Laguna;




NO. 51401

Organogenic regeneration of transgenic plant by Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transformation of Citrus


Wirawan, IGP; Subandiyah, S; Suprapta, DN; Arya, N; Supartana, P; Sudana, M
Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University; denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Proceeding of International Seminar on Plant Molecular Biology, Jember, Indonesia, 19-20 July 1999; Sugiharto, B (ed); Jember, Research Center for Molecular Biology, University of Jember, 2000; p 31-36

Abstract:
Internodal stem segments from citrus seedling were cultured and inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring binary Ti plasmid vector that contained the genes for detectable marker ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and the selectable marker NptH. The result of this study shows that shoots can be regenerated in media with 100 µg/ ml kanamycin and about 10% of them were GUS' shoots. Some of the GUS' shoots were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for GUS gene detection in transformed shoots. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 95789

Butterfly species and host plants in selected areas in Region XI


Balmocena; BJ; Guadalupe, A; Marquita, MA; Maningas, RC
Abstracts of Researches on Environment and Natural Resources in Region XI; Ecosystems Research and Development Service, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region XI, Davao City; 1999, p 19-20

Abstract:
A survey of endemic butterflies and host plants were conducted in: 1) Marilog District, Davao City, 2) Toril District, Davao City, 3) Tugbok District, Davao City, 4) ERDS-Nabunturan, Campostela Valley Province, 5) ERDS-Bislig Experiment Station, Maharlika, Bislig Surigao del Sur and 6) Marbel South Cotabato, to determine the species of butterfly that can be reared and mass-produced as livelihood in the upland farms of Region XI. Graphium agamemnon, Papilio rumanzovia (Papilioninae: Papilionidae, are existing in Region XI. These butterfly species with large wings can be reared and mass-produced (captive breeding) as livelihood in the upland farms in the region. Other beautiful butterfly species found in the region which can also be reared and mass produced are the following: Appias albina pancheia, Delias diphana diaphana, Paperonia boeboera (Pierinae, Pieridae), Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe, Catopsilia scylla asaema, Catopsilia pomona pomona, Eurema alitha alitha (Coliadinae, Pieridae); Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus, Euploca mulciber, Parantica luzonensis luzonensis (Danaidae); Elymnias bezabeza, Mycalesis traedawayi, Pytcandra sp., Europa spp. (Satyrinae, Satyridae); Fauenis mindanaoansis (Amathusiinae, Satyridae); Precis orithya leucasia, Precis almana, Hypolimnas bolina philippinensis, Rhinopalpa polynice validice (Nymphalinae, Nymphalidae); Neptis spp. Lexias panopus (Limenitidinae, Nymphalidae) and Erionatha thrax (Hesperiinae, Hesperiidae). Buttefly nectar host includes santan (Ixora chinensis), bougainville (Bougainville sp.), makahiya (Mimosa pudica), kanding-kanding (Starchytapheta jamaicensis), baho-baho (Ageratum conyzoides), Doña aurora (Mussaenda philippica), gumamela (Hibiscus rosasinensis), rubia (Rubia cardifolia), atis (Annona squamosa), margarita flower, manila palm, lantana (Lantana camara), calopogonium (Calopogonium mocunoides), cosmos (Cosmos caudatus), marigold (Tagetes erecta), dahlia (Dahlia imperialis), camote (Ipomoea batatas), golden shower (Cassia fistula), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Ficus, banana (Musa xparadisiaca), kasopangil (Clerodendrum inerme) and two unidentified plant species found in the second growth forest, while adelfa (Nerium oleander) and calamansi (Citrus maxima) were observed as larval host plants.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 92336

Extraction of essential (volatile) oils from some Philippine fruits


Anzaldo, FE; Coronel, VQ; dela Cruz, C; Recana, MP; Alcoba, EM
NRCP Research Bulletin 41(3 & 4): 479-504 (1989); HERDIN Database; PC912111; MFN 007464

Abstract:
Volatile oils are present and can easily be obtained from local fruits like banana, jackfruit, kaimito, soursop, kabuyao and limoncito. Some of the compounds identified are those that are used as flavorants and medicinals. Alpha-pinene is a starting material in the synthesis of some medicinals; limonene and citral are flavorants. The extracted volatile oils can be used as ingredients in the formulation of new flavors for desserts, cookies and pastries. They can also be used in masking undesirable odor or taste of certain medicinal preparations. Certain cosmetics like lipsticks, bath soaps and shampoos also make use of fruity aroma. The utilization of these materials, which otherwise would be kitchen or factory wastes, for the production of scents, odorants or flavors may minimize imports and eventually help in the conservation of the dollar reserves of the country.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; DOST Complex; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila




NO. 92900

Screening of some essential oils against dermatophytes


Dubey, NK; Yadav, P; Joseph, VK
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (2): 139-147 (1998)

Abstract:
The essential oils of Cinnamomum tamala and Citrus maxima exhibited absolute inhibition of mycelial growth on dermatophtes viz. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouini. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the oils was found to be 500 ppm at which they exhibited fungistatic nature, broad mycotic spectrum and long shelf life. Their fungitoxic properties remained thermo-stable in nature up to 100 °C. Besides, the oils showed superiority in fungitoxic potency over some prevalent synthetic antifungal drugs.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 103756

The potential and development prospects of fruit commodities along the Brantas watershed, East Java
Potensi dan prospek pengembangan komoditas buah-buahan potensial di DAS Brantas Jawa Timur

Wardhana, IP; Arifin, Z; Semaun, I
Sukamandi Research Institute for Horticulture (SURIF); Subang, West Java, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Hortikultura Nasional [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Horticulture], Malang, 8-9 November 1994; Wardiyati, T et al. (eds); Malang, Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia & Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Negeri Brawijaya, 1995; Buku 2; p 739-744

Abstract:
Watershed areas mostly consist of sloping upland with high erodibility. In crop cultivation, farming profitability and soil conservation should be considered. Secondary data assessment showed that of the 54,900 ha potential land for perennial horticulture in the upper stream of the Brantas basin, only 26,700 ha was used by farmers. Based on the present market demand, market pattern, and economic scale, the development of rambutan, durian and citrus has good prospects. However, protection of producers in the form of subsidized input and state price is highly recommended.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 101936

Ethnobotany of rampayan in Batak Angkola and Mandailing tribes
Etnobotani rampoyan dalam suku Batak Angkola dan Mandailing

Hasairin, A; Hasanah, U
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Medan Institute of Tachers' Training and Educational Science; Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 2; p 238-242

Abstract:
"Rompayan" is a place for slaughtering traditional animal (buffalo) for Batak Angkola and Mandailing ethnic groups. It is usually executed for the traditional "Siridon" (happy) ceremony. Field study shows that for "rompayan", plant species of 8 families are used; five of them are wild, two are growing widely and three species are cultivated. This knowledge have been passed on from one generation to another and each plant species has its meaning and value. Analysis of plants and its ethnobotanic value are discussed.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 103551

Diversity and genetic relationship among citrus trees in Baturaden subdistrict
Keragaman dan hubungan kekerabatan tanaman jeruk yang terdapat di Kecamatan Baturaden

Hadi, EP; Widodo, P; Hartini, D; Sudiana, E
Faculty of Agriculture, Jenderal Soedirman University; Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia

Research Report; Purwokerto, Faculty of Agriculture, Jenderal Soedirman University, 1993; 74 p

Abstract:
Citrus as a horticultural plant is very important for the farmers, due to the high economic value. Citrus with its delicious taste is good for the daily consumtion, because it is rich in vitamin C and A and in good proportion. Citrus grows well in the region between 45 N and 35 S, in lowland up to highland, i.e. from 1-1,400 m above sea level. Baturaden with an altitude of 200-650 m has many species of citrus which grow well. A study was conducted to find out the diversity and genetic relationship among citrus trees in Baturaden. The method used was a survey with census sampling in six villages in Baturaden. The data were analysed with model II statistical analysis, to know the most dominant species of citrus and was replicated three times. Parameter value interval was also observed with the formula I = (X1-X2)/n to know the relationship. The result of study showed that in Baturaden subdistrict there were four species and two cultivars of Citrus, i.e. Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus nobilis, Citrus grandis, and Citrus hystrix. The result of analysis showed that Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus nobilis were the most dominant Citrus in Baturaden, while Citrus grandis and Citrus hystrix were rarely found. Citrus hystrix was the farthest in relationship among the Citrus present. Citrus grandis was the second farther after Citrus hystrix compared to the others. While Citrus nobilis had close relationship to Citrus aurantifolia.

Availability :
General Soedirman University, Central Library




NO. 103755

Possibility of the development of horticultural agribusiness in the dry-climate lowlands along the Brantas watershed, Tulungagung and Trenggalek districts
Peluang pengembangan agribisnis hortikultura di wilayah dataran rendah iklim kering DAS Brantas Kabupaten Tulungagung dan Trenggalek

Santoso, P; Kasijadi, F
Malang Research Station for Horticulture, Malang, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Hortikultura Nasional [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Horticulture], Malang, 8-9 November 1994; Wardiyati, T et al. (eds); Malang, Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia & Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Negeri Brawijaya, 1995; Buku 2; p 715-719

Abstract:
Research was carried out in dry-climate lowland region along the Brantas watershed, Tulungagung and Trenggalek districts in 1993, using survey method. The aim of this research was to know the possibility of the development of horticultural agribusiness, especially the production and marketing subsystem. The result showed, that among citrus, mango, banana and pepper in dry-climate lowland region along the Brantas watershed in Tulungagung and Trenggalek districts, mango agribusiness had the best possibility. In the subsystem of production, agribusiness of mango showed the most feasible commodity to be developed, similar to the marketing subsystem that was found to be the most efficient compared to citrus, banana and chili.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 110924

Protoplast isolation and purification from callus cultures of seedless lime and Tawangmangu mandarin
Isolasi dan purifikasi protoplas dari kultur kalus jeruk nipis tanpa biji dan jeruk keprok Tawangmangu

Nardi
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

S1 thesis; Yogyakarta, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, 1997; 38p

Abstract:
An experiment to evaluate the incubation periods and enzyme mixtures for the isolation of protoplast from callus cultures of seedless lime and Tawangmangu mandarin was conducted at the Biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Callus formation was induced on MT (Murashige and Tucker) media salidified with difco-bacto agar 1%, and enriched with 50 g/l sucrose, 41 g/l sorbitol and 1 ppm 2,4-D. The three-month-old calli were then incubated and agitated in two enzyme mixtures (e.m. I: Cellulase RS 1%, Macerozyme 0,15%, Pectolyase 0,02%, CaCl2 2H2O 5 mM, Mannitol 0,4 M and e.m. II: Cellulase RS 2%, Macerozyme 1%, Pectolyase 0,02%, CaCl2 2H2O 5 mM, Mannitol 0,4%) for 3, 4 and 5 hours, respectively. Both enzyme mixtures, were suitable for protoplast isolation, though the e.m. I yielded more protoplast than the e.m. II. The highest number of protoplast was produced by the incubation period of 4 hours. Protoplast purification was done by floatation and gradation methods using sucrose solution of 21% for floatation method, and 21, 15, 10 and 5% for gradation method. Both methods did not show any ring of protoplast floating to the surface of the sucrose solution or between each of the two sucrose solutions of different concentration. Observation on pellets showed that a higher number of protoplast was found in the pellet of the sucrose solution of the gradation method compared to those of the floatation method.

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University,
Email: jsoilenv@faperta.ugm.ac.id




NO. 92879

Identification of Citrus tristeza clostero virus strains in pummelo


Herradura, LE; Bajet, NB; Magnaye, LV
Philippine Phytopathology 30 (1): 44-53 (1994)

Abstract:
Isolates of Citrus tristeza (CTV) collected from various citrus plantations in Davao and Batangas induced wide range of symptoms and severity on different citrus cultivars. These isolates were free of citrus greening and exocortis pathogens when subjected to biological indexing. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test confirmed the isolates as CTV. On key lime (Citrus aurantifolia) as indicator host, the isolates were classified into mild and severe strains. Mild strain exhibited mild vein clearing while severe strain caused severe vein clearing and stem pitting. The isolates did not induce any symptom on the leaves and stems of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) that serve as indicator host. Extract of the mild and severe strains reacted to the monoclonal antibodies of CTV dwarf strain (CTV-D). Pummelo plants cv. Magallanes pre-inoculated with mild strain (pummelo 169) did not show any severe symptom five months after challenge inoculation by the severe strains, pummelo P-03 and pummelo AT. Similar pummelo cultivars inoculated with the severe strains but without pre-inoculation with the mild strain showed severe symptoms. This provided additional evidence for the prussic of CTV strains in the country. The study also demonstrated that cross protection could be a viable alternative control for CTV in pummelo.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines Los Baños; College, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 326, 5362 235; fax: (63) (49) 3673
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 36969

The natural distribution of the root systems of citrus, lanzones and cacao


Valmayor, RV; Tabora, PC; Herrera, WA; Asension, A
The Philippine Agriculturist 58 (5-6): 244-262 (1974)

Abstract:
Mature lanzones, citrus and cacao trees were dug gradually to determine the natural root distribution of their root systems. Lanzones roots extend to a distance of 8 feet from the trunk, those of citrus reach 12 feet away from the base while roots of cacao do not grow more than 7 feet. The maximum depth of penetration is 4 feet in lanzones and only 3 feet in citrus. The greatest density of feeder roots is in the uppermost one-foot layer of soil in all three crops studied. The feeder roots are nearly uniformly distributed within areas ranging from 1 to 4 feet away from the trunk of cacao and citrus. In lanzones, the greatest density of absorbing roots occurs in the uppermost one-foot layer and within 2 to 4 feet from the trunk. Based on these findings, fertilizer should be spread evenly within the area under the tree canopy rather than applied in a narrow band around the tree and directly under the branch spread where feeder roots are not concentrated. The observed depth of rooting also suggests that under similar soil and cultural conditions (sod culture system on Lipa silty clay, Lipa-Calumpang Intergrade and Lipa-Magallanes Complex for lanzones, citrus and cacao, respectively) depth of irrigation need not extend more than 2 feet.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016




NO. 95553

Promising mother fruit trees in Western Mindanao


Lulu, AA; Alama, CG; Agum, AB
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1996; Lantican, CM & Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); p 48-49

Abstract:
Exotic fruits such as durian, rambutan, mangosteen. marang, and lanzones abound in Western Mindanao. Lulu et al. (DA-WESMIARC) identified 39 promising mother trees of these exotic fruits in the region. These were avocado, balimbing, durian, caimito, chico, jackfruit, mango, huani, marang, santol, rambutan, and pummelo. These trees passed the standards set by Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB) and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD). A scion grove for the identified promising mother trees was established at DA-WESMIARC for mass production of quality planting materials in Western Mindanao.

Availability :
Library; Crops Research Division; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines




NO. 94373

Identification of Citrus tristeza clostero virus strains in pummelo


Herradura, LE; Bajet, NB; Magnaye, LV
Philippine Phytopathology 30 (1): 44-53 (1994)

Abstract:
Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) collected from various citrus plantations in Davao and Batangas induced wide range of symptoms and severity on different citrus cultivars. These isolates were free of citrus greening and exocortis pathogens when subjected to biological indexing. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests confirmed the isolates as CTV on key lime (Citrus aurantifolia) as indicator host. The isolates were classified into mild and severe strains. Mild strain exhibited mild vein clearing while severe strain caused severe vein clearing and stem pitting. The isolates did not induce any symptom on the eaves and stems of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) that serve as indicator host. Extracts of the mild and severe strains reacted to the monoclonal antibodies of CTV dwarf strain (CTV-D). Pummelo plants cv. Magallanes pre-inoculated with mild strain (pummello 169) did not show any severe symptom five months after challenge inoculation by the severe strains, pummelo P-03 and pummello AT. Similar pummello cultivars inoculated with the severe strains but without pre-inoculation with the mild strain showed severe symptoms. This provided additional evidence for the presence of CTV strains in the country. The study also demonstrated that cross protection could be a viable alternative control for CTV in pummello.

Availability :
Bureau of Plant Industry-Davao National Crops Research and Development Center




NO. 15494

Quality improvement of Khiaw Van tangerine citrus and some economic citrus crops


Satiansavat, V; Kanchanasut, B
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 5: 120-121 (1976)

Abstract:
The basic chromosome number of 5 citrus varieties, sweet orange (kaw var.), tangerine (Khiaw Van var.), citrus from Burma, pummelo (Khao Poung var.) and olinda were 9 and the chromosome association in metaphase I were 9 bivalent except those in sweet orange (Kaw var.) and pummelo (Khao Poung) which were uivalent. The characteristics of leaves of the following 4 hybrid citrus varieties were observed: 1. Pummelo (Khao Pan var.) x Mandarin (Fairchild var.); 2. Pummelo (Khao Pan var.) x Sweet Orange (Olinda var.); 3. Tangerine (Khiaw Van var.) x Mandarin (Mediteranean var.); 4. Tangerine (Khiaw Van var.) x Sweet Orange (Kaw var.). From the study, leaves from the hybrid between Pummelo x Mandarin showed better characters to identify than from Mandarin x Orange.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 66318

The performance of apomict and sexual seedlings of citrus
Penampilan bibit apomik dan bibit seksual tanaman jeruk

Awuy, E; Tilaar, W; Oroh, F
Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia

Zuriat 4 (1): 69-74 (1993)

Abstract:
Generally citrus seedlings were facultative apomicts, as a result of apomixis. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the apomixis and the performance at the seedlings. The first experiment was laid out following a Completely Randomized Design with four cultivars of citrus as treatment. The results showed that each cultivar had different percentages of apomict. The second experiment was conducted in a split plot design with the above four cultivars as main plot and the sub plot was the apomict seedlings and the sexual seedlings for all cultivars. The growth of the apomict seedlings was homogeneous and of the sexual seedlings heterogeneous.

Availability :
Scientific Documentation and Information Centre, Indonesian Institute of Sciences




NO. 69091

Effect of temperature on the isolation of pectine from pummelo (Citrus grandis) peels
Pengaruh temperatur pada isolasi pektin dari kulit buah jeruk besar (Citrus grandis)

Fathmah, W; Norma M; Syahrir
Ujung Pandang Institute for Industry, Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Majalah Kimia [Chemistry Journal] (48): 5-9 (1992)

Abstract:
The isolation of pectin from pummelo peels was done by using acid water, heated and settled with alcohol 96% with heavy 2 ml HCl for every alcohol per litre. The heating was done in various temperatures, i.e. 40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C, with the extraction duration of 80 minutes. The trial design was a complete experimental design. The results showed that variation of extraction temperatures influenced the pectin obtained. The best extraction temperature was obtained at 100 °C, with the highest yield of 11.20%.

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 66320

Epidemic aspect of CVPD disease: 1. Prediction of disease development pattern and factors influencing rate of development
Aspek epidemi penyakit CVPD: 1. Prediksi kecepatan perkembangan penyakit dan faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap kecepatan perkembangan

Nurhadi
Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Solok [Solok Research Institute for Horticulture] Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticulture Research] 5 (2): 72-85 (1993)

Abstract:
Assessment of individual trees for CVPD disease was made during November 1988 - February 1989 at citrus-farmer groves in the regency of Tulungagung, Kediri and Mojokerto (East Java), to figure out the spread pattern of CVPD disease and factors regulating the rate of spread. Multistage sampling procedure was developed to select twenty citrus orchards from each regency for assessing disease severity and disease incidence. Monomolecular, logistic and exponential models tested for goodness of fit to predict disease progression data each from 20 epidemics of CVPD disease showed that logistic pattern was appropriate in describing the CVPD development in Mojokerto, Tulungagung and Kediri. Ordinary run analysis used to determine the aggregation of CVPD infected trees within the grove demonstrated an evidence of clustering, and randomness of distribution patterns indicated that Diaphorina citri played an important role in secondary spreading of the disease among the trees in the groves. Factors related to the disease progression and regulating vector population build up are briefly discussed.

Availability :
Scientific Documentation and Information Centre, Indonesian Institute of Sciences




NO. 66329

Determination of limiting macro nutrient (N, P, K) needs of citrus cv. Siem at latosol - Dau and alluvial - Tulung Agung in the second year
Penetuan kebutuhan nutrisi pembatas (N,P,K) jeruk siem pada latosol-Dau dan alluvial Tulung Agung tahun kedua

Soenarso; Sutopo; Djoema'ijah; Kristianto, D
Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Tlekung [Tlekung Research Station for Horticulture], Tlekung, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura - Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Solok [Horticulture Research - Solok Research Institute for Horticulture] 5 (2): 37-44 (1993)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Tlekung Research Station for Horticulture from September 1991 to May 1992. Three levels of N (Urea): 0.00, 75.00, 150.00 g/plant combined with three levels of P (TSP): 0.00, 25.00, 50.00 and three levels of K (KCl): 0.00, 40.00 and 80.00 g/ plant were evaluated using a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The result showed that interaction between Urea+KCl, Urea+TSP, TSP+KCl and Urea+TSP+KCl were not significant on the increment of plant height, stem diameter and N,P,K leaf element contents at Latosol-Dau. Application of Urea at 150.00 g/plant at Latosol-Dau was significant on the increment of plant height compared to that of 75.00 and 0.00 g/plant. The interaction between Urea+TSP, KCl+TSP was significant on the increment of plant height at Alluvial-Tulung Agung. The highest increment of the plant height was achieved at combination of Urea 150.00 g +TSP 25 g/plant and TSP 25 g+KCl 80 g/plant. Application of urea significantly reduced the content of K in the leaves. However, application of KCl 40 g and 80 g/plant significantly increased the K leaf content compared to KCl 0.00 g/plant.

Availability :
Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Ilmiah - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia [Scientific Documentation and Information Centre - The Indonesian Institute of Science]; Jakarta; Indonesia




NO. 67089

Rapid detection of CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration) on citrus using an immunofluorescence technique
Deteksi cepat CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration) pada jeruk dengan teknik immunofluorescence

Dwiastuti, ME; Triwiratno, A; Muharam, A
Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Tlekung & Segunung [Tlekung & Segunung Research Station for Horticulture]; Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 2 (4): 46-51 (1992)

Abstract:
The aim of this experiment was to select which monoclonal antibody from two hybridoma clones, 10A6 and 2D12 against the bacterium-like organism that associated with CVPD disease. This experiment was conducted at Punten Virology Laboratory of Tlekung Horticultural Research Station from October 1990 to July 1991. Two way procedures were used: leaf extract and thin section with freezing microtome. The result showed that hybridomas 10A6 gave clear positive green immunofluorescence reaction with addition Poly-L lysine on extract. Aggregate of bacteria like-organism was accumulated in sieve tube of phloem.

Availability :
National Library




NO. 67155

Discrimination of zygotic and nucellar seedlings of citrus rootstocks by isozyme analysis
Diskriminasi bibit jeruk sigotik dan nuselat dengan teknik isozime

Ashari, S
Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University; Malang, Indonesia

Jurnal Universitas Brawijaya [Brawijaya University Journal] 4 (3): 10-15 (1992)

Abstract:
Discrimination of zygotic and nucellar seedlings is important not only in citrus breeding and development, but also in citrus propagation programmes, particularly during early growth of seedlings. Isozyme analysis was applied to determine these two genetical seedling types. The proportion of zygotic seedlings of rough lemon, trifoliata orange, sweet orange and troyer citrange was very low. This was probably due to the large number of dead seedlings in the nursery before analysis. The zygotic seedlings of cleopatra mandarin could not be detected, because the l °Ci showed by these enzyme systems were homozygous. It was found that the morphological method was able to discriminate only 25% of the detectable zygotic seedlings, and therefore it was then concluded that morphological method was less precise than the isozyme methods.

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University Library; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 68241

Determination of limiting macro nutrition needs (N,P,K) on citrus cv.Siem at Latosol-Dau and Alluvial-Tulung Agung in the second year
Penentuan kebutuhan nutrisi pembatas (N,P,K) jeruk siem pada Latosol-Dau dan Alluvial-Tulung Agung tahun II

Soenarso; Sutopo; Djoema'ijah; Kristianto, D
Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Tlekung [Tlekung Research Station for Horticulture], Malang, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 5 (2): 37-44 (1993)

Abstract:
An experiment had been conducted at the Experimental Farm of Tlekung Research Station for Horticulture from September 1991 to May 1992. Three N levels of Urea: 0.00, 75.00, 150.00 g/plant combined with three P levels of TSP: 0.00, 25.00, 50.00 and three K levels of KCl: 0.00, 40.00 and 80.00 g/plant were evaluated using a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The result showed that interaction between Urea+KCl, Urea+TSP, TSP+KCl and Urea+TSP+KCl was not significant on the increment of plant height, stem diameter and N, P, K leaf element contents at Latosol-Dau. Application of urea at 150.00 g/plant at Latosol-Dau was significant on the increment of plant height compared with 75.00 and 0.00 g/plant. The interaction between Urea+TSP, KCl+TSP was significant on the increment of plant height at Alluvial-Tulung Agung. The highest increment of the plant height was achieved at combination of urea 150.00 g + TSP 25 g/plant and TSP 25 g + KCl 80 g/plant. Application of Urea significantly reduced the content of the K in leaf. However, application of KCl 40 g and 80 g/plant significantly increased the K leaf content compared with KCl 0.00 g/plant.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69854

The effect of urea, TSP, KCl and stable manure on the growth of siam citrus in Sidrap regency, South Sulawesi
Pengaruh pupuk urea, TSP, KCl dan pupuk kandang terhadap pertumbuhan jeruk siam di Kabupaten Sidrap, Sulawesi Selatan

Asaad, M; Nurjanani; Hutagalung, L; Hasbi
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH), Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 3 (1): 32-36 (1993)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted from October 1991 until March 1992 at farmer's garden in Sidrap regency, South Sulawesi. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain suitable fertilizer needed for Citrus reticulata. The treatments were laid following a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results showed that the application of 250 g urea + 30 g TSP + 125 g KCl and 25 kg stable manure per tree in soil of silty clay loam texture gave better growth of the citrus tree compared to other treatments at 19 months after planting.

Availability :
Library of Lembang Research Institute for Horticulture; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 100182

Effect of soil salinity and water content on extent of root infection by Phytophthora citrophora in citrus rootstocks


Sulistyowati, L
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145 East Java, Indonesia

Agrivita 17 (1): 16-20 (1994)

Abstract:
Soil salinity and water content both affected root infection caused by Phytophthora citrophora in the citrus rootstocks of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri), sour orange (Citrus aurantium), troyer citrange and trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata). The disease severity was greater at high (60 mM NaCl) than low soil salinity (12.5 mM), particularly for trifoliata which was very resistant on low salinity but became very susceptible at high salinity. Disease severity for all rootstock species was greater at 22% (w/w, qm = -0.01 MPa) soil water content than in dry (12% w/w, qm = -0.1 MPa) or saturated soil (28% w/w.qm = 0 MPa). Soil water content apparently had a significant effect on the fungal activity in the soil which affected disease severity. The mechanism by which soil salinity predisposed the roots to infection, however, was not clear from the results of this study.

Availability :
Research and Development Center for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 100283

Effect of budding methods on the growth of three cultivars of citrus planting materials
Pengaruh cara okulasi terhadap pertumbuhan tiga kultivar bibit jeruk

Supriyanto, A; Setiono
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture, Solok, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 5 (1): 32-39 (1992)

Abstract:
Eight months old Carrizo citrus seedlings were propagated by scions of three cultivar using 3 different budding methods. Budbreak on stock propagated by chip-budding was earlier than those of two other budding methods due to early callus produced during the stage of bud union process. Based on the growth of citrus planting materials at six months after budding, keprok Batu 55 (Citrus reticulata) and manis VLO (Citrus sinensis) were recomended to be propagated by chip-budding, while lime (Citrus aurantifolia) is more suitable to be propagated by T grafting or forkert modification budding. The advantages of chip budding compared with the other grafting methods were discussed.

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research (CSAR); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 107092

Identification of flavour chemical component of lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) peels
Identifikasi komponen kimia flavor kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)

Ansara, NgT; Lubis, EH
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor, Indonesia

Warta IHP (Industri Hasil Pertanian) [Journal of Agro-based Industry] 12 (1-2): 44-47 (1995)

Abstract:
A research concerning the effects of collecting time of lime flavour distillate on the yield and composition of flavour components had been carried out successfully. The collecting time had a significant effect not just on the yield obtained but on the flavour composition as well. In terms of flavour compound, 11 components had been identified, namely Alfa-pinene, Beta-pinene, phellandrene, limonene, caryophyllene, decanal, neral, nerol, linalool, geranial and geraniol.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 102849

Production of flavour extract from leech-lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) leaves
Pembuatan ekstrak flavour daun jeruk purut (Citrus hystrix DC.)

Widjaja, H; Rahardja, J
Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan [Food Science and Technology Research Bulletin] 3 (2): 17-26 (1992)

Abstract:
Citrus hystrix leaves are known as natural flavouring agent and widely used in South East Asia. The leaves are especially popular and used both for masking the fishy odour and providing specific taste. The characteristic aroma of 'swangi' is a blend of citronella oil and lime oil. This investigation was carried out to develop traditional flavour and make it more practicable and durable. In this research, fermentation, extraction methods and application were studied. In a preliminary research, fermentation was done for 0, 2, 4, 6 hours and analyzed by Volatile Reducing Substance method. It was found that the VRS values in fresh leaves are higher than after fermentation. Extraction methods being used were steam distillation, water distillation, percolation, maceration and Likens-Nickerson. Solvent extraction produced extract higher than distillation. On the contrary, the distillation VRS value was higher than solvent extraction. The fragrance principle-bearing chemical constituent of the leaves, i.e. chiefly linalool, citronelol and geraniol was found higher in Likens-Nickerson extract. Diluting extract for 100,000 times, can be detected by 75% panel. The fragrance from the fifth extract had no significant difference, except percolation extract which had lower values compared with the fresh extract. The results of analysis of spray dried flavour were: moisture 1.40%, ash content 0.25%, solubility 99.90%, yield 5.49% and VRS value 138.50 mek/g. Spray dried flavour from the Citrus hystrix extract gave no significant aroma and taste difference compared with the fresh leaves, implying its potential use a substitute for fresh leaves.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 106195

Effect ZPT on the growth of lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) shoot cuttings in some mixtures of planting media
Pengaruh macam ZPT terhadap pertumbuhan stek pucuk jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) pada berbagai campuran media tanam

Rahayu, US
Faculty of Agriculture, INSTIPER [Institute of Agricultural STIPER], Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agriculture; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; 1996; 27p

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the aim to find out the best combination treatment of plant growth regulator and media for growing citrus cuttings. The research was conducted from 17th May until 15th September 1995. It was a factorial experiment arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The first factor was kind of plant growth regulator i.e. Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), and water as control. The second factor was cutting media consisting of 4 levels i.e. solely soil, mixture of soil and stable manure (1:1); mixture of soil and compost (1:1); and mixture of stable manure and hull (1:1). The results showed that there was no interaction in this experiment. IBA gave better growth of cutting than IAA. This experiment did not show the best combination between of plant growth regulator and cutting media.

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 20146

Vegetative propagation techniques for citrus
Teknik pembiakan tampang untuk limau

Ko, WW
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Buah-buahan [Fruits Technology] 2 (March): 33-39 (1986)

Abstract:
Various methods of citrus propagation by seeds and bud grafting are described. The use of seedling rootstocks has the advantage of selection for disease resistance and fruit quality improvement. For the same reasons, the production of trees by marcotting (air layering) should not be used in citrus propagation. The side cleft bud grafting method is more superior than the normal patch and shield budding in terms of convenience and improved bud take.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20574

Water use of young citrus as a function of irrigation management and ground cover condition


Kamarudzaman, A
Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

Pertanika 9 (3): 291-298 (1986)

Abstract:
This paper describes the effect of irrigation and ground cover management on crop evapotranspiration (ET) of young Valencia citrus trees grown on Arredondo fine sand. Six different treatment combinations were used: three levels of soil water potential and two levels of ground cover condition. Results obtained with grass cover treatments required 50% more water than with no grass cover treatments. Evapotranspiration correlated positively with the amount of irrigation applied. Monthly crop water use coefficients with grass cover treatments were 50% higher than with no grass cover treatments. Crop water use coefficient decreased as soil water potential decreased.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20590

Changes of starch and sugar in the ripening process of fruits
Perubahan kanji dan gula dalam proses kematangan buah-buahan

Marziah, M
Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

Pertanika 7 (3): 127-130 (1984)

Abstract:
The content of starch and total sugars in bananas, papayas and oranges at different ages and stages of maturity have been determined. In all the fruits studied, the starch content was found to be high in younger fruits and then began to decrease as the fruits matured and ripened. Comparing all the three types of fruits studied, bananas seemed to have the highest starch content followed by papayas and oranges. The levels of sugars, on the other hand, were initially low, then continue to increase until the ripening stage. Papayas (particularly the yellow flesh) appeared to have the highest concentration of sugars, followed by pisang berangan, oranges and pisang nangka. The rates of starch and sugar changes varied with fruit types and varieties.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 36966

Postharvest ripening and degreening of banana and citrus fruits with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethrel)


Bondad, ND
Philippine Agriculturist 55 (7 & 8): 310-321 (1972)

Abstract:
The effectiveness of ethrel as a ripening stimulant was studied in Lakatan banana. The onset and magnitude of the climacteric were earlier and higher in treated than controlled fruits. Ethrel at 2500 and 5000 ppm had identical effects on colour development regardless of ripening temperature. Compared to calcium carbide, ethrel was a better degreening agent for citrus, variety `Szinkom'. Calcium carbide and ethrel had no statistical significant effects on the total soluble solids, titratable acidity, percent citric acid, and solid to acid ratio.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna




NO. 37443

Non-aseptic and aseptic budding of pummelo meristems for the elimination of citrus tristeza virus


Chavez, VP; Ramos, CS; Damasco, OP; Zamora, AB
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines

The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 12 (1): 42 (1987)

Abstract:
Pummelo meristem was successfully budded onto pummelo and calamansi rootstocks. Although percentage survival was higher with pummelo rootstocks, budding growth in terms of stem length and number of leaves of the budded meristems were better with calamansi rootstocks. The in vitro meristem budding technique was adapted for non-aseptic budding. Both aseptic and non-aseptic methods were equally efficient for elimination of Citrus tristeza virus infections.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium Library; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines




NO. 37408

The performance of some Japanese Citrus cultivars adopted under MSAC, La Trinidad, Benguet condition


Tipayno, AC; Dimas, BB
Mountain State Agricultural College Research Journal 1: 45-55 (1977)

Abstract:
The performance of two cultivars of Japanese Sweet Orange, Fukuhara and Natsumikan and seven varieties of Unshiu mandarins namely, Iseki wase, Matsuyama wase, Hayashi, Miyagawa, Miko, Owari, and Juman from Japan under MSAC, La Trinidad, Benguet condition was observed. Merely two years after planting, the Fukuhara, Natsumikan, Niyagawa, Juman and Hayashi started to bloom and develop fruits. Natsumikan was the most vigorous in growth followed by Fukuhara, Hayashi, Juman and Miyagawa in descending order. Flowering and fruiting development in Fukuhara, Natsumikan and Juman were almost year round although few flowers were developed from January to April. Hayashi and Miyagawa Unshius had only one flowering season each , namely May. Hayashi had the highest sugar content or was the sweetest among the varieties tested while Juman had the lowest although it produced the largest fruits among the Unshius varieties. Between the two sweet oranges tested, Natsumikan matured earlier than Fukuhara. Among the Unshius, Miyagawa matured earlier than Hayashi while the Juman which produced the largest fruits among the Unshiu group had the longest maturity period.

Availability :
Benguet State University Library; Publication; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines




NO. 38506

Tissue culture of calamansi (Citrus mitis Blanco) and pummelo (C. grandis Osbeck)


Patena, LF; Barba, RC; Estrella, JB
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 3 (3): 135-146 (1978)

Abstract:
A study was initiated to explore tissue culture of calamansi and pummelo as a tool in research and crop improvement. Any section of the seed of calamansi with the embryo removed formed callus in MS and R media containing 1 mg/BA with 0.5, 1.5 and 10 mg/l 2,4-D. Proliferation increased with 2,4-D concentration. At zero and 0.05 mg/l 2,4-D, embryoids that produced shoots formed directly from seed tissues akin to "induced apomixis". More shoots formed on R medium. Differentiation of shoots calli was observed in R medium with 1, 5 and 8 mg/l BA and 2,4-D at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.09 mg/l. Shoots produced were induced to root by transfer to R medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA and 2 mg/l Ki. Root formation was better in light than dark. Plants survived when transferred to soil. Seed tissues of pummelo behaved in culture similar to calamansi. Albedo and juice vesicles from ripe fruits of pummelo formed callus better in MS medium. Embryoid-like bodies formed in some cultures. The results bring to attention the following distinct possibilities: a) A viable tool in obtaining triploid plants from endosperm of calamansi for seedlessness; b) Plantlets from callus and "induced apomixis" as a means of asexual propagation of pummelo from no other source than the ripe fruit which is often the only part is available; c) Rapid vegetative propagation by tissue culture from limited sources, i.e. a new hybrid, is useful to hasten the breeding program; d) Propagation by tissue culture of non-apomictic citrus species for stocks in grafting results in uniform plants and the presence of primary root system; e) Aseptic culture is useful in maintaining and transporting disease-free citrus plants; f) Induced apomixis in pummelo offers a means to eliminate virus and/or rejuvinate important but senescing cultivars in existence; g) Establishment of the requirements offers the advantages of the efficiency and precision of tissue culture for citrus research in nutrition, physiology, biochemistry, pathology and mutation; h) a possible lead into the tissue culture requirements of woody species, important but difficult and hardly worked out; i) The success of a new medium, R, and the use of ripe fruits in the tissue culture of calamansi and pummelo indicates the possibility of these as well as the concepts and other procedures of this research for other fruit tree species.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 38636

Removal of naringin and limonin from grapefruit juice using polyvinylpyrrolidone


Nisperos, MO; Robertson, GL
The Philippine Agriculturist 65 (3): 275-282 (1982)

Abstract:
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) significantly reduced naringin in grapefruit juice by 78.1% and limonin by 17.5%, depending on the amount and reaction time of the adsorbent. A loss of 23.1% in ascorbic acid occurred with 5% PVP with a reaction time of 1 hr.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 38550

Determination of roots distribution in tangelo cv. pearl by root excavation


Chandra, A; Yamdagni, R
The Philippine Agriculturist 66 (2): 190-197 (1983)

Abstract:
Distribution of roots at different distances from the tree trunk viz 0 to 60 cm, 60 to 120 cm, 120 to 180 cm and 180 to 240 cm and soil depths viz. 0 to 25 cm, 25 to 50 cm and 50 to 75 cm were studied using the root excavation method in 12 year old tangelo trees cv. Pearl. Roots of four grades viz (i) less than 02 cm in diameter (feeder), (ii) more than 0.2 cm to 0.,5 cm in diameter (thin), (iii) more than 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter (medium) and (iv) more than 1.5 cm in diameter (thick) were collected during summer and the post-rainy season. The root distribution pattern is influenced by the distance from the tree trunk, the soil depth and the season of excavation. During both seasons, root density (expressed on a dry weight basis) was at its maximum at the nearest distance from the tree trunk (0 to 60 cm) while an increase in distance from the tree trunk decreased the amount of roots significantly. During summer, roots were maximum at 0 to 25 cm, followed by 50 to 75 cm and 25 to 50 cm soil depths. During the post-rainy season the number of roots decreased with an increase in soil depth during the post- rainy season than in summer at different distances from the tree trunk and at different soil depths. The thick and medium types constituted the major roots observed during both seasons while feeder roots were greater during the post-rainy season.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; College; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 24431

Screening (Citrus Species) for Insecticidal Properties


Rosmaya, J; Hapipah, MA; Abdul Aziz, K; Khalijah, A; Hamid, AAH
Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

13th Seminar on Natural Products, 5-6 August 1997; FRIM Kepong Selangor

Abstract:
Previous studies on Citrus species have shown that they have some biological activities such as those that are anticancer and antileukemia. Recently, work on several local Citrus species showed their insecticidal properties. Eight species were selected for screening in which the petroleum ether and dichlor omethane extracts were tested on rice weevils. Survival of the weevils was counted from a few hours and up to several days after application. Five species were found to have insecticidal activities, namely, Merrillia caloxylon, Citrus medica, Murraya paniculata, Triphasia trifolia and Feroniella oblata. Isolation of pure compounds from Citrus medica and Triphasia trifolia is in progress since these compounds are found to be more potent than the rest.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 39084

The effect of citrus oil on tumor production by DMBA


Nacino, FM; Barreto, CB; Cruz, LJ
Kalikasan 4 (3): 240-247 (1975)

Abstract:
Oil extracted from the peel of sweet ladu (Citrus sinensis) was found to consist mainly of d-limonene. Tests for tumor-promoting activity of the extracted oil after a single application of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene were done using mice and rats. In all tests, 300 micrograms of DMBA in 0.2 ml acetone and/or 0.2 ml 80% citrus oil was applied on the dorsal skin of the test animals. The oil from sweet ladu seemed to be most effective as a tumor promoter when applied simultaneously with the initiating dose (300 micrograms) of DMBA. Citrus oil alone did not induce any tumors but irritated the skin considerably. Preliminary tests have been done to determine whether the tumor-promoting activity can possibly be due to increased absorption of DMBA in the presence of the oil.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 24830

Effects of supplied elicitors on callus culture of Citrus hystrix for the production of flavour compounds


Suri, R; Radzali, M; Mohd Aspollah, S; Marziah, M; Musaalbakri, AM; Normah, O
Biochemistry and Microbiology, Department, University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Salangor, Malaysia

FRIM Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series: Medicinal Plants, Quality Herbal Products for Healthy Living, 22-23 June 1999

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of various concentrations of elicitors on the production of flavour compounds in Citrus hystrix callus. These elicitors included maltose, casein hydrolysate, sodium alginate and yeast extract. Treatment of callus with casein hydrolysate increased the limonene production by 11.1%. Other flavour compounds were less than in the control. Treatment with yeast extract gave the highest para-cymere (13.57%) and beta-pinene (1.89%) yield compared to the control. However, the amount of limonene decreased with the increase in concentration of yeast extract.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24831

Natural flavonoid (espaeritin) from stem derived callus of Citrus hystrix DC. (limau purut)


Loo, WS; Muse, R; Ramli, J
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

FRIM Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series: Medicinal Plants, Quality Herbal Products for Healthy Living, 22-23 June 1999

Abstract:
Callus tissue culture of Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) was aseptically initiated from stem explants. By manipulation of plant growth regulators, the formation of callus derived from the stem explants was optimised in a basal medium of Murashige & Skoog (MS) with a combination of 0.2 mg/l (w/v) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.5 mg l (w/v) benzylaminopurine (BAP) under dark condition; and 0.5 mg/l (w/v) 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l (w/v) BAP under light condition. The callus formed was friable and yellowish in colour. Callus growth was optimised in the third week under light condition and fourth week under dark condition. Natural flavonoids particularly hesperitin and quercetin were found in the callus tissue culture.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 39314

Effects of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cob and other pathogens on citrus in the Philippines


Davide, RG; Dela Rosa, AG
Philippine Phytopathological Society, c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines

Philippine Phytopathology 15 (1): 9-22 (1979)

Abstract:
Severe infection by the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, reduced the top growth of laud, szinkom, calamansi and pomelo citrus cultivars by more than 50%. Different isolates of Tylenchulus semipenetrans showed varying degrees of virulence when inoculated to laud and calamansi seedlings, indicating a possible existence of biotypes of this nematode in the Philippines. The rate of reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans was greatly increased in the presence of Corticium salmonicolor, Fusarium sp., Phytophthora sp., and the greening pathogen, a mycoplasma-like organism, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Tylenchorhynchus, Criconemoides, and Dipterophora neither reproduced and damaged the roots of Szinkom seedlings. Their population density dropped considerably below the inoculum level 3-4 months after inoculation.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños; College; Laguna;




NO. 24766

The effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and lime (Citrus medica) juice washing on the sensory attributes and the rancidity development in breaded tilapia - A preliminary study


Jamilah, B; Siti Aini, H
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia, Serang, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika Vol. 20 (2/3): 107-111 (1997)

Abstract:
The feasibility of removing the muddy flavour and odour of black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) with natural acid extracts from tamarind and lime by washing treatment (1.5 % w/v tamarind juice, 1.5 % w/v lime juice and a mixture of lime juice 0.75 % and tamarind juice 0.75 % was investigated. The effect of the washing treatment on rancidity development in breaded tilapia kept at -20 °C was also monitored. Acid washing improved the acceptability for flavour and odour as detected by sensory panelists. Samples treated with tamarind juice were different from other samples and were scored significantly higher for flavour, odour and colour than other treatments. All treated samples had a significantly tougher texture than the control. However, the rancidity development as indicated by the percentage of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in stored samples was not retarded.

Availability :
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Phone: (60)(3) 894 86 101; Fax: (60)(3) 894 32 514




NO. 90042

Bud-union incompatibility - A new `virus' disease of citrus in the Philippines ?


Ochasan, JM
Baguio National Crop Research and Development Center, Baguio City

Philippine Phytopathology 29 (1 & 2): 105 (1993)

Abstract:
A new disease was observed for the first time on a 7 - year-old navel tree on Rough lemon rootstocks in a citrus collection in Baguio City. The disease was also reported in other countries like India, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, Israel and Spain. Symptoms observed were: a pitted ring in the trunk wood along the line of the union while the outer layer of the bark showed a prominent corky collar of eruptive bark encircling the trunk; bushy growth due to the production of multiple shoots with short internodes; leaves were abnormally large, thick with prominent veins, chlorotic and upright in growth. No fruit was produced by the infected tree.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 90965

Extraction and characterization of pectin from New Zealand grapefruit peel


Nisperos, MO; Robertson, GL
The Philippine Agriculturist 85 (3): 259-268 (1982)

Abstract:
The effect of maturation of New Zealand grapefruit on pectin yield and quality was studied. Pectin recovery was highest in the early-season fruit but low in the late-season fruit. The latter, however, yielded better quality pectin due to improved extraction and purification procedures, as reflected by the following characteristics: 8.9% yield; 1.3% moisture content; 1.9% ash; 759 equivalent weight; 9.2% methoxyl content; 82.2% anhydrogalacturonic acid; 63.2% degree of esterification; 4.2 intrinsic viscosity; 89,362 molecular weight and setting time of 0.55 min.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding; University of the Philippines; Los Baños; College; Laguna




NO. 70293

Some problems in intensive orange cultivation in the state farms
Mot so van de tham canh Cam o cac nong truong

Mai Luong
Ministry of State Farm, Vietnam

Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] (7): 397-401 (1970)

Abstract:
Soil for cultivation should have a high humus ratio. The best soil is on river bank. The best varieties for planting are Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata (synonym: Citrus nobilis). The planting distance for Citrus nobilis is 5 m x 3.5 m; 5 m x 3 m. Fertilizer application is important for high-yield intensive cultivation. 60 % of nitrogen is applied in January for Citrus reticulata and the rest 40 % in July. Mixed fertilizer (of phosphorus and potassium) is applied in November and December. Insect control consists of insecticides spraying 10 times a year.

Availability :
Library of Agricultural Science; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70356

Chemical composition of essential oil in the barks of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill
Thanh phan hoa hoc tinh dau vo buoi cua mot so loai Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill

Nguyen Manh Pha; Vu Ngoc Lo; Nguyen Xuan Dung
College of Pharmacy of Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (5): 9-10 (1991)

Abstract:
The main composition of bark essential oil of Citrus maxima consists to limonen and myrcen but it change for each form. In essential oil of form P1 limonen content is 84 %, form P2 is 67 % and P3 is only 41 %. While myrcen gradually increases from form P1 (8 %) to P2 (23 %) and highest in P3 (50 %), some groups with a little amount are available in essential oil of this form but absent in the other form. These results are important for chemotaxonomical studies.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70389

Virus and yellow-leaf disease of orange trees in Northern Vietnam
Benh virus cua cam va benh vang la cam o mien Bac Vietnam

Nguyen Ngoc Thuy
Office of Agricultural production, Ministry of Agriculture of Vietnam

Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] (3): 164-168 (1970)

Abstract:
Yellow-leaf disease of orange trees appears around the year on all varieties of trees. The disease is spread over all cultivation areas (deltas, midlands as well as highlands). It is caused by an orange virus. When plant is infected, the leaves change their colour and shape, the fruits become small and contains less juice. Its treatment includes quarantine of non-infected areas, selection of resistant varieties, treatment by grafting branches and young plants, and protection by use of sick viruses (to immunize).

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 72327

Study on rootstocks for vegetative propagation of orange and mandarin in the Red river delta
Mot so ket qua nghien cuu ve goc ghep nhan vo tinh cho cam va quit o vung dong bang song hong

Hoang Ngoc Thuan
Agricultural University of Hanoi, No. I

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc trong trot (1992-1993) [The results of scientific studies at the Faculty of Agronomy, 1992-1993]; Hanoi, Agricultural Publishing House, 1994; p 54-57

Abstract:
Citrus spp. have shown many advantages when they are used as rootstocks for oranges and mandarin. These cultivars can be easily propagated vegetatively. After being grafted on Eurake rootstock, Hamlin, Valencia oranges and other mandarins like Tich Giang, Danxy, Duong can grow very well and bear fruits in 1-2 years with high production in concentration of 1200 plants/ha.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71847

The lemon plant
Chanh

Do Huy Bich; Nguyen Tap; Tran Toan
Institute of Materia Medica, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tai nguyen cay thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plant resources of Vietnam]; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1993; p 207-214

Abstract:
The lemon tree is planted everywhere in Vietnam. It likes wet and light conditions, everage temperature 23-29 °C. These suitable conditions last from 15 October to 30 November and in February-March. Regeneration is by seed or cuttings of branches. Its roots, bark leaves, fruits and seeds are used as medicine. The fruit skin can be used to treat cough and digestion problem, the fruits to treat rheumatism, dysentery, and diarrhoea, the leaves to treat flu, and whooping cough, the roots to treat cough, and snake-bite.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 71567

Citrus medica
Phat thu

Do Tat Loi
Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plants and medicaments in Vietnam]; Vol. 2; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1970; p 1097-1099

Abstract:
Citrus medica tree is planted in many places in Vietnam and China. Its fruit is edible. The dried fruit (fructus citri sarcodactyli) is a good medicine for treating cough, helping digestion, preventing nausea.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71801

Lemon
Cay chanh

Nguyen Huu Doanh
Ky thuat trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting techniques for fruit plants in gardens]; Thanh Hoa Publishing, 1992; p 9-11

Abstract:
There are many vitamins (vitamin C 55/100g, acid 5.6, vitamin b1, b2) in lemon fruit. The fruit can be made into jam, candy, lemon liquor, lemon juice. Lemon is planted in many areas. Harvesting of lemon occurs in June, July. There is also essential oil in fruit skin.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 71954

Some key insects damaging orange fruits of summer-autumn crop
Mot so con trung chu yeu hai qua cam trong vu he thu

Vu Khac Nhuong
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (3): 17-18 (1990)

Abstract:
This paper introduces some key insects damaging orange fruits and their suitable control measures; they are: stemborer, yellow fly, and green bugs.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71971

Survey on herbicide Basta in orchard
Khao sat thuoc tru co Basta tren tap doan co dai vuon cay an qua

Hoang Lam; Nguyen Thi Hanh
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (2): 43-44 (1989)

Abstract:
Wild grass poses a difficult problem to solve in fruit plants, especially in citrus and pineapple. It can reduce 20-30% of citrus yield, and 40-50% of pineapple yield. This paper presents results of Basta herbicide testing in citrus, mandarin, and banana orchards. This herbicide may be used to control wild grass.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71999

The yellowing of cross-fertilized orange on Poncirus trifoliata as a rootstock
Hien tuong vang la cua cam ngot ghep tren goc cam 3 la Poncirus trifoliata

Wu, SP; Li, XZ; Wu, TS
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (5): 40 (1995)

Abstract:
The leaf yellowing of cross-fertilized orange on Poncirus trifoliata is not an infected disease. It is caused by bad mutual relations between cross-fertilized branch and rootstock.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72013

Citrus fruit piercing moths
Ngai chich hut hai cam

Hoang Van Thong; Giang Van
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (2): 21-22 (1991)

Abstract:
An outbreak of citrus piercing moths (CFPM) occurred in various Citrus growing areas of North Vietnam in 1987-1988. The control measures against CFPM are recommended as follows: predicting the appearance of CFPM; using attractive trap or insect nets.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72021

Contribution to observation on some biological and ecological characteristics of citrus fruit sucking moths
Ket qua nghien cuu buoc dau ve dac tinh sinh hoc sinh thai hoc cua mot so ngai chich hut cam chu yeu

Ha Quang Hung
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (3): 12-14 (1991)

Abstract:
There are some citrus fruit sucking moths which are distinguished by their particularly well developed proboscis with dentate tips; they are able to pierce citrus fruits. The result of a study on their biological and ecological characteristics is useful as a basis to determine their suitable control measure.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72164

Yellow leaf disease of citrus
Benh van vang la cam quit

Minh Hung
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (20): 25-41 (1975)

Abstract:
The yellow leaf disease of citrus appears all year round but the strongest development is in the autumn and winter-spring crop. The plant disease has caused yellow leaves. The disease infestation at plants raised from seeds are higher than at plants planted by cuttings. The disease is in fertile fields less important than in unfertile fields. Protection method: use fertilizer N, P, lime, Mn, Zn.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72198

Population growth capacity of Citrus red spider mite (Panonychus citri)
Suc tang quan the cua nhen do hai cam chanh

Nguyen Van Dinh
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (4): 11-15 (1992)

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to determine the main biological parameter of the red spider mite (Panonychus citri) that is an important mite pest of citrus at 2 temperature regimes: 25 °C and 30 °C. The red spider mite has a short life cycle; high specific-fecundity and high intrinsic rate of natural total increase is 0.311 at 30 °C and 0.288 at 25 °C. The IBM programme should be applied to avoid outbreak of the so rapid population build-up of the pest.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70922

Results of a study on the essential oils of flowers and fruit skin of two forma of Citrus maxima from Doan Hung (Vinh Phu provin) and Van Tri (Hanoi)
Ket qua nghien cuu tinh dau hoa, vo qua cua hai chung loai Buoi Doan Hung va Van Tri

Nguyen Xuan Dung; Nguyen Manh Pha; Vu Ngoc Lo
Faculty of Chemistry, Hanoi University, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] 215 (6): 15-17 (1992)

Abstract:
The essential oils of Citrus maxima from Doan Hung (Vinh Phu province) and Van Tri (Hanoi) were investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS methods. Main constituents of the flower's essential oil were limonene 8.80% and 35.57%, linalool 23.76% and 8.46%, nerolidon 32.94% and 9.33%, farnesol 14.3% and 8.03%, respectively. The main constituents of the fruit skin's essential oil were myrcene 17.8% and 21.72%, limonene 86.7% and 67.60%. The results show that the content of the monoterpenic and secquiterpenic alcohols in flower's essential oil from Doan Hung is higher than the ones from Van Tri.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70965

Species composition of mealy bugs and scales on Citrus trees in Vietnam
Thanh phan rep sap hai cay an qua co mui da phat hien duoc o Vietnam

Pham Van Lam
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 134 (2): 14-17 (1994)

Abstract:
Fifty seven species of mealy bugs and scales on Citrus fruits have been recorded. Among the discovered species, about 24 species are new for the insect fauna of Vietnam. Almost all species of mealy bugs and scales discovered are present on oranges, and less in other Citrus fruits are fewer discovered.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70966

Studies on controlling white spider damage on Citrus trees
Ket qua phong chong nhen trang hai cam chanh

Pham Van Vuong; Ha Quang Dung
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 133 (1): 21-24 (1994)

Abstract:
The white spider mites are decreasing the quantity and quality of citrus fruits. The ratio of damaged fruits reaches 70-80%. This pest concentrates in the central canopies of the trees. Control of Citrus white spider mite by 0.4-0.5 % Zineb 85 Wp for about 7 days was found effective.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70973

Some preliminary studies on the relation between greening disease of Citrus and Oecophylla
Mot so ket qua nghien cuu giua kien vang va benh greening tren cam quit

Nguyen thi Thu Cuc
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 138 (6): 16-19 (1994)

Abstract:
In Citrus orchards, greening disease and that caused by Diaphorina citri are two main diseases. Citrus ants play a role in controlling Diaphorina citri. Results showed that 24 hours after contact with Citrus ants, the population of Diaphorina citri can decrease to 62.7%, only the egg state of Diaphorina citri was affected by these Citrus ants.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70975

The results of tests on the leaf syndrome of Citrus greening in Mekong delta
Ket qua giam dinh nguyen nhan gay benh vang la Cam, Quit o dong bang song Cuu Long

Ha Minh Trung; Nguyen Vinh Vien; Do thanh Lam
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 136 (4): 14-16 (1994)

Abstract:
The results of visual diagnosis and dot hybridization with DNA extracted from infected Citrus plants showed that the leaf yellow syndrome of Citrus in Mekong delta was associated with Asian greening pathogen. This disease had been detected by indexing method and Diaphorina transmission.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70990

Major Citrus pests at Thanhha state farm
Sau benh chinh hai cam tai Thanh Ha

Hoang Lam
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 128 (2): 22-26 (1993)

Abstract:
The main pests damaging Citrus plants in Thanhha are Diaphorina citri, Phyllocnistis citrella, Panonychus citri and virus. The pesticides evaluated to be effective for their control are Appl-MPC, Peris Danitol, and Dipterex.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70991

Study on the transmission of Citrus greening disease by insect-vector Diaphorina citri Kuwayana and its diagnosis by indexing in Vietnam
Thu nghiem kha nang truyen benh Greening Cam quit bang Vector Diaphorina citri Kuwayana va phuong phap chan doan benh bang indexing o Vietnam

Do Thanh Lam; Ha Minh Trung
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 129 (3): 9-12 (1993)

Abstract:
Studies have proven that Diaphorina citri successfully transmits greening organism into 16-month-old healthy ponkan seedlings. Transmission efficiency depends on the number of adults that are feeding, but a single infected one is also able to transmit this agent within 3 days of feeding.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70992

Report on the survey of virus diseases, insect vector and natural enemies in Vietnam
Mot so ket qua dieu tra benh Virus hai cay an qua va dau bo

Ha Minh Trung; Pham van Lam; Ngo Vinh Vien
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 128 (2): 27-29 (1993)

Abstract:
Ten viral diseases were found. They were banana bunchy top virus and cucumber mosaic virus in banana, Papaya ring spot virus and leaf curly virus in papaya, Citrus greening and tristeza in sweet orange and mandarin, cowpea stunt virus in asparagus beans.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 70998

Status of disease and pest damaging Citrus plants in Phu Quy (Nghe Tinh)
Tinh hinh sau benh hai Cam quit vung Phu Quy Nghe Tinh

Ha Minh Trung; Do Thanh Lam; Tran Quang Tan
Institute of Plant Protection, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 121 (1): 14-18 (1992)

Abstract:
Nineteen insect pests, 16 diseases and 5 beneficial bioregulators were detected and identified. Greening disease was most devastating for Citrus plant and was present in every orchard. Greening infection rate varied from 1.67% to 3.35% at orange plants of 4-5 year-old.

Availability :
Library of Sciences and Technology; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 73006

Species composition of mealy bugs and scales on citrus fruit trees in Vietnam
Thanh phan rep sap hai cay an qua co mui da phat hien duoc o Vietnam

Pham Van Lam
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] 2: 14-17 (1994)

Abstract:
Citrus fruit trees such as lemon, orange, mandarin, pumello, etc. are traditionally planted in Vietnam. There is a very rich community of insects that attacks citrus trees in conditions prevailing in Vietnam. Among them mealy bugs and scales are very dangerous. This paper presents a list of mealy bugs and scales attacking citrus fruit trees in Vietnam. To date, 57 species of mealy bugs and scales on citrus fruit trees have been recorded. They belong to 24 genera, 4 families. A large quantity of discovered species belong to scale Diaspidiae (27 species). Of other families such as Coccidae, Pseudococcidae and Margarodidae 18.8 and 4 spesies have been discovered, respectively. Among the discovered species about 24 species are new for the insect fauna of Vietnam. Most discovered species of mealy bugs and scales are present on orange. Other citrus fruit trees have fewer discovered species of mealy bugs and scales.

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73150

Studies on the control of citrus white spider mite
Ket qua phong chong nhen trang hai cam chanh

Pham Van Vuong; Ha Quang Dung
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] No. 1: 24-25 (1994)

Abstract:
The white spider mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora is the most destructive pest of Citrus plants. This pest causes great damage to fruits. The ratio of damaged fruits reaches 70-75%. A study was therefore conducted to develop a method for the control of white spider mite in 1989-1993. White spider mite prefers scattered light to direct radiation of sun. This pest concentrates in central canopy of leaves. The fruits in the central and low parts of canopy are often more damaged. Results of surveys indicated that the population dynamics of canopy white spider mite have 2 peaks a year: First peak is observed from April to June and the second peak from August to October. Every effort should be concentrated to the control of white spider mite when the fruits are still small. It is necessary to implement 2 applications of 0.4-0.5 Zineb 85WP at 7 days interval, when infection of leaves and fruits by mite are 18 and 8, respectively.

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73169

Investigating results of citrus leaf miner situation and farming condition in Cantho province
Ket qua dieu tra tinh hinh sau ve bua va dieu kien canh tac o 2 huyen Chauthanh va Omon, Cantho

Truong Thi Ngoc Chi
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] No. 5: 4-7 (1994)

Abstract:
A preliminary study on citrus leaf-miner in Cantho province through 200 farmers interviews reveals that farmers cultural practices play an important factor in the incidence of this pest. Farmers in two districts have different practices. Farmers in Omon district applies more pesticide with higher doses compared with those in Chauthanh district. They also use Nitrogen fertilize at higher doses. Therefore citrus orchards in Omon were attacked by citrus leaf miner more severe than those in Chauthanh.

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73254

The citrus
Cam quyt

Vu Cong Hau; Le Quang Mai; Dinh Van Duc
Trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting fruit trees in the garden]; Hanoi, Agricultural Publishing House, 1982; p 54-80

Abstract:
The genus Citrus has some popular species in Vietnam, such as: lemon, orange, grapefruit. These trees like a high rainfall, hot (tropical) climate, but in Vietnam they can adapt with cold, hot and dry conditions. They like sun light but dislike wind. There are some diseases and pests for these trees. The main method of propagation is by branch grafting. The planting time: July or January. Fruit should be harvested when they are ripe.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 95557

Citrus cultivars for the highlands


Boncato, TA; Bilog, A; Fargonon, O
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, 1996; Lantican, CM & Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); p 48

Abstract:
Fruit tree varieties perform differently according to elevation and other agro-ecological factors. This study evaluated 22 citrus cultivars in the highlands of Baguio (1330 m altitude), as well as in Sagada (1220 m) and Paracelis, Mt. Province (300 m). Results showed that all sweet orange cultivars tested, namely 'Hamein', 'Trovita', 'Valencia late', 'Washington navel', 'Atwood navel', and 'Gillette navel' are ideal for commercial production under high elevation (Baguio and Sagada). 'Mandarin ponkan', 'Minneola', and 'Clemente' are best recommended. Their easiness to peel makes them preferable locally over sweet orange cultivars. Under lower elevations (300 m), 'Mandarin dancy', 'Mandarin kara', 'Murcott', and 'Menniola' are best recommended. Only lemon cultivar 'Mayer' is highly recommended, being a prolific and early bearer. It is adapted under a whole range of agroclimatic conditions and is being grown commercially. Limes perform well, but commercial cultivation is not popular unlike lemons. Grapefruits perform very well in Sagada and Paracelis, but are recommended only for small-scale production to cater to foreigners since they are not preferred locally. Pummelo (Israel), which is comparable with the local pummelo cultivars, is recommended only for lower elevation (Paracelis) planting.

Availability :
Library; Crops Research Division; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines




NO. 76282

Blanco madarine, a special fruit crop in Nghe Tinh
Cay Cam bu û Mot loai cay dac san o Nghe Tinh

Le Quang Hanh
Tap chi Lam nghiep [Journal of Forestry] 12: 10-11 (1994)

Abstract:
Blanco mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is a precious fruit crop growing very well on a number of sites in the provinces of Nghe Anh and Ha Tinh. It can stand drought condition and has a large crown and a long life span. The author is of the opinion that the fruit crop can be used in a wide range of forestry projects as a companion crop in Nghe Tinh province to rule out famine and poverty.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76566

Insect species damaging fruit trees in Mekong delta
Ket qua dieu tra buoc dau thanh phan sau hai tren cay an qua tai mot so tinh vung DBSCL

Huynh Tri Duc
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 3312-332 (1995)

Abstract:
About 92 species of insect pests infected 7 species of fruit trees such as mango, papaya, durian, citrus, dragon fruit and cherry trees. Of which, Dichocrosis puntiferralis, Dacus dorsalis, Phyllocnistic citrella and Acroceveop hierocosma were considered important. Besides, some species of scale and mite groups as well as Spyllid diaphonia were notably recorded.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14159

Precaution in using insecticides at flowering stage of oranges
Kho khuan rawang nai kan chai san kha malaeng khana som ok dok

Buranaphawang, S; Bubkoet, S
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawitthaya [Journal of Entomology and Zoology] 9 (3): 172 (1987)

Abstract:
Some chemicals used as insecticides affect pollen tube development. Those are Concord 10% EC, Thiodan 35% EC and Panncap-M 22% EC.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; TISTR; Bangkok




NO. 14235

Interview report with tangerine grower of Nong Sua
Samphat: Poet chai nak pluk som mu thong haeng Nong Sua- Nai Choet Sinlapaphadung

Anonymous
Kaset Phatthana [Agricultural Development Magazine] 12 (140): 26-29 (1993)

Abstract:
Husbandry and maintenance of citrus orchard are reported from an interview with an experienced grower of Nong Sua, Pathumthani province. Improvement of fruit appearance and sweetness according to market requirement are made by spraying with chemicals containing manganese, potassium, or zinc. Precaution is given regarding the use of hydrated lime to improve soil pH. The use of manure can promote the outbreak of Phytophthora disease; excessive application of bat guano can kill the plants as well. Summer production of tangerine in the area mainly relies on proper irrigation. It is neccessary to cool down the plants with water spray during the warm period of the day.

Availability :
Central Library; Kasetsart University; Bangkok




NO. 14276

In vitro propagation of neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco)
Kan khayai phan som-chuk doi withi microcutting

Muangkaeongam, A; Techato, S
Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand

Warasan Witthayasat Kaset (ASST Newsletter) 25 (1-3): 45-50 (1992)

Abstract:
Cultures from 4 explants of 3 week- old seedlings of neck orange, namely node, cotyledonary node, stem and leaf were carried out on MT medium with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l BA. Among the explants, it was found that node yielded the highest number of shoots (c. 15 shoots per explant) 5 weeks after culturing, followed by cotyledonary node and stem, respectively. Leaf explan did not produce shoot. Shoots rooted with 9.87 % when transferred to half strength of MS medium (1/2 MS) with 1 mg/l IBA and 500 mg/l activated charcoal 4 weeks after culturing. This procedure could help obtaining a high number of neck orange plantlets in a short time.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok




NO. 14320

Height and colour of sticky trap effect on trips in citrus plantation
Radap khwan sung lae si khong kapdak thi mi to kan dungdut phlai-fai nai suan som khieo wan

Unnahawut, C; Phunchaisi, S; Wirawut, P
Entomology and Zoology Division; Department of Agricultrue; Bangkok; Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithya [Journal of Entomology and Zoology] 15 (1): 36-47 (1993)

Abstract:
The most effective colour of sticky trap is saturn yellow. Bright yellow, sunflower yellow and bright orange are next in rank of effective colour. The suitable height is 1.5-2.0 m above ground level.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Center; TISTR; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 14553

Symptom differences in lime infected with various tristeza virus isolates
Khwam taek tang khong laksana arkan khong rok tristeza nai manao thi koet chak isolate thi tang kan

Prommintara, M; Kiratiya-angil, K; Kittipakorn, K; Deema, N
Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan wichakan kaset [Agricultural Research Journal] 4 (12): 143-148 (1986)

Abstract:
A study on Tristeza virus from many species of citrus in Thailand is presented. They comprise 6 from leech - lime (Citrus hystrix) 48 from acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia), 36 from mandarin (Citrus reticulata), 20 from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), 12 from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and 15 from other citrus species.

Availability :
Central Library; Kasetsart University; Bangkok




NO. 14694

Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) decline: causal pathogens and factors enhancing disease severity
Rok soam khong som-chuk:chua sahet lae patchai songsoem khwam runraeng khong rok

Sdoodee, R
Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110

Songklanakarin [Journal of Science and Technology] 16 (4): 353-367 (1994)

Abstract:
Planting area of neck orange in Songkhla was greatly reduced in the past years. Serological assays of the affected trees by ELISA, immunogold-labelling and immunoblotting techniques indicated for the first time that Citrus tristeza virus and/or greening bacteria were the causal pathogens.

Availability :
Kasetsart University; Bangkok




NO. 14990

Identification of nucellar and zygotic seedlings in a cross between lime and leech lime


Satrabhandhu, A; Saravacharin, O; Vangnai, V; Sethpakdee, R; Pongtongkam, P
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Chitralada School; Bangkok, Thailand

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 29: 459-467 (1996)

Abstract:
Leaf morphology and isozymes analysis were used to identify nucellar and zygotic seedlings obtained in a cross between lime and leech lime. No same isozyme patterns were obtained from the leaf extracts of three-month old cultured seedlings and one-year old potted plants. There was no difference in the peroxidase isozymes profiles in 'Khai' lime and leech lime. 'Re esterase isozymes gave better discrimination so they were used in nucellar and zygotic determination. 'Re observation of leaf morphology combined with isozyme analysis could differentiate between zygotic and nucellar seedlings after three-month growth in vitro.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre; Bangkok




NO. 14976

Nutrient element in soil cultivation of mandarin (Citrus reticulata)
That ahan nai din pluk som-chuk

Lim, M; Nualsri, C; Suthipradit, S; Panthanahiran, W; Lim, S
Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand

Witthayasan kasetsart sakha witthayasart [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Sciences] 23 (4): 412-420 (1989)

Abstract:
Soil nutrients were prime suspect of the decline in mandarin cultivation in amphoe Chana, Songkhla province. Bulk soil samples around the problem site were randomly collected. Maize was used as a test plant to evaluate fertility status and rate of fertilizer application. Results indicated that all of the basal nutrients gave good growth of maize. The soil was found to be deficient in N,P,S, Cu, Mo, and Zn. Results of the pot experiment revealed that maximum corresponding rates for N, P,S, Cu, Mo, and Zn were 120, 150, 75, 6, 0.8 and 5.0 kg element/ha, respectively. Further study on fertilizer application is planned to be carried out in farmers' plot.

Availability :
Central Library; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 15564

Citrus canker of the lime


Mongkonsuk, P; Bunprakob, K
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 10: 99-100 (1985)

Abstract:
The causal agent of citrus canker on sour lime (Citrus aurantifolia) in the area of Bangkok, Rayong, and Nothaburi provinces was found to be Xanthomonas citri. The symptom appeared to be typically single spot or irregular pattern on leaves, twigs and fruits, round in shape and slightly raised and spongy. The agent could infect not only be sour lime, Mauritius papeda (Citrus hystrix), and tangerine (Citrus nobilis), but also pomelo (Citrus maxima). However, the disease could be controlled by spraying with some antibiotics such as streptomycin, and copper fungicide (copper oxychloride) before dispersal season.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Center, Bangkok




NO. 100792

Productivity of intercropping pattern in young fruit orchard in Sitiung dryland
Produktivitas pola pertanaman sela pada buah-buahan muda di lahan kering Sitiung

Soeharto; Soegito; Sushandoko
Central Research Institute for Horticulture, Jl. Ragunan 19, Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 4 (2): 24-28 (1994)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the productivity of the cropping pattern of young fruit trees and annual crops. The fruit crops were durian, rambutan, and orange, while the annual crops were mungbean, soybean, yardlong bean, water melon and cassava. The results of the study showed that land equivalent ratio (LER) in the third planting period was 1.26, higher than that of the second (1.04) and the first (0.80) planting periods. The annual crops performed well and profitable in the first year of the fruit orchard. However, the B/C ratio for the whole crops in the first year was less than 1, indicating the cost still higher than the revenue.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library
Email: dir-riv@indo.net.id




NO. 101602

Land management planning model for fruit farming development at medium elevation of upper Brantas watershed
Model perencanaan pengelolaan lahan untuk pengembangan usahatani buah-buahan di dataran medium DAS Brantas Hulu

Kasijadi, F
Balai Penelitian Horticultura Solok [Solok Research Institute for Horticulture]; Solok, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 6 (3): 63-82 (1994)

Abstract:
A research was conducted by dividing the Brantas watershed region into 2 agroclimate zones. In each zone two villages of fruit production centre were purposively determined as samples. In each village 30 sample farmers were selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were analyzed using linear goal programming. The results showed that so far farmers at medium land were not fully alocating their land in line with land resources development. To reach the objective of land resources development, the farmers shoud optimally grow fruit commodities, such as apple and sweet orange for dry climate, apple and mandarin for moderate climate. The limiting factor to optimize the land resources development using farm as the main crop was the availability of farmers' capital. Reducing fruit price till 20% did not change dominant fruit crops grown by farmers.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library
Email: dir-riv@indo.net.id




NO. 91573

Antimutagenic effects of expressions from twelve medicinal plants


Lim-Syliangco, CY; Concha, JA; Jocano, AP; Lim, CM
The Philippine Journal of Science 115 (1): 23-30 (1986)

Abstract:
Mitomycin C, tetracyclin hydrochloride and dimethylnitrosamine induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of experimental mice. This indicates that these three systems are mutagenic and clastogenic. The formation of micronucleated polycromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C was greatly reduced by expressions prepared from fruits of Momordica charantia, Persea americana, Syzygium cumini, Pithecellobium dulce, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Cucurbita maxima, Spondias purpurea, Citrus decumana, and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made of expression from roots and seeds of Raphanus sativus, from flowers and leaves of Citrus maxima, from leaves of Momordica charantia, and from seeds of Cucumis melo. The same systems also reduced micronuclei formation as induced by tetracycline hydrochloride . The induction of micronuclei formation by dimethylnitrosamine was significantly reduced by expressions from fruits of Momordica charantia, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Citrus maxima and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made with expressions from leaves of Momordica charantia, roots of Raphanus sativus and seeds of Cucumis melo. When heated of micronuclei from plants still reduced micronuclei formation as induced by mitomycin C and tetracycline. The extent of reduction, however, was significantly decreased when expressions of the following were boiled: Momordica charantia fruit and leaves, Citrus maxima flowers and fruitsand Lycopersicon esculentum fruits.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office; PCARRD; Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425; Los Baños; Laguna 4030; The Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 536 0014 to 536 0020; fax: (63) (49) 536 0016, 536 0132




NO. 100290

Collection and characterization of mild strain of citrus Tristeza virus
Koleksi dan karakteristik strain lemah virus Tristeza

Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Muharam, Agus; Triwiratno, Anang
Balai Penelitian Horticultura Solok [Solok Research Institute for Horticulture], Solok, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 5 (1): 92-104 (1992)

Abstract:
A study was carried out at Punten Experimental Farm, Malang, to determine the variability of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) by biological characterization to support the application of cross protection method for CTV control. One hundred thirty five CTV isolates, representatives of most Indonesian citrus areas of sweet oranges and mandarins, were collected and initially inoculated on Madame venous sweet oranges. Fifteen of them were selected on the basis of symptoms of this indicator and titer measured by double antibody sandwich enzym-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These fifteen isolates were inoculated into six seedlings as a weighed scoring of symptoms and measured all responses in each host was rate mild, moderate and severe. The indicators used were Madame venous, Japanese Citroen, Siem mandarin, Mexican lime, grapefruit and sour orange. Individual and cumulative host index score were used to characterize each isolate. Based on the characterization nine isolates coded with NJmp 003, Njmv 007, KRPkp 012, KRPkp 013, Ls1 001, Mkm 005, Mkm 006, Mkm 008 and Kpsp 001 were infected by mild strain of CTV.

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research, Library




NO. 103618

Effectiveness of mycorrhiza on the seedling growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.), citrus (Citrus nobilis Lour), grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Efektifitas mikoriza terhadap pertumbuhan bibit tanaman mangga (Mangifera indica L.), jeruk (Citrus nobilis Lour), anggur (Vitis vinifera L.), dan pepaya (Carica papaya L.)

Mujoko, T; Rochdjatun, I; Abadi, AL
Majalah Ilmiah Pembangunan [Development Scientific Journal] 4 (5): 11-21 (1994)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effectiveness of mycorrhiza inoculum on seedling growth of mango, citrus, grape and papaya. The experiment was a factorial experiment, arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were combinations of soil factors i.e. sterile and non sterile soil, and sources of inoculum i.e. inoculum from mango, citrus, grape, papaya and control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The inoculum was a mixture of 3 gram mycorrhiza's roots and 10 gram mycorrhiza's soil from each plant. These inocula were placed at flannel paper in polybag. Results of this experiment showed that development of mycorrhiza was better on sterile soil than on non-sterilized soil. Mycorrhiza's plant growth was better than non-mycorrhiza's plant. Inoculum from papaya increased 255% dry weight of grape. Inoculum from mango increased 192% dry weight of citrus and 1034% dry weight of papaya.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 106820

Effect of treatments on budwood and rootstock before budding on the growth of tangerine seedlings of cv. Tejakula
Pengaruh perlakuan pada ranting mata tempel dan batang bawah sebelum penempelan terhadap pertumbuhan bibit jeruk keprok tejakula

Supriyanto, A; Setiono; Gelgel, M
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH), Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 5 (1): 53-57 (1995)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the aim to find the right method of treating budwood and rootstock before budding that was able to eliminate dormant buds and accelerate the growth of tangerine seedlings of cv. Tejakula. The experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Nursery at Buleleng, Bali, from April 1993 to March 1994. This experiment was arranged acccording to the Randomized Block Design with three replications and 20 plants per treatment. The result showed that budwood kept in refrigerator (4-7 °C) for two weeks before budding reduced the number of dormant buds and later budbreak time. Leaf defoliation following by tip pruning of budwood a week before budding had no effect on all growth parameters observed. Leaves defoliation around budding site followed by tip pruning of rootstock a week before budding enhanced the growth of stocks.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 107795

Effect of preservatives on the stability of vitamin C in citrus juice
Pengaruh pengawet terhadap stabilitas vitamin C dalam sari buah jeruk

Handajani, US
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Jurnal Nusantara Kimia [Nusantara Kimia Journal] (95.1.2): 53-60 (1995)

Abstract:
An experiment on the effect of preservatives on the stability of vitamin C in three kinds of commercial citrus juice was carried out. The pH was determined, then 0.02 - 0.1% sodium benzoat was added and kept at a temperature of 25 °C during 10 weeks. The content of vitamin C was determined spectrometrically at the 243 -nm wavelength. The result showed that the decrease of vitamin C content varied between the three samples. Increasing sodium benzoate in citrus juice have the consequence of decreasing vitamin C.

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry, Library




NO. 94363

The effects of different methods of budding citrus on the development of the scion


Orillos, MO
Araneta Journal of Agriculture 1 (2): 24-45 (1954)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the aim to find several methods of budding which will give more satisfactory results than the usual method and to obtain strong budded plants in the shortest possible time. Citrus varieties used were Batangas mandarin, calamandarin for stocks and buds of Amoy pomelo and Ladu mandarin for scions. Study revealed that the direct Surinam Bending method and Direct Bending in budding citrus induce fast growth of buds. The direct Surinam bending method showed the highest growth of buds.

Availability :
Rizal Library; Ateneo de Manila University; Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 107462

Extraction and characterization of Pontianak tangerine (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) fruit peel oil
Ekstraksi dan karakterisasi minyak kulit jeruk Pontianak (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa)

Apriyantono, A; Nugroho, SA
Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

Buletin Teknologi dan Industri Pangan [Food Technology and Industry Bulletin] 7 (2): 10-15 (1996)

Abstract:
Pontianak citrus (Citrus reticulata) is one of the many citrus cultivars in Indonesia. The fruit posseses a specific and unique flavour which is mainly derived from its peel oil. Pontianak citrus fruit peel oil was extracted by cold press and distillation methods (steam and steam-water distillation). Cold press method yielded less peel oil (0.65%) than distillation methods (0.72% with steam distillation and 0.80% with water-distillation), but the method yielded oil with better sensory quality than that of the oil obtained by distillation methods. physicochemical properties of the oils were analysed, including specific gravity, refractive index, solubility in alcohol, evaporation residue, acid value and decanal content. Specific gravity and evaporation residue of the cold pressed oil were 0.8493 and 2.64%, respectively, whereas those of the distilled oil were 0.8439 and 0.47%, respectively. Those values showed that the cold pressed oil contained more components with high molecular weight than that of the distilled oil. The refractive index and value of both oil were similar, whereas their solubility were quite different. The cold pressed oil was soluble in 95% ethanol in the ratio of 2.5:1 (flavour:95% ethanol), whereas the distilled oil was soluble in the solvent in the ratio of 1.5:1.

Availability :
Institute for Information Resources, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 108209

Effect of drying duration on the flowering and fruiting of Siem mandarin
Pengaruh lama pengeringan terhadap pembungaan dan pembuahan jeruk keprok siem

Djoema'ijah; Pratomo, AG; Sugiyarto, M
Research and Study Installation for Agricultural Technology, Tlekung, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 6 (2): 156-160 (1996)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted at the nursery house of the Punten Experimental Garden, Tlekung Assessment Station for Agricultural Technology from June 1994 to July 1995. The medium used was composition of soil:sand:manure (1:1:1). The aim of the research was to study the effect of soil drought periods on flowering and fruiting of mandarin (cv. Siem). The research used a Randomized Block Design, consisting of six soil drought periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks) and one untreated (control). Each treatment unit consisted of three plants. The results showed that soil drought periods significantly affected the flowering and fruiting of mandarin. It was provent the flowering and fruiting performance of mandarin could be arranged by water management during 2 to 6 weeks. The maximum number of flowers and fruits achieved was 346 and 223, respectively which was found on six weeks drought periods an still tended to increase. It is expected that the results of this research could be applied in producing off-season mandarin.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 109144

Flowering and fruiting arrangement of Citrus reticulata with the application of paclobutrazol and dormancy breaking substances
Pengaturan pembungaan dan pembuahan jeruk siem (Citrus reticulata Bl.) dengan paklobutrazol dan zat pemecah dormansi

Poerwanto, R; Susanto, S
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia [Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science] 6 (2): 39-44 (1996)

Abstract:
Flowering of fruit crops is negatively correlated with gibberellin activity. Paclobutrazol, a gibberellin inhibitor, induces flowering, but its effect is not consistent. It also inhibits budbreak. Application of dormancy breaking substances after paclobutrazol is expected to increase the budbreak of the flower bud that will be induced to flower. Three experiments were conducted: (a) time (December, January, and February) and dosage of paclobutrazol application (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 g/tree), (b) application time of dormancy breaking substance (1, 2 and 3 months after pclobutrazol application) and kind of the substances (benzyl adenine/BA, Ethephon, and KNO3), and (c) kind and concentration of dormancy breaking substance (50, 100, 200 ppm BA, 200, 400, 800 ppm Ethephon, 20, 40, 80 g/l KNO3 and control). Paclobutrazol induced flowering if applied at the right time and right dosage. December application of paclobutrazol increased flower formation. Spraying dormancy breaking substance (200 ppm Ethephon, 20 g/l KNO3 or 100 ppm benzyl adenine) 1-2 months after paclobutrazol application increased the number of flowers and reduced the days to flowering.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 110508

Effect of citrus fruit peel oil on the of bacteria and fungus
Efek minyak kulit jeruk terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri dan jamur

Ratnaningsih, N; Safitri, R; Julaeha, E
Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

Journal of Padjadjaran University, Bandung 15 (4): 23-30 (1998)

Abstract:
Fruit peel of five citrus varieties, i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon, Citrus hystrix and Citrus aurantifolia, was selected to find substances used for food preservatives that are potentially capable to inhibit microorganism growth. Bacteria of Seratia marcescents, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and fungus of Penicilium sp. were used as bioindicators. Peels of volatile fraction of Citrus aurantifolia and non volatile fraction of Citrus hystrix showed the most potential substances to inhibit the microorganism growth, except Penicilium sp. It was the growth of Seratia marcescents and Bacillus subtilis occuring the most microorganism that could effectively be inhibited by those of fractions and non-volatile fraction of Citrus hystrix at the concentration of 400 ppm, whereas, Staphylococcus aureus by 250 ppm volatile fraction of Citrus aurantifolia. The growth of Penicilium sp. could only be inhibited by volatile and non-volatile fractions of Citrus reticulata microcarpa at 1000 and 250 ppm, respectively.

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture; Padjadjaran University; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 94304

Comparative biology activities of four citrus species


Ontengco, DC; dela Rosa, E
HERDIN Database 026060-PC981173; Philippine Journal of Medical Technology 1 (2): 43-48 (1998)

Abstract:
Essential oils extracted from the waste peelings of four Citrus spp: Citrus aurantifolia (cajel), Citrus reticula (darangita), Citrofortunella microcarpa (calamansi), and Citrus maxima (pomelo) were found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, but inactive against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the preliminary screening analysis using the modified agar diffusion method. The activity against the positive organisms could be due to citral, geraniol, limonene, linalool, B-pinene, and terpineol which are some of the constituents of the oils. The MICs of calamansi and pomelo oils were 2.0 and 2.1 mg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Darangita oil was found to be the most equipotent; 16.8 mg of the oil being as potent as 0.78 ug/ml against Staphylococcus from urines, wounds, and sputa. It is interesting to note that pomelo oil was also active against urinary Klebsiella isolates with a MIC of 2.1 mg/ml. The four Citrus oils did not exhibit DNA-damaging activity based on the results of the Bacillus subtilis repair test which aimed to assess its safety for human use in primary health care. The study exploits the potential of these waste materials as antimicrobials. Results indicate that Citrus oils may be used as cheap raw materials in pharmaceutical preparations.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (PCHRD); Department of Science and Technology (DOST): Bicutan, Tagig, Metro Manila




NO. 101596

Compatibility of wood apple and several commercial cultivars and species of citrus at nursery stage
Kompatibilitas kawista dengan beberapa varietas dan species komersial jeruk pada stadia pembibitan

Supriyanto, A; Mugiarto, M; Mulyanto, H
Balai Penelitian Horticultura Solok [Solok Research Institute for Horticulture], Solok, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 6 (3): 12-19 (1994)

Abstract:
Kawista (wood apple) is recognized as belonging to the same family of Citrus sp. but of different sub-tribe. It grows satisfactorily in dry area, relatively resistant to salinity and can be used as rootstock. Ten citrus commercial cultivars and species, each budded on kawista and Japanse citroen, were evaluated on their growth performance at nursery stage. All citrus cultivars and species indicated their incompatibility while budded on kawista. Pumello cv. Nambangan (Citrus maxima), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon) and Etrog citron (Citrus medica) had low percentage of succesfull budded trees and had poor growth, while Tangerine cv. Siem (Citrus reticulata), grapefruit 'Marsh' (Citrus x paradisi) and Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) had satisfactory growth. All stocks of those cultivars and species had been planted in order to evaluate their horticultural performance.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 103026

Composition of fruit tree species in the upland homeyards of Gambirmanis village, Pracimantoro subdistrict, Wonogiri
Komposisi jenis tanaman buah-buahan di pekarangan lahan kering desa Gambirmanis, Kecamatan Pracimantoro, Wonogiri

Harahap, R
Research and Development Institute for Botany-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Hortikultura Nasional [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Horticulture], Malang, 8-9 November 1994; Wardiyati, T et al. (eds); Malang, Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia & Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, 1995; Buku 1; p 398-402

Abstract:
Observation on the diversity of fruit trees in the upland home yard area was carried out in 10 villages, at Gambirmanis, Pracimantoro, Wonogiri. The observation was carried out following quadratics with systematical positions. The number of quadratics observation was 100 (1 ha). The results of observation indicated that the number of individual fruit trees was 102. Tree with diameter > 10.5 cm consisted of 17 species, 11 genera of 9 families. The highest number of species was 8 and the species were found in the 8th quadrant (dusun Pendem). However, the highest density of fruit trees was 16 trees per plot of 1000 m² and the trees were found in the second plot (dusun Mahbang). The range of tree diameter 10.5-19.5 cm was 58.82%. The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) was dominant (33 trees per plot) and it was found in each dusun and the second dominant were mangos (Mangifera indica) i.e. 17 and ambarella (Spondias dulcis) was 7 per plot.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 111443

Price elasticity analysis of mangosteen compared with other fruits
Analisis elastisitas harga buah manggis terhadap buah-buahan lain

Waruwu, F; Wahjudi, T; Rais, M
Research and Development Centre for Horticulture, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 9 (4): 378-384 (2000)

Abstract:
A research was conducted to know the price elasticity of mangosteen compared with other fruits in West Sumatra. It was conducted from June 1996 to March 1997 in Limapuluh Kota and Padang regencies using survey method. A total of 114 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling. The available data were processed by using consumption function analysis and transformed into logarithmic (Trans-Log). The result showed that at the beginning of the harvest season the price elasticities of mangosteen, citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya, rambutan and avocado were 2.31, 6.05, 1.36, 1.49, 1.23, 1.19, 1.01, and 5.02 respectively. At the middle of the harvest season the price elasticities of citrus, durian, pineapple, papaya and mango were 5.18, 1.05, 9.74, 2.89, and 9.93 respectively, whereas at the end of the harvest season the price elasticities of citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya and mango were 2.53, 1.42, 1.11, 3.34, 2.66 and 1.84 respectively. The elasticity value of other fruits significantly affected mangosteen fruit consumption. Durian and mango were substitutes for mangosteen fruit consumption with price elasticity of mango 9.93 at mid harvest season and price elasticities of durian and mango of 1.42 and 1.84 at the end of the harvest season. Commodities complementary to mangosteen fruit consumption at the beginning of the harvest season were citrus, durian, sapote, pineapple, papaya, rambutan and avocado with negative price elasticity values -6.05, -1.36, -1.49, -1.23, -1.19, -1.01 and -5.02, respectively, where as at the mid harvest season the complementary commodities were citrus, durian, pineapple and papaya with negative price elasticities -5.18, -1.05, -9.74 and -2.89, respectively), and at the end of the harvest season citrus, sapote, pineapple, and papaya with negative price elasticities of -2.53, -1.11, -3.34 and -2.66, respectively. The negative price elasticity of other fruits indicated that these fruits were complementary to mangosteen fruit. It means that the consumption of mangosteen fruit increases when the price of other fruit decreases.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 14712

Fruit production potential of the Maracaibo plain: research needs


Anonymous
University of Zulia, Agronomy Faculty, Maracaib, Edif, Fusagri, Calle 76 No 46-21 Maracaibo, Venezuela

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 3-4

Abstract:
The Maracaibo Plain is located in the Northwestern part of Venezuela, 9 °C above the Equator. It occupies an area of 450,000 ha. Average temperature, humidity, rainfall and evaporation are 28 °C, 76%, 500 mm, 2000 mm, respectively. The soil is very uniform and well drained. Irrigation water sources are deep wells. Fruit production has existed since last century, providing skilful and inexpensive labour. Traditional crops are red guava (Psidium guajava, 5000 ha) and sapodilla (Manilkara zapota, 1000 ha) with excellent production and quality. Newer crops have shown a great potential like table and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera, 800 ha), Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia, 150 ha), mango (Mangifera indica, 100 ha), grape-fruit (Citrus paradisi, 100 ha). Other potential crops are passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Passiflora flavicarpa), soursop (Annona muricata), sugar apple (Annona squamosa), and papaya (Carica papaya). The conditions of the plain allow some advantages like the production of mango free of antracnose, and the control of flowering in mango and citrus for hitting the world market windows. Research on the following aspects are needed: 1. Plant breeding and clonal selection for utilizing the potential derived from the propagation of the traditional species by seeds. 2. Plant propagation to obtain certified material, and to develop reliable grafting techniques. 3. Post-harvest technology to reduce losses and to design good packaging and management systems for fresh fruit. 4. Plant protection for reducing the impact of some pests and diseases. 5. Orchard management to exploit the full potential of the area, A good training programme for the technicians involved is a necessary complement to the adequate research infrastructure. The Maracaibo Plain, connected to the world by air and sea, is one of the best suitable places for tropical fruit production in the continent.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok




NO. 36970

Pesticide residue analysis of major fruits


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, College, Laguna

Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; UPLB-PCARR, 1980; Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Project No. 253; 43 p

Abstract:
Studies on crop protection and pesticide use, insecticide efficacy trials and insecticide analysis are presented. Major Philippine fruits such as bananas, citrus, grapes, mango and papaya were involved in these studies.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 36971

Crop protection and pesticide use survey


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, College, Laguna

Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; [Pesticide Residue Analysis of Major Fruits]; 1980; UPLB-PCARR Proj ect No 253; Study 1; MISD; PCARRD

Abstract:
Selected fruit crop growers from various cropland areas in the country were interviewed to describe their pesticide usage and crop protection practices. The areas chosen and their corresponding crops were: Davao and Kalinga Apayao for banana; Cagayan and Davao for citrus; Cebu for grapes and mango; Guimaras Island for mango and Davao for papaya. Most fruit farmers were aware of the need to protect their crops against pests and diseases. Grape, citrus and mango growers considered the use of pesticides as the primary means of control. They also considered smudging, pruning and burning as an important mechanical control. In using chemicals, most farmers were guided by label recommendations on dosage frequency of spray, pre-harvest spray interval and insecticide-fungicide spray combinations. Most farmers received technical assistance such as shouldering of inputs and miscellaneous expenses from government extension officers. Others derived help from the representatives of chemical distributors.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 100793

The role of fruits farming in the highland resources development of the Upper Brantas river watershed
Peranan usahatani buah-buahan dalam pembangunan sumberdaya lahan dataran tinggi DAS Brantas Hulu

Kasijadi, F
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH), Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 4 (2): 14-23 (1994)

Abstract:
A research was conducted from November 1991 to April 1992. Four-villages in the fruit production centers were selected, and the samples were taken by stratified random sampling. The results showed that the farmers did not utilize their available natural resources at optimal level. To optimize their resources, apple should be grown in the area, even if the price of apple goes down 10% of the present price. The best alternative crops to offer were mandarin citrus and sweet orange. Capital was the limiting factor encountered by the farmers to optimize their land resources development.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 109587

Institutional potential of prime commodities in the dryland area of South Tulungagung
Potensi kelembagaan komoditas andalan di daerah lahan kering Tulungagung Selatan

Sukesi, K
Habitat 9 (103): 36-42 (1998)

Abstract:
A research was conducted to identify the social institutions and the economy on village level which may support the application of agribusiness concept system on prime commodities in the location where the Dryland Development Project (P2LK) in East Java occurred. Observation took place in Demak village, Pucanglaban subdistrict, Tulungagung. Rapid Rural Appraisal and Intensive Study methods were used in the observation. Village leaders (formal and informal), 'PPL' (Agricultural Extention Fieldworkers), Farmers Unit Group and its members were acting as sources of information. The result of the observation showed that prime commodities such as mango (cvs. Arumanis and Manalagi), citrus, melinjo, 'garut' (arrowroot), cassava, corn and bananas were beneficial as intercrops. There were some institutions in the location such as market, 'KUD' (Village Unit Cooperation), shops, Farmers Unit Group, Women Farmers Group and Agricultural Extention Fieldworkers. In order to stabilize the potential of the dryland area with prime commodities, some other institutions such as nurseries, processing factories and marketing were needed. The farmers still need technical guidance and counseling in agriculture.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 15496

Citrus in the Pacific area


Spurling, MB
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 5: 121 (1976)

Abstract:
A general review of citrus growing in Japan, mainland China, Taiwan, S.E. Asia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand that includes information on planting and production, varieties and rootstocks, orchard management, pests and diseases, and future trends is presented.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok




NO. 106597

Inventory of rare fruits in Jimbaran village
Inventarisasi buah-buahan langka di Desa Jimbaran

Muflihah, I
Laboratory of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah Unud [Udayana University Science Journal] 20 (36): 47-51 (1993)

Abstract:
A research on rare fruits the has been carried out in Jimbaran village, Bali. Interviews showed that there are two categories of rare fruits. The first category includes various cvs. of bananas, mango, lemon, jackfruit and juwet. The second rare category includes tamarind, sawo kecik, bekul, kem, manu, mango, and Mas banana. Due to the pressure of urbanisation these plants are now decreasing in population. Proportional random sampling method (with a 5% sample size) was used to determinate the remaining population.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 92853

The influence of bud positioning on the initial growth of scion shoots in apple and citrus


Chagyo, MS; Tipayao, AC
MSAC (Mountain State Agricultural College) Research Journal (17): 51-58 (1985)

Abstract:
In citrus, scions placed on the Eastside of the rootstock had the fastest rate of bud opening while those on the south had the slowest rate. Scions on the north had the fastest growth increment and those positioned south and westward had the slowest growth. The scions on the north gave the highest percentage of survival while those on the south incurred the highest percentage of mortality. With apple, the fastest rate of bud opening was observed on the scions placed on the west and the slowest on the south and east. The fastest growth of scion shoots was observed in those placed on the east and west sides, while the slowest was observed in those placed on the north. Scions on the south gave a 100% survival, while those on the east gave the least survival with 93.07%.

Availability :
Post Harvest Training and Research Center, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 66903

Plants used for traditional preservation of 'keris' in Yogyakarta
Tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan dalam perawatan keris secara tradisional di Jogyakarta

Harapini, M; Murningsih, T
Research and Development Centre for Biology, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 265-268

Abstract:
'Keris' is a traditional weapon which is seen as a precious heirloom (pusaka). It also functions as an accessory in man's traditional dresses. For preserving the 'keris', the Javanese has practised traditional way of preserving it, by means of utilizing natural resources, mostly plants. This paper is a result of a survey conducted in Yogyakarta to observe the use of plants in preserving of 'keris'. There were five species of plants used in preserving the 'keris', four of which were used as cleaning agents, among others Citrus aurantifolia is the best.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 70646

The disease of gummosis leak of orange and its control measures
Benh chay gom hai Cam va bien phap phong tru

Do Duc Binh
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 365 (11): 414-416 (1992)

Abstract:
The Fungi Phytophthora spp. cause the most serious gummosis leak disease of oranges. This disease decreases orange yield, particularly in areas with high rainfall and high temperature. To gain high effect in controlling gummosis leak disease of oranges, an integrated control measure which was described in detail in this paper, should be used.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology, Library




NO. 70409

Results of a study on the possibility of developing orange in Phu Qui zone
Ket qua nghien cuu kha nang phat trien cay cam o vung Phu Qui

Vu Manh Hai
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 346: 165-168 (1991)

Abstract:
In the Phu Qui zone, many orange varieties, especially Vandu and Xa doai grow and develop well. The Songcon variety can be restored to develop its quality, the Valencia variety can be complemented in the cropping structure to extend the harvesting time. Possibilities in the utilization of Phu Qui zone soils for the cultivation of orange and effects of climatic conditions of the zone on orange growth and development have been studied in detail.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70501

The study of hesperidine extracted from the coat of Citrus fruits
Nghien cuu dieu kien chiet xuat hesperidin tu vo qua Citrus

Nguyen Thi Chung; Le Van Tuyen
College of Pharmacy of Hanoi; Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (1): 18-21 (1987)

Abstract:
Investigation on the mathematical model of flavonoid and hesperidine extraction from fruit coat of Citrus aurantium showed that the efficiency of steam distillation by extracting method with ethyl alcohol solvent was higher than that of exhausted drawing extractive method at normal temperature. Optimal condition for hesperidine extraction was 70% ethyl solvent and 5 extractive times. The duration of one extractive time was half and 2 hours. The conditions were also suitable for hesperidine extraction from fruit coat of Cirus reticulata, Citrus medica and waste materials from Citrus extractive process.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology, Library




NO. 66814

Effect of salinity on development of root infections caused by Phytophthora citrophthora in citrus rootstocks growing in hydroponics


Sulistyowati, L
Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Agrivita 16 (1): 13-19 (1993)

Abstract:
The level of salinity (NaCl) and time of salt imposition treatment in relation to the time of inoculation significantly affected development of root infection caused by Phytophthora citrophthora in the citrus rootstocks of trifoliata, troyer citrange, sour orange and rough lemon growing in hydroponics. Severity of root infection was greater at high than at low salinity levels. Salinity treatments given before inoculation resulted in more disease development than when salinity treatments were applied at the same time as, or after inoculation. On this evidence it was concluded that the salinity treatments predisposed the root tissues to infection. The increase in disease occurrence was probably due more to a reduction in the resistance of the tissues than to a direct stimulation of inoculum activity by the salt. Of two species (trifoliata and troyer citrange) resistant to Phytophthora citrophthora at low salinity, roots of trifoliata lost their resistance at high salinity to a far greater extent than those of troyer citrange. This is probably due to the fact that troyer citrange is more salt tolerant than trifoliata.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 66878

'Pusaka' and literature on traditional medicinal plants in Java
Pusaka dan pustaka tumbuhan jamu tradisional Jawa

Sutarno, H; Danimihardja, S
PROSEA Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 45-54

Abstract:
As medicinally potential heritages, 77 species of raw material for 33 kinds of medicinal herbs were studied. Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon aristatus, Citrus aurantifolia and Lepiniopsis ternatensis were among other popular medicinal herbs. At least each species had been used as a herb for the remedy of 5 illness. There were species with their commodity status as spices, but also popular as herbs, e.g. Myristica fragrans, Foeniculum vulgare and Curcuma domestica. Plant processing as raw material for "jamu" did not correlated with the usage level as "jamu", but were more influenced by their status. The number of literature reference per species of the non-medicinal plants but with medicinal potential was on the average 24.6, compared to only 2.3 of the medicinal plants used as "jamu" herbs. Subjects of study commonly discussed in literature were vernacular names, usage, maintenance, and ecology, while the aspects of production, origin and distribution, property, growth and development, propagation, breeding, and post-harvest handling were still rarely mentioned. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 66896

Ethnobotanical aspect of "Bingkeng", a traditional ceremony in Lebakrejo village, Purwodadi, Pasuruan, East Java
Etnobotani "Bingkeng" upacara tradisional di Desa Lebakrejo village, Purwodadi, Pasuruan, Jawa Timur

Soejono
Cabang BKR Purwodadi; Purwodadi; East Java, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 190-195

Abstract:
A study on the ethnobotanical aspect of "Bingkeng" a traditional ceremony in Lebakrejo village, Purwodadi, Pasuruan, East Java was held in August 1991. This tradition, probably had existed more than 100 years ago. Through interviews and observation on the spot, it was found that "Bingkeng" could be devided into four groups, the "Bingkeng", the "pengiring", the "sandingan" and the "ancak", each of them had their own materials for ceremony. This paper was attempted to describe various materials used in the ceremony. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67385

Effects of medium composition and growth regulator on the success of citrus rootstock micro-propagation
Pengaruh komposisi media dan zat pengatur tumbuh terhadap keberhasilan perbanyakan batang bawah jeruk secara mikro

Sutanto, A; Devy, NF
Sub Balithorti Tlekung; Tlekung, East Java, Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 6 (1): 1-11 (1994)

Abstract:
Several medium compositions and growth regulators for micro-propagation of citrus rootstock cv. Japansche Citroen (JC) similar to Rangpur Lime, were evaluated at the tissue culture laboratory of Tlekung Horticultural Research Station. The best medium for initiation phase was MS + 1.15 ppm BA + 0.05 ppm IBA, for proliferation phase was MS + 1 ppm BA + 0.5 ppm IBA + 0.5 ppm GA3 and for rooting phase was 1/2 MS + 1 ppm IBA + 126 ppm PG. One explant grown on those media can be multiplicated up to 300 plantlets per year. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University
Email: admin@lib.ugm.ac.id




NO. 67630

Effect of planting at intervals in mixed-cropping on crop production at the Cisadane Watershed
Pengaruh selang waktu tanam pada tanaman tumpangsari terhadap hasil produksi di DAS Cisadane

Siagian, MH; Setyowati-Indarto, N
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Hayati, Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI 1991/1992 [Proceedings of a Seminar on Research Finding and Development of Biological Resources, Centre for Research and Development in Biology - LIPI], Bogor, 6 Mei 1992; Nasution, RE et al. (eds); Proyek Litbang SDH, Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI, 1992; p 1-6

Abstract:
A study of mixed-cropping between peanut and sweet corn as well as egg plant and sweet corn were carried out with two treatments. The first treatment was spontaneous growing and the second treatment by blooming of the peanut. The results indicated that the production of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment. The production of intercropping of peanut and sweet corn of the first treatment were 2.826 t/ha and 13.929 t/ha, respectively. However, the second treatment were 3.415 t/ha and 14.450 t/ha. Meanwhile, the production of intercropping between egg plant and sweet corn were 12.072 t/ha and 5.814 t/ha through the first treatment. While through second treatment of intercropping the production were 14.117 t/ha and 5.712 t/ha. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67153

In vitro shoot/bud and embryo cultures of Citrus germplasms from Sumatra


Imelda, M; Atmowidjojo, S
Research and Development Centre for Biotechnology, Bogor, Indonesia

Annales Bogorienses 2 (1): 12-16 (1992)

Abstract:
An in vitro method was adopted for the field collecting of citrus in four provinces of Sumatra. Apical and lateral shoot tips were collected and inoculated onto MS media provided with fungicides and antibiotics. In the laboratory the shoot buds were transferred to a multiplication medium containing 1 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA, whereas the embryos were cultured in a similar medium without phytohormones. The proliferating shoots were separated and rooted in a one-half strength of MS medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 0.5 mg/l NAA. Plantlets derived from 14 cultivars were acclimatized in a transplant medium consisting of sterilized soil and sand (1:1) in a plastic bag for 1-3 weeks. Thirty of the 53 cultivars which had been collected were successfully cultured. In comparison with the embryo culture, culture of shoot tips was less successful. The ability of shoot proliferation varied between cultivars, but the highest rate was attained by "limau kunci" cultivar which formed 80 shootlets from one shoot tip. Uncontaminated plantlets gave a higher success rate of acclimatization than contaminated ones. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office
Email: info@proseanet.org|prosea@indo.net.id




NO. 67162

Antimicrobial coumarins accumulated in stem of citrus rootstocks infected with Phytophthora parasitica
Senyawa coumarin antimikroba yang terakumulasi pada batang jeruk batang bawah yang terinfeksi Phytophthora parasitica

Sulistyowati, L
Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Jurnal Universitas Brawijaya [Brawijaya University Journal] 5 (1): 35-49 (1993)

Abstract:
Experiments were conducted to study the antimicrobial coumarins accumulated in stem of troyer citrange, sour orange and rough lemon infected with Phytophthora parasitica. The compounds were separated each other by using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and bioassayed for their antimicrobial effect by using spores of Cladosporium sp. on TLC. The antimicrobial compounds were then isolated and the spectra were analysed by using spectrophotofluorimeter and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three antimicrobial coumarins were detected and isolated from the extract of stem of troyer citrange infected with Phytophthora parasitica. One of them was identified as scoparone which is 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (Rf=0.4 and Rt=4.27 min). While the other two were not identified, named as coumarin 2 (Rf=0.8 and Rt=2.65 min) and coumarin-3 (Rf=0.3). Furthermore, it was found that the extract of infected stem of sour orange contained only scoparone and coumarin-2 and the extract on infected stem of rough lemon contained only scoparone. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 72176

Present problems of phytophagous mites
Nhung van de trong phong chong nhen hai cay trong hien nay

Nguyen Van Dinh
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (1): 19-22 (1992)

Abstract:
Mite pests make an increasing problem on various crops like tea, cassava, potato, peppers, beans, citrus, other vegetables, and ornamental plants. Important species have high reproductive (Ro) and instrinsic rate of natural increase (r). It should be paid more attention to use selective chemicals in the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) programme that are environmentally safe.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 93932

Alternate cropping of beverage crops with benguet pine dominant vegetative cover of abandoned kaingin in the Ambuklao-Binga watershed in Benguet.


Cabaldon, LB; Cabaldon, RD
DENR-CAR Technical Bulletin 2 (1): 9-17 (1990)

Abstract:
The interplanting of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya) with selected beverage crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica), tea (Camellia sinensis) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) was conducted to determine their respective growth and survival performance under such planting scheme and their effects on soil nutrient content. Results of the study failed to show significant variations in the survival of Benguet pine seedlings when interplanted either with coffee, tea, mandarin or in pure stand. On the contrary, survival rates for tea (69.28%) and mandarin (64.46%) were significantly higher than coffee (11%) seedlings. Relative to height growth, interplanted Benguet pine seedlings with coffee and tea exhibited higher increment growth (92.81 and 82.20 cm, respectively) than those planted with mandarin and the control seedlings. Variations in the height increment among the beverage crops were insignificant. Likewise, it was observed that changes in soil nutrient content and variations in soil loss were insignificant. Nonetheless, soil loss was highest in control plots (3.32 cm) while the lowest was obtained from Benguet pine and mandarin plots (1.71 cm).

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (HARRDEC); Benguet State University (BSU); La Trinidad, Benguet; Philippines




NO. 20551

A variable management system for the forests of Sarawak, Malaysia


Caldecott, J
Land Associates International Limited; London, United Kingdom

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1 (2): 103-113 (1988)

Abstract:
Malaysian forests are able to supply a number of non-wood products, including rattans, tourism revenue, wild meat, and phytochemical and pharmaceutical products. These products can be incorporated within the variable management systems of 20-60 years proposed for these dipterocarp forests. This would maximise their long-term productivity with an increased range of outputs.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 95359

Quality assessment of selected essential oils


Torres, RC; Cruz, MCS
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; Lantican, CM & Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, PCARRD, 1996; p 59

Abstract:
Import substitution is one of the primary considerations for investment in essential food production using indigenous aromatic plants. However, the essential oils produced should meet the standard specifications required by the domestic market. The first priority essential oil-bearing plants identified by the BOI for development are citronella, patchouli, vetiver, mint, and ilang-ilang. Torres and Cruz (ITDI) analyzed the oil yield and quality of this essential oil-bearing plants. All the citronella oil samples analyzed are of Java type and conform to the standard specifications. Parameters on the instrumental analysis of citronella oil by gas chromatography are established. For patchouli, 'Cavinti' accession produces the highest oil yield at 4.18% (v/w) and conforms to the standard specifications in terms of specific gravity, refractive index and appearance. BPI accession of vetiver has 2.12% (v/w) oil yield. The oil is highly viscous and yellow with a refractive index of 1.5176 at 20 °C. The ester and acid values are 15.07 and 18.64, respectively. For mint, B-5250 is the best accession with the highest yield [3.34% (v/w)] and with physicochemical properties conforming the standard specifications. Ilang-ilang oil extracted by hydro-steam distillation from the collected fresh mature flowers in Anao, Tarlac, is of 100% purity and without adulterant and traces of moisture.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 815

Some notes on "ragi tape", an inoculum for "tape" fermentation


Soedarsono, J
Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Ilmu Pertanian [Agricultural Science] 1 (6): 235-241 (1972)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 930

Postharvest technology of fruits
Pascapanen buah-buahan

Wigati; Nurbanah
Seri Hortikultura No.Kode 02/B/1988; Surabaya; Dinas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan Prop.Dati.I Jawa Timur; Balai Informasi Pertanian Jawa Timur; 1987; 28p

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 933

Identification of vegetable and fruit development in four agroecosystem zones
Identifikasi pengembangan sayuran dan buah-buahan di empat zone agroekosistem

Widjajanto, DD; Santoso, B; Sawito, MH
Malang Research Station for Horticulture; Indonesia

Pendekatan agroekosistem pada pola pertanian lahan kering [Agroecosystem approach to dryland agricultural schemes]; Jakarta; Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian; The Ford Foundation; 1988; p203-225

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2080

Results of fruit research 1970-1985
Hasil-hasil penelitian buah-buahan 1970-1985

Sushandoko; Rais, M; Winarno, M
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; Indonesia

Hasil-hasil Penelitian Buah-buahan 1970-1985; Sushandoko et al.(eds); Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; 1989; 26p

Availability :
PROSEA Indonesia Country Office; Bogor




NO. 32414

Fruits for all seasons


Arcega, MB
Greenfields 3(2): 3-7(1973)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32427

Postharvest physiology of fruits. I.Chilling injury


Pantastico, EB
Philippine Agriculturist 51(9): 697-730(1968)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 2298

Annual Report 1987/1988 of the Solok Research Institute for Horticulture
Laporan Tahunan 1987/1988 Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Solok

Rais, M(ed); Sushandoko(ed)
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; Indonesia

Jakarta; Agency for Agricultural Research and Development; 1988; 50p

Availability :
PROSEA Indonesia Country Office; Bogor




NO. 3249

Post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables
Penyakit buah-buahan dan sayuran sesudah panen

Sosrodiharjo, S
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (8): 202-206(1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3250

Important fruits and vegetables in the Philippines
Buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran penting di Filipina

Sosrodiharjo, S
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (8): 207-209(1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3449

Propagation methods for fruit trees
Cara memperbanyak pohon buah-buahan

Rosjidi, M
Public Forest Corporation Unit II; East Java; Indonesia

Gema Rimba [Jungle Echo] 5(31-32): 22-27(1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 8051

Preservation of fruits and vegetables by wax coating
Pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran dengan pelapisan lilin

Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 4(4): 8-9(1984/1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9113

Production of pectinase through solid medium fermentation method by molds isolated from some fruit species
Produksi pektinase dengan cara fermentasi media padat oleh kapang yang diisolasi dari beberapa jenis buah-buahan

Setiawiharja, B; Suliantari; Nurwitri, CC; Hariantono, J
Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia

Media Teknologi Pangan [Food Technology Media] 1(1): 29-39(1985)

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 12636

Diseases of fruit trees
Rok mai phon

Maninat, N
Khrong Kan Nang Sua Kaset Chumchon [Commercial Agriculture Book Project]; 72p

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 12638

Diseases of fruit trees
Rok phut mai phon

Silayoi, I
Kasetsart University; Bangkok; Thailand

Bangkok; Kasetsart University; 1987; 79p

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 12806

Plants in the Buddha history
Phanmai nai phuttha prawat

Phengkhlai, C
Phanmai nai phutthaprawat; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; [nd]; 17p

Availability :
Technical Library; Silviculture Division; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 13853

Backyard garden No.1
Suan lang ban No.1

Punnothok, S
[Backyard Garden No.1]; Bangkok; Phasit Publishing; 1979; 250p

Availability :
Library; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 20048

Notes on current investigation, January to June 1960


Anonymous
The Malayan Agricultural Journal 43(2): 54-65(1960)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20068

Notes on current investigations (Research) - October to December 1955


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 39(1): 63-68(1955)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20089

Notes on extension work: July to September 1955


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 38(4): 276-287(1955)

Abstract:
Common names used

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20137

Current affairs and research investigations for the period January to June 1964


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

The Malaysian Agricultural Journal 45(1): 89-102(1965)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20761

Soil fertility, nutrient requirement and fertilization


Othman Yaacob
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Fruit Production in Malaysia; Othman Yaacob(ed); Serdang; Selangor; Agricultural University of Malaysia; 1980; page?

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 21284

Crop production handbook Vol 1. Agronomy and crop protection


Department of Agriculture; Kuching; Sarawak; Malaysia

Kuching; Department of Agriculture; 1985; 114p

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute




NO. 30714

Selected statistics on agriculture


Bureau of Agricultural Statistics; Department of Agriculture; Diliman; Quezon City; Philippines

Quezon City; Bureau of Agricultural Statistics; Department of Agriculture; 1988; viip; 23p

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31001

Major fruit crops in the country


Garzon, ED; Palpalloc, LT
University of Mindanao Agricultural Research Center; Kabacan; Cotabato; Philippines

SMARC Monitor 5(3): 4-5(1984)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31562

Climate, soil and cultural requirements of selected Philippine fruits


Matienzo, LH, Jr
Greenfields 3(2): 2-8(1973)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 31566

How much pesticide is left in fruits


Lastimosa, PJ
PCARRD Monitor 10(9): 12(1982)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32536

Post-harvest handling of fruits


Urbanes, PO
Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Journal 15(7): 33(1980)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32599

Qualities of good fruits


Bigornia, AA
Market Day (April): 25(1979)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32746

Pectin from fruits


Zamora, EL
Philippine Farms and Gardens 8(9): 2(1971)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32890

What to do with those peelings


Tupas, FL
Bato Balani 2(2): 3-4(1981)

Availability :
Library; Science and Technology Information Institute; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 32892

Wine from sampalok, atis or calumpit, anyone?


Andaya, DS
Bato Balani 2(2): 35-36(1981)

Availability :
Library; Scientific and Technology Information Institute; Department of Science and Technology; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 33532

Influence of chemicals in accelerating the ripening of citrus and bananas


Dumlao, JRB
BSc thesis; Kabacan; Cotabato; University of Southern Mindanao; 1976; 17p

Availability :
Library; University of Southern Mindanao; Kabacan; Cotabato; Philippines




NO. 34633

The rhetological and thermal characteristics of fruit juices


Sonido, DG; Alabastro, EF
NSRC Research Project of Home Economics 9(1-2): 43(1971)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34542

Preparation of wine from Philippine fruits


Gonzales, LG
University of the Philippines College of Agriculture Bi-weekly Bulletin 1(11): 1-2(1933)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34910

A comparative study on pectin control and quality of fruits for jam and jelly production


Dela Cruz, FM
MSc thesis; Malabon; Metro Manila; Araneta University Foundation; 1963

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 34964

A survey of the aroma composition of Philippine fruits


Philippine Agriculturist 55(1-2): 67-82(1971)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 35057

Regulation of fruit ripening I.Refrigerated controlled atmosphere storage


Pantastico, EB; Mendoza, DB, Jr; Espino, VC; Bondad, ND; Calava, ER
Philippine Agriculturist 54(3): 120-134(1970)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37099

Pesticide residue analysis of major fruits


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
RETRES Research Abstracts; UPLB; 1980; 43p; UPLB-PCARRD Proj. No.253; MISD

Abstract:
This presents studies on crop protection and pesticide use, insecticide efficacy trials and insecticide analysis. Major Philippine fruits such as bananas, citrus, grapes, mango and papaya were involved in these studies.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37100

Crop protection and pesticide use survey


Custudio, H; Magallona, ED
Pesticide Residue Analysis of Major Fruits; UPLB; 1980; ?p; UPLB-PCARRD Proj. No. 253

Abstract:
Selected fruit crop growers from various cropland areas in the country were interviewed to describe their pesticide usage and crop protection practices. The areas chosen and their corresponding crops were: Davao and Kalinga Apayao for banana; Cagayan and Davao for citrus; Cebu for grapes and mango; Guimaras Island for mango; and Davao for papaya. Most fruit farmers were aware of the need to protect their crops against pests and diseases. Grape, citrus and mango growers considered the use of pesticides as the primary means of control. They also considered smudging, pruning and burning as an important mechanical control. In using chemicals, most farmers were guided by label recommendations on dosage frequency of spray, pre-harvest spray interval and insecticide-fungicide spray combinations. Most farmers received technical assistance such as shouldering of inputs and miscellaneous expenses from government extension officers. Others derived help from the representatives of chemical distributors.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 37586

Medicines for the common tao


Balweg, BM
Benguet State University; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines

Mountain State Agricultural College Farm News Bulletin 3(6): ?; 1982

Abstract:
Quisumbing of Los Banos, the Community Health and other entities have researches on other herbal medicine that is free and scientifically proven efficient for the use of the public. Enumerated are some ailments, medicinal plants and dosages: (1) loose bowel movement - avocado or guava leaves, 7-10 leaves for every 2-3 glasses of water, to be drunk 3 times a day; (2) fever - lagundi; (3) cough - lemon, honey (sugar syrup can be a substitute) and 1 tablespoon of gin (preservative) for every cup of the mixture; (4) scabbies - coconut oil with garlic; (5) kidney trouble - corn tassel, "makahiya" and banana leaves. Boil until golden. Drink 3 times a day; (6) rheumatism - pound ginger and place on affected part; (7) hypertension - garlic and ginger. These medicinal herbs thrive in Benguet and other provinces in Northern Luzon.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium Library; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines




NO. 40209

Research work on food crops at the University of Papua New Guinea


Kesevan, V
Department of Agriculture; University of Papua New Guinea; Port Moresby

Proceedings of the Second Papua New Guinea Food Crops Conference, Goroka, 14-18th July 1980; Port Moresby; Department of Primary Industry; 1982; Part 3; p551-552

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40225

Some thoughts on fruit


Wilson, KC
Faculty of Agriculture; University of Papua New Guinea; Port Moresby

Proceedings of the 1975 Papua New Guinea Food Crops Conference; Port Moresby; Department of Primary Industry; 1976; p237-239

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40244

Other crops


Sillitoe, P
Social Anthropology; La Trobe University; USA

Roots of the earth: crops in the highlands of Papua New Guinea; Section 1; Washington; 1983; p135-136

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40363

Social setting: Milne Bay


Moulik, TK
New Guinea Research Unit; Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea

New Guinea Research Bulletin No.53; 1973; p20-34

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40390

Papua New Guinea food problems: time for action


Bourke, RM; Carrad, B; Heywood, P
Department of Primary Industry; Kainantu; Eastern Highlands province; Papua New Guinea

Department of Primary Industry Research Bulletin No.29; 1981; 42p

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40476

Food crop cultivation


Calcinai, BL
Highlands Agricultural Experiment Station; Aiyura; Papua New Guinea

Agriculture - Grades 7 & 10 teachers resource book; Port Moresby; Department of Education; Papua New Guinea; 1982; 81p

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 40557

Northern Province


Baxter, MWP; Dakeyne, RB
Department of Geography; University of Papua New Guinea; Port Moresby

Encyclopedia of Papua and New Guinea, Vol.2(L-Z); Melbourne; Melbourne University Press in association with the University of Papua New Guinea; 1972; p861-867

Availability :
Library; Matheson; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 50106

Proceedings of the International Symposium on South East Asian Plant Genetic Resources, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20-24 August 1985


Mehra, KL(ed); Sastrapradja, S(ed)
Bogor; Lembaga Biologi Nasional-LIPI; 1985; vip; 211p

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 60804

Scientific contribution on studying materials containing carotene
Sumbangan pengetahuan penyelidikan bahan-bahan yang mengandung carotene

Fadriah, M
Thesis; Jakarta; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; 1977; 42p

Availability :
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; Depok; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 62400

Suggestion for fertilization on citrus and banana plants
Anjuran pemupukan tanaman jeruk dan pisang

Agricultural Information Leaflet/Agricultural Information Institute (LIPTAN.BIP) Jawa Timur (13); 1988

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 63382

Effect of wasting 'maling' branch and tendrill by the application of GA3 and K fertilizer on the yield of grape (Vitis labrusca L.) cv. Delaware
Pengaruh pembuangan cabang maling dan sulur dengan pemberian GA3 dan pupuk K terhadap produksi anggur varietas Delaware (Vitis labrusca L.)

Tjahjono, B.
Thesis; Surabaya; Faculty of Agriculture; National 'Veteran' University; East Java Branch; 1987; 46p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture; National 'Veteran' University; East Java Branch; Surabaya; Indonesia




NO. 63483

Some alternatives of utilization of fruits waste
Beberapa alternatif pemanfaatan limbah buah-buahan

Genisa, J.
Lontara; Hasanuddin University Magazine 27(35): 27-35(1989)

Availability :
Airlangga University; Surabaya; East Java; Indonesia




NO. 66891

Relationship between plants and human beings in traditional ceremonies in Indonesia
Hubungan antara tumbuhan dan manusia dalam upacara adat di Indonesia

Kartiwa, S.; Martowikrido, W.
Musium Nasional RI; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 Februari 1992; Editors: Nasution, R.E. et al p. 149-155 (1992)

Abstract:
Plants play the important roles in traditional ceremonies of the Indonesian people, especially those related to life-cycle ceremonies. A relationship between people and plants developed that was mutually beneficial. Relationship between people and plants were part of the culture, which started long time ago, perhaps since the era of fossil man. Apart from being consumed, plants had other meaning for people. Some plants were believed of having energies for avoiding evil spirits. Samples of these relationship from various places of Indonesia were shown in this article. It was also mentioned the possible reason for people to choose certain plants for ritual purposes

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69109

Ethnozoological survey on Melayu society and Kubu tribe in Riau and Jambi provinces: Animals and traditional medicines
Survey ethnozoology terhadap masyarakat Melayu dan suku Kubu di Propinsi Riau dan Jambi: Hewan dan obat tradisional

Maryanto, Ibnu; Saim, Ahmad; Danielsen, Fim
Research and Development Institute for Zoology; Bogor; Indonesia

Rain Forest and Resource Management, Proceeding of Norindra Seminar-Jakarta 25-26 May 1993, Indonesian Institute Science (LIPI); 1993; p61-66

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69749

Present status of bacterial diseases of major crops in Indonesia


Machmud, Muhammad
Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops (BORIF); Bogor; Indonesia

Proceedings of the Symposium on Biology and Control of Crop Pathogens; Mien A.Rifai(ed); E.S.Scott(ed); F.C.Quebral(ed); Baharuddin Saleh(ed); Okky Setyawati Dharmaputra(ed); Bogor, Indonesia, 2-4 February 1993; Biotrop Special Publication (54): 51-62(1994)

Abstract:
Prior to the World War II, research on bacterial diseases of crop plants was done by the Dutch scientists. Bacterial disease was first observed in Indonesia in 1869 on tobacco plants grown at Deli (North Sumatra) which showed wilting symptom. Bacterial ooze was observed on the wilted plants. The disease was therefore called the slime disease (slijm ziekte, Dutch). The pathogen was not confirmed, until Erwin F. Smith described the disease on tomato in the USA as brown rot and named the pathogen Bacterium solanacearum. In 1905 bacterial wilt of peanut was discovered by van Breda de Haan in Cirebon area (Machmud, 1986). Since then the disease was proved widely spread in peanut growing areas in Indonesia. In 1912 Gaumann reported a disease that devastated banana plantations in South Sulawesi. He named the disease "blood disease" and the pathogen Pseudomonas celebensis. In 1912 he also observed a similar disease of banana grown in Java which he called "Java vascular disease" and named the pathogen Pseudomonas musae (Machmud, 1986). Since then bacterial wilt was reported on other crops and widely spread in Indonesia. Various researches on bacterial wilt have been done, including developments of resistant cultivars and other control measures. The first discovery of bacterial diseases after the war was on rice. A disease that causes wilting on young rice plants was observed at Bogor in 1948 and named kresek and the pathogen Xanthomonas kresek. Later on the bacterium was convince to be X. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen. Since then, research on bacterial wilt was stagnant until early 1970's.

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 106362

Face and hair treatment using tubers, fruits and vegetables
Merawat wajah dan rambut dengan ramuan umbi, buah-buahan dan sayuran

Utami K.P.
Trubus 27(315): 8-11(1996)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 106364

Natural ingredients which abolish body and mouth odour
Ramuan alamiah penghilang bau badan dan mulut

Sarwono, B.
Trubus 27(315): 15-17(1996)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3278

Financial analysis of Bangkok papaya cultivation and alternative crops on uplands
Analisa finansial usaha tani pepaya bangkok dan tanaman alternatif di lahan kering

Djauhari, A
Centre for Research in Agro-Economy; Agency for Agricultural Research and Development; Jakarta; Indonesia

Forum Penelitian Agro-Ekonomi [Agro-Economics Research Forum] 1 (2): 63-70 (1983)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Libraty and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 7430

Comparison of citrus nursery and rice farming systems in Kemiri Subdistrict,Purworejo Regency
Perbandingan usahatani pembibitan jeruk dengan usahatani padi di Kecamatan Kemiri,Kabupaten Purworejo

Hernowo, Y
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; 1985; 131p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 20056

Notes on current investigations and extension work


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 41: 51-59 (1958)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20061

Notes on current investigations and extension work, April to June 1958


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 41 (3): 174-184 (1958)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20063

Notes on current investigations and extension work - October to December 1956


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 40 (1): 39-46 (1956)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20064

Notes on current investigations and extension work


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 40 (2): 130-138 (1957)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20095

Notes on extension work, March to May 1954


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 37 (3): 186-189 (1954)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 22823

The tidal swamp resources as a food supplier in South Kalimantan


Supardi; Mohd.Nor
Faculty of Agriculture; Lambung Mangkurat University; Kalimantan; Indonesia

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Tropical Ecology: Tropical Ecology and Development, 16-21 April 1979, Kuala Lumpur; Furtado, JI (ed.); p1065-1070

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 107917

Participation of women in farming system at rainfed land
Partisipasi wanita dalam sistem usahatani di lahan tadah hujan

Rina D.,Yanti; Fauziati,Nurul
Banjarbaru Research Institute for Food Crops (BARIF); South Kalimantan; Indonesia

Risalah Seminar Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian [Proceedings of the Seminar on Research Result of Pulses and Tubers Crops] Tahun 1995; p.132-141

Abstract:
Study on women's participation in farming system at rainfed lowland was conducted at three villages of Tapin district, South Kalimantan Province in 1994. Three farming systems tested were (1) Farmer's model: Chicken at the houseyard, Rice-fallow at the ricefield, (2) The first alternative model: chicken-fishfond at the houseyard, Rice-mungbean+maize at the ricefield and Citrus at the raisebed, (3) The second alternative model: chicken at the houseyard, Rice-rice at the ricefield, and citrus at the raisebed. Data were collected through survey and book keeping record. The result showed that all family members actively participated in various farming activities. In daily time allocation, women devoted most of their time on household works, while man on outdoors activities. In farmer's model, women contributed their time to farming as well as other activities, while in the other two models women contributed more on farmer's than that of other activities. Women's role in decision making related to farming is low, although their roles in managing expenditure for foods and houseware are high.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 107918

Effect of secondary crops intercrop on young citrus crop at rainfed lowland
Pengaruh tanaman sela palawija terhadap tanaman jeruk muda di lahan sawah tadah hujan

Raihan,Suaidi; Fauziati,Nurul; Rina,Yanti
Banjarbaru Research Institute for Food Crops (BARIF); South Kalimantan; Indonesia

Risalah Seminar Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian [Proceedings of the Seminar on Research Result of Pulses and Tubers Crops] Tahun 1995; p.142-147

Abstract:
In order to increase the advantage of using space available between citrus crops at rainfed lowland through intercropping, information on suitable secondary crops for such intercropping are needed. The experiment was carried out in Pamangkih, Hulu Sungai Tengah district and Pampain, Tapin district on May until August 1994 and it was designed due to Randomized Completely Block Design consisted of five combinations intercrop between annual secondary food crops and citrus. Each combination with four replications. Combination of intercrop are citrus + no secondary crop, citrus + mungbean, citrus + soybean, citrus + maize, and citrus + peanut. The result of the experiment showed that intercropping of the citrus with peanut, mungbean or soybean had a good effects on citrus crops growth, while intercropping of citrus with maize depress citrus crops growth. The highest income obtained at the cropping systems was Rp.1,132,100, which achieved at the intercropping of citrus crops with mungbean.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 69059

Family medicinal crops
Tanaman obat keluarga (Toga)

Anonymous
Liptan (Lembaran Informasi Pertanian/Agricultural Information Leaflet); Balai Informasi Pertanian Kalimantan Timur No.168/APBN/1993

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 34048

Production process - fruit canning project


Muro, V
Developing Philippine Business Enterprises Publication Series 114: 1-40 (1977)

Availability :
National Library; Filipiniana and Asia Division; Ermita; Manila; Philippines




NO. 40571

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) content of some Papua New Guinean fruits and vegetables


Bagar,MR;Oswal,V;Norumu,W
Department of Chemical Technology;PNG University of Technology; Lae;Papua New Guinea

Lae;PNG University of Technology;1982;14p

Availability :
Matheson Library;PNG University of Technology;Lae;Papua New Guinea




NO. 64389

Effort of plant disease control in tidal-zone
Usaha pengendalian penyakit tanaman di daerah pasang surut

Triharso
Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Pertemuan Ilmiah II Persawahan Pasang Surut di Banjarmasin [The Second Scientific Meeting on the Tidal Zone Lowlands in Banjarmasin]; August 23-25, 1976; 7p

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 67234

Earning of coconut farming intercropped with secondary crops and fruit trees in Makariki village, Maluku
Pendapatan usahatani kelapa dengan tanaman sela palawija dan buah-buahan di Kp. Makariki, Maluku

Mokodongan,N.M.; Polnaja,C.M.; Sophian,Y.; Hutapea,Y.
Peneliti Sosial Ekonomi dan Agronomi, BALITKA; Manado; Indonesia

Buletin BALITKA (17):50-54(1992)

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 106276

Fertilizing with sugar, salt and KCl to sweeten fruits
Memupuk dengan gula, garam dan KCl untuk mempermanis buah

Anwar,N.; Fendy RP.; Tri R.; Peni SP.; Meina D.; Karjono; ANgkasa; Elly L.
Trubus 23(277):4-7(1992)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 106361

Back to nature a getting more impressive habit
Kembali ke alam yang makin diminati

Ria A
Trubus 27 (315): 4-7 (1996)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 11302

Some food crops with medicinal properties
Phuet nai khrua bang chanit thi chai pen ya

Chenphanit, K
Warasan Wetchasatutsahakan [Journal of the Association of Industrial Medicine of Thailand] 10 (1): 19-23 (1976)|TISTR Bibliographical Series No.9; 1986; p27; Abstract No.63

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 11362

A pharmacological study on the Thai medicinal plants used as cathartics and antispasmodics
Kan suksa lae khonkhwa thang phesatwitthaya khong phuet samunphrai thi chai pen ya thai lae ya kae puatthong

Apisariyakul, A; Anantasan, V
Tenth Conference of Science and Technology of Thailand, Chiang Mai University, 25-27 October 1984; p452|TISTR Bibliographical Series No.9; 1986; p6; Abstract No.11

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 65952

Techniques of extracting the essential oil
Tehnik pengambilan minyak atsiri

Indeswari, N
Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; Padang; West Sumatera; Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah [Science Journal]: 24 (1, 2): 19-33 (1984)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 34089

A survey of the antibacterial properties of some local plant products


Sadili, M.V
Centro Escolar University; Manila; Philippines

Graduate and Faculty Studies 5: 158-174 (1954)

Availability :
National Library; Manila; Philippines




NO. 256

Effect of drying on seed viability of some Citrus species
Pengaruh pengeringan terhadap daya kecambah biji beberapa jenis Citrus

Panggabean, G; Hanson, J; Soetjipto, NW
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 3 (7): 330-332 (1987)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 448

Effect of desiccation and storage temperature on seed viability of Citrus amblycarpa
Pengaruh pengeringan dan suhu penyimpanan terhadap daya hidup biji Citrus amblycarpa

Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N
National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 3 (3): 95-100 (1985)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 470

Some aspects of Citrus with special reference to Indonesia


Simbolon, H; Panggabean, G
National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Bulletin Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research Bulletin] 14 (1): 32-40 (1986)

Availability :
Central Research Institute for Food Crops Library




NO. 546

Morphology of and determination key for seedlings of Citrus species
Morfologi dan kunci determinasi semai jenis-jenis Citrus

Fachrurozi, Z
National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 2 (6): 122 (1981)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3251

Sugar concentration in fruits of some citrus species
Kadar gula pada berbagai jenis jeruk

Sutarto, M.A
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (8): 210-212 (1979)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3350

Effect of regrafting of shoot-tip grafted citrus seedlings on different rootstocks in their growth rate
Pengaruh regrafting bibit jeruk hasil shoot-tip grafting pada beberapa batang bawah terhadap kecepatan tumbuhnya

Ratminingsih, R; Nirmala, F.D; Hasni, S
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; West Sumatera; Indonesia

Penelitian Hortikultura [Horticultural Research] 3 (2): 7-11 (1989)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3811

The growth of 9 introduced citrus rootstocks
Pertumbuhan 9 jenis batang bawah jeruk hasil introduksi

Devy, N.F; Supriyanto, A
Tlekung Research Station for Horticulture; Malang; East Java; Indonesia

Hortikultura [Horticulture] (27): 66-73 (1989)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 8412

Seed anatomical structure of some species of Rutaceae
Struktur anatomi biji beberapa jenis anggota suku Rutaceae

Sasono
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; 1991; 55p

Availability :
Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 13243

Vegetables for Thai salad
Tham suan khrua pluk phak wai yam

Kasetboenung
Ban lae Suan [Home and Garden Magazine] 8 (95): 139-141 (1983)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 60715

Lime (Citrus sp.) and its usage
Jeruk nipis dan pemanfaatannya

Sarwono, B
Jakarta; Penerbit PT Penebar Swadaya; 1982; 60p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 64831

Sugar content of various Citrus species
Kadar gula pada berbagai jenis jeruk

Sutarto, M.A
Central Research Institute for Horticulture (CRIH); Pasarminggu; Jakarta; Indonesia

Horticulture (8): 210-212 (1979)

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 64873

Growth of 9 types of introduced Citrus rootstocks
Pertumbuhan 9 jenis batang bawah jeruk hasil introduksi

Devy, Nirmala F; Supriyanto, A
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; Solok; West Sumatera; Indonesia

Horticulture (27): 66-73 (1989)

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 65303

Citrus nursery


Soetanto, R
S1 thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1960; 28p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 13624

Inhibitory action of some Thai herbals


Achrarit, C; Panyayong, W; Ruchataromut, E
Faculty of Pharmacy; Mahidol University; Bangkok; Thailand

Special Project for the degree of BS Pharmacy; Bangkok; Mahidol University; 1984; 13p

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Center; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 63558

Introducing medicinal crops
Mengenal tanaman obat-obatan

Anonymous
Banjar Baru Agricultural Information Service (4): 21-23 (1983/1984)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 64652

Conserving medicinal plants means to develop its cultivation and to improve Indonesian traditional medicine and to increase the non-oil export goods during PELITA IV
Melestarikan tanaman berkhasiat obat berarti mengembangkan pembudidayaannya memajukan obat tradisional Indonesia serta turut meningkatkan ekspor non migas dalam era pembangunan pelita IV

Mondong, R
Proceedings of the Seminar on Medicinal Crops Cultivation; 1985; p356-363

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 92515

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity potential of decoctions and infusions from Philippine medicinal plants


Anonymous
Bulletin of Philippine Biochemistry Society. v.3 (1&2): p 54-65, (1980). MFN 000461

Abstract:
The Philippine National Formulary lists Philippine plants whose decoctions and infusions are used for medicinal purposes. Mutagenicity potential of these decoctions and infusions were studied without metabolic activation and after metabolic activation. Without metabolic activation, decoction from the leaves of (P. major L.) and decoctions from the decoctions from the leaves and barks of (Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merrill) induced frameshift mutagenesis in (Salmonella typhimurium). After metabolism in the experimental mice, these induced both base-pair and frameshift mutagenesis. Decoctions from bark of (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxburgh) Benth.) induced base-pair mutagenesis without activation. Upon metabolic activation in the mice, this tendency was lost. Instead, it induced frameshift mutations. Decoctions from stems of (A. fava (L.) Merrill) induced both base-pair and frameshift mutations without metabolic activation. However, this mutagenic property was lost upon metabolism in the experimental mice.The following are non-mutagenic before and after metabolism: 1. Decoctions from leaves of (Citrus documana L.) (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume), (Moringa oleifera Lamk), (Pandanus odoratissimus L.), (Persea americana Mill.),(Psidium guajava L.), (Sterculia foetida L.) and (Tamarindus indica L.); 2. Decoctions from plants of (Apium graveolens L.) (Mimosa pudica Linn.), (Rosmarinus officinales L.), and (Solanum nigrum L.); 3. Decoctions from bark of (Mangifera indica L.) and (Michelina chamapaca L.); 4. Decoctions from kernel of (Arecha catechu L.), from bran of (Oryza sativa L.) and from hair and cob of (Zea mays L.); 5. Infusions from leaves of (Momordica balsamina Blanco), from bark and leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.), from fruit of (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and from leaves of (Mangifera indica L.); 6. Clastogenicity or chromosome breaking potential was exhibited by decoctions from leaves and bark of (Pittosporum pantaclrum (Blanco) Merr.), decoctions from leaves of (Plantago major L.), decoctions from leaves of (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume) and decoctions from cobs of (Zea mays L.). Infusions from leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.) also showed chromosome breaking effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 4336

Testing the seed viability of some tree species for regreening
Pengujian viabilitas benih berbagai pohon untuk penghijauan

Juanda, I
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1976; 76p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 10754

Fragrance industry
Uttasahakam khruanghom

Phomuang, W
Faculty of Science; Khon Kaen University; Thailand

Witthayasart [Science] 34 (1): 56-60 (1980)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 34830

Agroforestry in the lowlands


Tacio, H.D
PCARRD Monitor 10 (2): 6-9 (1990)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Ba¤os; Laguna




NO. 8144

Experiment on compound determination of various chemical groups in plants as an effort to prepare determination in practical work on phytochemistry
Percobaan penentuan kandungan berbagai golongan zat kimia dalam tanaman sebagai usaha menyusun penentuan praktikum fitokimia

Brachim, R
Thesis; Depok; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; 1981; 90p

Availability :
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; Depok; West Java; Indonesia




NO. 30507

Research status of essential oils extracted from Philippine plants


Unalivia, F.D
Philippine Journal of Science 113 (3-4): 225-229 (1984)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 11615

Sour fruits
Phonlamai prieo phuenban khong di thi mi khunnakha

Ketprasert, O
Botany and Weed Science Division; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

Kasikon [Farmers Journal] 62 (4): 341-346 (1989)

Availability :
Field Crops Research Institute; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 62415

Utilization of drylands
Pemanfaatan lahan kering

Anonymous
Agricultural Information Leaflet/East Java Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Jawa Timur (20); 1987

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 63514

Bright future for citrus farmers
Masa depan yang cerah bagi penanam jeruk

Tirtawidaja, S
Proceedings of the Workshop on CVPD Disease and Rehabilitation of Oranges in Indonesia; Bogor; 1983; p13-21

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 32904

Essential oil technology and its industrial applications


Anzaldo, F.E
NIST [National Institute of Science and Technology] Journal 2 (3): 28-30 (1985)

Availability :
Library; Industrial Technology Development Institute; Department of Science and Technology; Manila; Philippines




NO. 13076

Oranges
Som-kaeo bangkhonthi som rakha di thi cha sunphan

Klaprasoet,T
Kaset Wanni [Agriculture at Present] 8(92):15-19(1989)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 13578

Orange
Som-khieowan

Thai Farmers Bank
Kheha Kan Kaset [House Agricultural Magazine] 2(21):76-78(1987)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 32386

Sugar from suha peelings


Deocadiz,LA(ed)
Philippine Farmers Journal 22(7):30(1980)

Availability :
Library;University of the Philippines at Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 58

Tolerance of citrus seedlings to sodium chloride
Ketoleranan bibit jeruk terhadap garam NaCl

Harahap,R
Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Ilmu Pertanian [Agricultural Science] 3(7):285-289(1984)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 449

Effect of fruit maturity on the vitamin C content in sweet orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and lime (C.aurantifolia (Christm.)Swing.)
Pengaruh umur buah jeruk manis (Citrus aurantium L.) dan jeruk nipis (C.aurantifolia (Christm.)Swing.) terhadap kandungan vitamin C

Panggabean,G;Sunarto,AT
National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 3(3):101-103(1985)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense;Indonesia




NO. 568

The inhibitory effects of seed coats on Citrus seed germination


Panggabean,G;Mumford,PM
National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Annales Bogorienses 7(4):167-176(1982)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense;Indonesia




NO. 1434

A virus disease as the cause of incompatibility of citrus rootstocks in Java


Terra,GJA
Madjalah Ilmu Alam untuk Indonesia [Indonesian Journal for Natural Science] 107:17-24(1951)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense;Indonesia




NO. 3229

Observations on citrus cultivation in some areas of Central Java, June 7-13,1975
Peninjauan ke beberapa daerah pertanaman jeruk di Jawa Tengah 7-6-1975 s/d 13-6-1975

Widjono;Daryono;Pekerti,H;Soeryanto,A;Sumarto
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (1):8-11(1976)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3242

Rehabilitation of citrus plantations in North Sumatra
Pemulihan kembali pertanaman jeruk di Sumatra Utara

Gurning,TM
Hortikultura [Horticulture] (6):127-129(1979)

Availability :
Central Library for Agriculture and Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 3332

Citrus vein-phloem degeneration virus,the agent of Citrus chlorosis disease in Java
Citrus vein-phloem degeneration virus penyebab dari Citrus chlorosis di Djawa

Tirtawidjaja,S
Faculty of Agriculture; Padjadjaran University; Bandung; Indonesia

Majalah Perguruan Tinggi [Higher Education Journal] 3(1):18-21(1968)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense;Indonesia




NO. 3662

CVPD disease (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration) in citrus
Penyakit CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration) pada jeruk

Djafaruddin
Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; Padang; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Padang [Padang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (3):7-11(1983/1984)

Availability :
Central Library for Agriculture and Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 5117

Dry storage of citrus seeds and factors affecting their germination


Panggabean,G
MPhil thesis; Birmingham; Faculty of Science and Engineering; University of Birmingham; 1981; 67p

Availability :
Division of Microbiology;Centre for Research and Development in Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 5431

Leaf stomata index in some species of the genus Citrus
Indeks stomata pada daun beberapa species tumbuh-tumbuhan dari genus Citrus

Azhari;Utami,D
Faculty of Biology; General Soedirman University; Purwokerto; Indonesia

Bulletin Ilmiah Unsoed [Unsoed Research Bulletin] 7(1):1-19(1981)

Availability :
Central Library for Agriculture and Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 6283

Fresh handling of Siem mandarin fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco) to prolong storage period and improve fruit rind colour
Penanganan segar buah jeruk siem (Citrus reticulata Blanco) untuk memperpanjang umur simpan dan memperbaiki warna kulit buah

Efendi,D
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Agronomy; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 67p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 6863

Effect of sunlight on chlorosis symptoms in citrus
Pengaruh tjahaja matahari terhadap gedjala chlorosis pada tanaman djeruk

Kusnadi,H
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1965; 26p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 6922

Inventory of pests of citrus fruits in Citeureup,Ciampea and Semplak Subdistricts,Bogor Regency,West Java
Inventarisasi hama buah jeruk di Kecamatan Citeureup,Ciampea,dan Semplak, Kabupaten Bogor,Jawa Barat

Suparta,IGNO
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1985; 40p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 6923

Observations on Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) disease of citrus in Wanaraja Subdistrict,Garut Regency,West Java Province
Pengamatan penyakit CVPD pada tanaman jeruk (Citrus spp.) di Kecamatan Wanaraja,Kabupaten Garut,Propinsi Jawa Barat

Riyono
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1985; 24p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 6931

Observations on some diseases of citrus in orchards of Margalaskana Co., Mande Subdistrict,Cianjur Regency
Pengamatan beberapa penyakit pada tanaman jeruk di perkebunan jeruk PT Margalaksana,Kecamatan Mande,Kabupaten Cianjur

Sembiring,E
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 52p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7002

The significance of nematode infestation on citrus
Arti serangan nematoda pada pertanaman djeruk

Setyati,MMS
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; University of Indonesia; 1962; 17p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7005

Microscopic observations on the phloem of citrus showing chlorotic symptoms
Observasi mikroskopis tentang phloem tanaman jeruk (Citrus spp.) yang memperlihatkan gejala chlorosis

Hanafi
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; University of Indonesia; 1965; 14p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7226

Problems of fertilizer application in citrus
Masalah pemupukan tanaman djeruk

Naipospos,SP
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; 1962; 81p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 7229

Problems of soils and fertilizer application in citrus
Masalah tanah dan pemupukan Citrus

Utomo,AN
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; 1963; 50p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 7540

Polyembryony in citrus
Polyembryony pada Citrus

Paransih,S
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; University of Indonesia; 1963; 10p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7571

Effect of growth substances and fungicides on root formation in Rangpur lime cuttings
Pengaruh zat tumbuh dan fungisida terhadap perakaran stek Japanse citroen

Isnandar,J
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Agronomy; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1968; 27p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7583

The supply of citrus rootstocks
Penyediaan batang bawah tanaman jeruk

Sastrodiwirjo,S
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Agronomy; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1970; 49p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7600

Effect of potassium fertilizer application on fruit quality of Pacitan and Valencia sweet orange in Pasir Sarongge,Cipanas,Bogor
Pengaruh pemupukan kalium terhadap mutu buah jeruk Pacitan dan valencia di Pasir Sarongge,Cipanas-Bogor

Sutari
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Agronomy; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1974; 61p

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 7992

Detection of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus using the 'elisa' method
Deteksi citrus tristeza virus (CTV) pada tanaman jeruk dengan metoda elisa

Ciawi Agricultural Information Service; Bogor; Indonesia

Balai Informasi Pertanian Ciawi [Ciawi Agricultural Information Service] No.6; 1984; 6p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 7993

Wax coating of citrus fruits
Pelapisan lilin pada buah jeruk

Ciawi Agricultural Information Service; Bogor; Indonesia

Balai Informasi Pertanian Ciawi [Ciawi Agricultural Information Service] No.3; 1985; 6p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8019

Production of citrus budgrafts
Pembuatan bibit okulasi jeruk

Padang Agricultural Information Service; Indonesia

Balai Informasi Pertanian Padang [Padang Agricultural Information Service] No.1; 1982/1983

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8034

Control of CVPD disease on citrus
Pengendalian penyakit CVPD pada jeruk

Ungaran Agricultural Information Service; Indonesia

Balai Informasi Pertanian Ungaran [Ungaran Agricultural Information Service] No.8; 1982/1983

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8039

Control of CVPD disease through the infusion method
Pengendalian penyakit CVPD dengan cara infus

Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 3(2):7-10(1983/1984)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8040

Vegetative plant propagation
Pengembangan tanaman secara vegetatif

Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 3(2):10-13(1983/1984)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8045

What steps should you take to make fruit trees fruit-bearing
Supaya tanaman buah-buahan berbuah,langkah apa yang anda lakukan

Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 4(2):9-10(1984/1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8052

'Kawista batu' - a rare plant needs to be conserved
Kawista batu - buah batok tanaman langka yang perlu dilestarikan

Wahyuni,S
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] (2):1-2(1988/1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8086

Citrus makes a millionaire
Jeruk menjadikan jutawan

West Sumatra Province Institute for Agricultural Information; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Propinsi Sumatera Barat [West Sumatra Province Agricultural Information Bulletin] (1):5-7(1989/1990)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8114

Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD)
Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD)

Anonylous
People's Agriculture Office, East Java Province; Indonesia

Dinas Pertanian Rakyat Propinsi Daerah Tingkat I Jawa Timur [People's Agriculture Office, East Java Province]; 1980

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 8117

Annual Report of Solok Research Institute for Horticulture, 1988/1989
Laporan Tahunan Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Solok 1988/1989

Rais, M
Solok Research Institute for Horticulture; West Sumatera; Indonesia

Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD); 1989; 40 p

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 9636

Eradicating CVPD of oranges
Memerangi CVPD pada jeruk

Buletin Informasi Pertanian [Agricultural Information Bulletin] ......

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9639

Eradication of CVPD disease of citrus in South Sulawesi
Pemberantasan penyakit jeruk CVPD di Sulawesi Selatan

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Ujung Pandang [Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Bulletin] 7(05):2-3(1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9655

Getting to know CVPD disease of citrus and its control
Mengenal penyakit CVPD pada tanaman jeruk dan pengendaliannya

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Ujung Pandang [Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Bulletin] 7(04):18-20(1984)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9657

Papilio larvae threaten your citrus crop
Ulat Papilio mengancam jeruk anda

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Ambon [Ambon Agricultural Information Bulletin] (1):14(1989/1990)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9691

A guide to control CVPD disease of citrus through the infusion system
Petunjuk mengatasi penyakit CVPD tanaman jeruk dengan sistem infus

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lembang [Lembang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (3):12(1982/1983)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9722

Miniature citrus trees
Tanaman mini pohon jeruk

Syamsi,ET
WKBPP Wanaraja; Garut; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lembang [Lembang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (4):9-10(1981/1982)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9767

Post-harvest handling of fruits
Pasca panen dan pengolahan hasil buah-buahan

East Nusa Tenggara Institute for Agricultural Information; 1989/1990; 32p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9773

Growing fruit trees
Bertanam buah-buahan

West Nusa Tenggara Institute for Agricultural Information; 1985; 60p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9783

Minigrafting in citrus
Mini grafting pada tanaman jeruk

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agricultural Information Bulletin] 5(4):18-19(1985/1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 10223

Citrus varietal development
Naewtang naikarn prapprung phansom samrap Prathetthai

Pakdikulsampan,R
Warasan Phuetsuan [Horticultural Journal] 11(2):27-30(1975)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre;Bangkok;Thailand




NO. 32521

Sugar from suha peelings


Philippine Abstracts 22(3):29(1981)

Availability :
Library;University of the Philippines at Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 20679

Allocation of resources in pomelo farms


Lee,OH;Chew,TA
University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

Malaysian Agriculture Research 3(2):119-126(1974)

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 40159

The propagation of citrus in the Kerevat-Rabaul area


Harris,RJ
Lowlands Agricultural Experiment Station; Kerevat; Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal 8(3):7-17(1954)

Availability :
Library;PNG University of Technology;Lae;Papua New Guinea




NO. 60455

Propagation of citrus (Citrus spp.) through marcotting and grafting
Perbanyakan tanaman jeruk (Citrus spp.) dengan cangkok dan okulasi

Windiarto
Thesis; Magelang; Faculty of Agriculture; Tidar University; 1988; 18p

Availability :
Tidar University;Magelang;Indonesia




NO. 60497

Bud grafting in citrus (Citrus spp.)
Okulasi tanaman jeruk (Citrus spp.)

Handoyo,RI
Thesis; Magelang; Faculty of Agriculture; Tidar University; 1989; 35p

Availability :
Tidar University;Magelang;Indonesia




NO. 60546

Bud grafting of mandarin by using the improved Fokkert system
Okulasi pada tanaman jeruk keprok dengan sistem Fokkert yang diperbaiki

Saptono,G
Thesis; Magelang; Faculty of Agriculture; Tidar University; 1985; 22p

Availability :
Tidar University;Magelang;Indonesia




NO. 60625

Post-harvest handling and processing of fruit yields
Pasca panen dan pengolahan hasil buah-buahan

Anonymous
Balai Informasi Pertanian,Nusa Tenggara Timur [East Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service]; 1989/1990; 32p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 60649

The sour lime and its usages
Jeruk nipis dan pemanfaatannya

Sarwono,B
Jakarta,Penerbit Swadaya; 1987; 88p

Availability :
National Library of Indonesia,Jakarta




NO. 61218

Budding of oranges
Okulasi jeruk

Agricultural Information Bulletin; Timor Timur (7):(1986-1987)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61255

CPVD diseases
Penyakit CPVD

Agricultural Information Bulletin; Kalimantan Selatan (6): (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61265

Embanking and pruning of citrus
Pembumbunan dan pemangkasan tanaman jeruk

Agricultural Information Bulletin; Kalimantan Selatan (3): (1987)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61286

Agribusiness of citrus
Usaha tani jeruk manis

Agricultural Information Bulletin; D.I. Aceh (1): (1987-1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61301

Overcoming the CVPD of citrus
Penanggulangan CPVD pada tanaman jeruk

Agricultural Information Bulletin; Jambi (9): (1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61941

In search of appropriate methods of identifying Rutaceae from the herbs
Mencari cara-cara identifikasi yang tepat untuk Rutae herba

Iswanto,S.
S1 Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Pharmacy; Gadjah Mada University; 1975; 140p

Availability :
Faculty of Pharmacy; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 62406

Diseases in citrus and its control
Penyakit jeruk dan penanggulangannya

Sihombing,S.R.
Agricultural Information Leaflet/Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Irian Jaya [Irian Jaya Agricultural Information Service] (38); 1988

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62430

Cultivation of citrus
Pemeliharaan jeruk

Agricultural Information Leaflet/South-East Sulawesi Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Sulawesi Tenggara (6); 1987

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62436

Prevention and control of CVPD diseases
Pencegahan dan pengendalian CVPD

Agricultural Information Leaflet/Riau Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Riau (4); 1986

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62443

Mini grafting
Mini grafting

Agricultural Information Leaflet/Riau Agricultural Information Service (LIPTAN.BIP) Riau (6/L); 1989-1990

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 62681

In vitro method for citrus viral disease control
Pengendalian penyakit virus pada tanaman jeruk dengan metoda in vitro

Lubis, A.H.I.
Faculty of Agriculture; North Sumatera Islamic University; Medan; Indonesia

Buletin Pertanian [Agricultural Bulletin] 7 (3): 19-22 (1988)

Availability :
Centre for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 63353

Relationship of fruit solidity level and nutrient contents in citrus cina licin (Citrus nobilis Lour.) leaves
Hubungan derajat gambos buah dengan kandungan unsur hara pada daun jeruk cina licin Citrus nobilis Lour.

Jagau, Y.
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 40p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 63515

Increase of citrus production in Indonesia
Peningkatan produksi jeruk di Indonesia

Ramelan
Proceedings of the workshop on CVPD disease and Rehabilitation of oranges in Indonesia; Bogor; 1983; p.3-12

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 64167

Sweet from oranges
Yang manis dari jeruk manis

Anonymous
Selera [Appetite] 10 (2); 34-36,46 (1991)

Availability :
Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development Library




NO. 64257

Post harvest and products processing of fruits
Pasca panen dan pengolahan hasil buah-buahan

Balai Informasi Pertanian NTT [East Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service] 1989/1990; 32 p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 65292

Effect of fisher relationship between rootstocks and scion on growth of citrus (Citrus sp.) grafting
Pengaruh timbal balik antara batang bawah dan batang atas pada pertumbuhan okulasi jeruk (Citrus sp.)

Sembiring, R.
Thesis S1; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1964; 34 p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 65422

Guidance of citrus gardening
Penuntun berkebun jeruk

Joesoef,M.
Bharatara; Jakarta; 1989; 78 p

Availability :
Gramedia; Jl.Matraman Raya; Jakarta; Indonesia




NO. 66055

Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CPVD)
Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CPVD)

West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service 15: ?p (1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66064

Maintening citrus trees
Memelihara tanaman jeruk

Central Sulawesi Agricultural Information Service (?no): ?p (1988-1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66075

Fruit thinning on citrus
Penjarangan buah pada pohon jeruk

North Sulawesi Agricultural Information Service 61: ?p (1988-1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66089

Controlling CVPD disease in citrus
Pengendalian penyakit CVPD jeruk

Bengkulu Agricultural Information Service 12: ?p (1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66110

Postharvest handling of fruit crops
Pasca panen buah-buahan

Ambon Agricultural Information Service 49: ?p (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66126

Planting of citrus
Bercocok tanam jeruk

Ambon Agricultural Information Service 18: ?p (1987)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66159

Control of CVPD through a pressured infuse
Pengendalian CVPD dengan infus tekan

Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Service 7 (7): ?p (1984-1985)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66175

Control of CVPD disease through an infuse method
Pengendalian penyakit CVPD dengan jalan infusan

South Sumatera Agricultural Information Service 03: ?p (1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 92083

Citrus cultivars for the highlands


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development-DOST

Highlights 1995; p.48

Abstract:
Note: Citrus production is very limited in the highlands of Benguet and Mt. Province. Varieties perform differently according to elevation and other factors.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Ba¤os; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 103956

Storaging of sweet orange (Citrus aurantium) in modified atmosphere storage system
Penyimpanan jeruk manis (Citrus aurantium) dalam sistem penyimpanan atmosfir termodifikasi

Yusuf,B.P.
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1992; 142p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 12586

Effects of Thai plant extracts on the oriental fruit fly II. Repellency


Areekul,S;Sinchaisri,P;Tigvatananon,S
Department of Entomology; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; Thailand

Kasetsart Journal (Natural Sciences) 22(1):56-61(1988)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre;Bangkok;Thailand




NO. 11955

Fragrance plants
Mai dok hom

Rangcharoen,S
Ban lae Suan [Home and Garden Magazine] 8(85):138-143(1983)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 2931

Tissue culture of economically important tree species in the Philippines


Holos,SC
Natural Sciences Research Institute; University of the Philippines

BIOTROP Special Publication (35):55-58(1988)

Availability :
SEAMEO-BIOTROP Library




NO. 21125

The role of natural enemies in the control of Citrus fruit borer, Citripestis sagittiferella Moore on lemon


Abd.Shukor, AR
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc thesis of Serdang, Selangor, Agricultural University of Malaysia, 1978; 35p

Abstract:
Field studies were conducted at Universiti Pertanian Mataysia Lemon orchard consisting of 80 five year old trees intercropped with jack fruit (Anthocarpus heterophyllus). Spraying of these trees with Malathion 50 percent at a rate of e.1%, e.i. every fortnight has not resulted in effective control of the damage caused by citrus fruit borer, Citripestis sagittiferalla. Fruit damage in check plot was 10% tower than in sprayed plot. There was an increase in the population of parasites collected from parasite boxes in check plot as compared to the sprayed plot. Control by natural enemies has resulted in Lowering the percentage fruit damage from 19 percent to 9 percent. Eggs ovipositied on fruit surface in the field failed to hatch because of either egg splitting and/or natural mortality. Laboratory rearing of field collected larvae of C. sagittiferella showed that Rhoptromeris sp. (Hymenoptera; Eucolodae) can be considered the only potential parasite. Besides, black ant (Hymenoptera; formicidae) can be considered an important potential predator of the larva of C. sagittiferella. They were observed to prefer the fourth and fifth larva irrespective of whether the larva is dead or ative.

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute




NO. 93378

Cold-hardening young 'Valencia' orange trees on 'swingle ' citrumelo (CPB-4475) and other rootstocks


Yelenosky, G
Proceedings; Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting; Florida State Horticultural Society; Miami Beach, Florida; 2-4 November 1976; p 9-10

Abstract:
Young 'Valencia' orange tress (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf.XPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) were cold-hardened and freeze tested in controlled-environment rooms. 'Valencia' on 'Swingle' rootstocks cold-hardened more than on rough lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.) and compared favourably with 'Valencia on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock. Cold-hardened leaves were not injured at 3.89 °C (25oF) for 3hr, and stems withstood 6.11 °C (21oF) for 3hr. Other rootstocks included 'Large Flower' trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.), and 'Carrizo and Rusk citranges (C. sinensisXP. trifoliata).

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Email: kfy@mudspring.uplb.edu.ph




NO. 37106

Supply and price relationships for selected fruits and vegetables in the Philippines


Pabuayon, I; Aragon, CT; Rosario, G; Manalo, I
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)

Abstract:
Production, hectarage and yield of selected fruits (mango, papaya, citrus) and vegetables (tomato, eggplant, mungbean) were examined in terms of regional concentration and shifts, trends and changes. For vegetables, 62-74% of the national output came from the three leading regions, namely: Ilocos, Northern Mindanao and Central Luzon for tomato; Southern Tagalog, Ilocos and Central Luzon for eggplant; and Ilocos, Western Visayas, and Central Luzon for mungbean. The three top regions for fruits produced 54-68% of the total output. These were Southern Tagalog, Western Visayas and Central Visayas for papaya; Western Visayas, Central Luzon and Ilocos for mango; and Southern Mindanao, Southern Tagalog and Bicol for citrus. The country's production of fruits and vegetables generally showed upward trends with annual growth rate of 3.08% for papaya, improvement in productivity, the national yields still lower than the potential. Trends in production, area and yield varied greatly among regions with some exhibiting declines in production and yield and others expanding hectarage. Regional shifts in production also occurred. Northern Mindanao and Ilocos which ranked ninth and sixth place, respectively, in tomato production during the 1960s emerged as the top producers in the 1980s. Ilocos and Southern Tagalog rose from the fifth to the first place in mungbean and eggplant production, respectively, while Cagayan Valley slipped from the fourth to the twelfth position in the papaya production. Western Visayas, share of the mango output, rose from 5% in the 1960s to 17% in the 1970s and then to 25% in the 1980s. Southern Tagalog, although maintaining its superiority in calamansi production was overtaken by Southern Mindanao in the production of other citrus varieties. Year to year variability in output caused corresponding variations in the farm, wholesale, and retail prices. Generally, all prices (nominal) showed upward trends. Seasonal price variations were evident reflecting the seasonal availability of the crops. Similarly, peapaks and throughs in vegetable prices were observed reflecting a cyclical pattern. Yields of tomato improved with the availability of technology and declined with a rise in labour cost and excessive rainfall. Eggplant yields, however, decreased when fertilizer rate and wage rate increased and when there is heavy rainfall. Mungbean yield was likewise adversely affected by the rising fertilizer price.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 92342

Studies on the control of snail vector diseases activity of some indigenous plants


Agaceta, LM; Dumag, PU; Batolos, JA; Bandiola, FC
NSDB Technology Journal 6 (2): 30-34 (1981); HERDIN Database; PC912209; MFN 007470

Abstract:
Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa, the snail intermediate host of liverfluke disease in the Philippines play a vital role in the preparation and transmission of the disease among susceptible animals. Theoretically, control of these snails with molluscicides is the fastest and most effective means of eradicating the disease in a given area. In view hereof, indigenous plants with molluscicidal potential were studied to determine the active component and the mode of activity of said plants. A total of one-hundred fifty (150) indigenous plants were screened for their potential molluscicidal activity. Only seven (7) were found to possess strong molluscicidal potential. They are in order of their molluscicidal activity, Creton tiglium Linn. Entada phaseoloides Merr., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Coryea balsamifora Linn., Citrus mitis Blanco, Jatropha curcas Linn. and Manispermum coculus Linn. Further laboratory tests showed that the molluscicidal activity of these plants progressingly increased as concentration (100 ppm., 125 ppm., 167 ppm., 250 ppm. and 500 ppm.) and time of exposure (12, 24 and 48 hours) increased. The eggs of the snails exposed to the seven plants failed to develop into young snails. Results obtained also showed higher snail mortality in the dark than in the lighted trials. All the seven test materials however were also found to be toxic to fish. Chemical analysis of these plants were found to contain active components effective against the Lymnaeid snails. Five (5) trials were conducted on three (3) plants with promising molluscicidal activity. There were: Creton tiglium Linn., Entada phaseoloides Merr. and Nicetiana tobacum Linn. respectively. Snail mortality rate was high with experimental lots given 40-50 gms. per sq. m., moderate with 20-30 gms. and fair with experimental lots given 10 gms. per sq. m. of the test material. Snail mortality was observed later, after 12 hours in experimental lots given 10 gms. per sq. m. The same pattern of the molluscicidal activity of the test materials in the laboratory trials was obtained in the test trials.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94005

Comparative study of Curcuma longa and Citrus aurantium antiseptic


Marbibi, A
Inventory of Health Researches 1997-1998; p 89

Abstract:
The antiseptic efficacy of the Curcuma longa rhizome extract and Citrus aurantium peel extract was compared in relation to the standard reference, Betadine (93.3%). Citrus obtained the nearest efficacy rating (90%) while Curcuma rhizome obtained 86.6% over-all efficacy. The most dominant species isolated in the skin surface of the albino rats was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Both extract exhibited anti-microbial property against Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that the two extracts also enhances the wound healing process which is similar to the effect of Povidone-Iodine.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37328

Acceptability of candied "kalamansi" peels


Nunez, LC
Central Luzon State University;Munos;Nueva Ecija;Philippines

BSc thesis;Central Luzon State University;1970;20p

Abstract:
This study was conducted to find out the acceptability of candied "kalamansi" peels prepare with varied proportions of washd sugar and/or karo syrup;and to compare the eye appeal, palatability and texture of the products. All treatments were acceptable for the proportion of candied "kalamansi" peels. Hewever, treatments A and palatability and texture.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University




NO. 37330

Suitability of chemical additives in the bringing solution in the preparation of pomelo glaced fruit peels preparation of pomelo glaced fruit peels


Gumangaw, GD
Central Luzon State University;Munos;Nueva Ecija;Philippines

BSc thesis;Central Luzon State University;1967;25p

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the effect of chemical additives in the bringing solution, on the color, palatability and texture of pomelo peels for glacing purposes. Results showed that glucose and calcium chloride as chemical additives incorporated in the bringing solution, exhibited most of the characteristics of a high quality product compared to those treated with calcium phosphate and calcium oxide.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University




NO. 37660

The effect of hot water treatment on the germination and initial growth of pomelo and calamansi seedlings


Garas, IC
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University;La Trinidad;Benguet;Philippines

BSc thesis;Mountain State Agricultural College;La Trinidad;Benguet;1979

Abstract:
A study on the effect of hot water treatment on the germination and initial growth of pummelo and calamansi seedlings was conducted at the Mountain State Agricultural College, Pomology Experimental project from September to November 1979. The results were analyzed based on the number of days from sowing to germination, percentage of albinism, number of leaves developed, percentage of germin ation, mortality of seedlings and final height of seedlings. Calamansi seeds were observed to have shorter period of germination that pomelo. Subjecting the seeds to heat treatment at 60 C to 75 C temperatures resulted to a shortened period of germination. Subjecting seeds to temperature higher than 75 C causes injuries to pomelo and calamansi seeds, thus delaying germination and also reduced percentage of germination. The occurrence of albinism on seedling was found to be prevalent on calamansi than pomelo. Seeds that were not subjected to heat treatment (control) gave the highest count of albinism on seedling.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 37721

Alternate cropping of beverage crops with Benguet pine as dominant vegetative cover of abandoned kaingin in the Ambuklao-Binga watershed in Benguet


Gabaldon, LB; Gabaldon, RD
Benguet State University;La Trinidad;Benguet;Philippines

BSc thesis;Mountain State Agricultural College;La Trinidad;Benguet;1983

Abstract:
The interplanting of Benguet pine with selected beverage crop such as coffee, tea and mandarin was conducted to determine their respective growth and survival performance under such planting scheme and their effects on soil nutrient content. Results of the study failed to show significant variations in the survival of Benguet pine seedlings when interplanted either with coffee, tea and mandarin in pine stand on the contrary, survival rates for tea (69.28%) and mandarin (64.46%) were significantly higher than coffee (11%) seedlings. Relative to higher, interplanted Benguet pine seedlings with coffee and tea exhibited higher incurrent growth (98.21 and 82.20 cm, respectively) than those planted with mandarin and the control seedlings. Variation in the height incurrent among the beverage crops were insignificant. Likewise, it was observed that changes in soil nutrient and variation in soil loss were insignificant. Nonetheless, soil loss was highest in control plots (3.32 cm) while the lowest was obtained from Benguet pine and mandarin (1.71 cm).

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 38049

Initial growth performance of citrus using various scions and rootstocks under two soil moisture regimes


Tipayno, AC
PhD thesis;Benguet State University;La Trinidad;Benguet;1989;192pp

Abstract:
The two field conditions, unirrigated and irrigated markedly affected seedling growth during the dry season. Low moisture condition (unirrigated), effected higher mortality rate, influenced development of longer roots, thicker leaves and severe leaf yellowing during the dry season. On the other- hand, irrigated condition promoted more shoots, larger trunks, rapid increase of plant height and wider leaf area. The scion cultivars did not significant- ly differ in mortality, shoot development, height of trees, root and inter- node, length and severity of leaf yellowing. Marked difference, however, was noted on their influence on trunk diameter, leaf thickness and leaf area during the dry season, with Aoshima scion having larger trunk and Potsu scion having thicker leaves and wider leaf area. The rootstocks significantly influences plant mortality, height of trees, root length, trunk diameter, length of internode, leaf thickness, leaf area and severity of leaf yellowing during the dry season. Except leaf thickness and severity of leaf yellowing, the mentioned parameters were more influence by troyer citrange than the other rootstock used.

Availability :
Graduate School Library, Benguet State University




NO. 24834

Studies on the production of flavonoids (quercetin and resperitin) from callus culture of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle


Siti Mahyuni, MA; Radzali, M; Marziah, M; Mohd Aspollah, S; Johari, R
Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biochemistry Laboratory;Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology;Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia;43400 UPM Serdang;Selangor

FRIM Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series;Medicinal Plants, Quality Herbal Products For Healthy Living;22-23 June 1999

Abstract:
Callus cultures of Citrus aurantifolia (limau nipis) derived from the peels of mature fruits had been successfully estab lished in a basal medium of Murashige and Skoog plus 1.5 mg/L (w/v) (x-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 0.5 mg/L (w/v) 6-furfur yl amino purine (kinetin), 3.0 g/L sucrose and solidified with 3.0 g/L (w/v) phytagel. Callus cultures incubated in the fight and dark conditions showed a similar sigmoidal pattern with the maximum growth at 6th week of incubation reaching 263 and 314% respectively. The major citrus flavonoid compounds in callus culture, quercetin and hesperitin, were commonly determined by using a HPLC technique with UV detector. It was found that callus incubated in the light could produce approximately 19.73 ug/g dry wt with respect to 1.90 pg/g dry wt in the dark. The hesperitin content in callus incubated in the light and dark conditions was only 0.64 and 0.58 ug/g dry wt respectively. Supplementation of relatively low concentrations of yeast ex tract (YE), i.e., 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L (w/v), to the culture medium did not affect the production of quercetin and hesperi tin. High concentrations of YE supplement, for example 4.0 g/L, caused browning and decreased the growth and cell viability of callus cultures in both light and dark conditions. In conclu sion, hesperitin or an aglycone of hesperitin is one of the interesting natural flavonoids from Rutaceous plants because of their anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral properties.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 39312

Distribution of citrus leaf mottling and its vector in the Philippines


Cortez, RE; Celino, CS
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology;Institute of Biological Sciences;U.P. Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 6(1&2)1(1970)

Abstract:
Leaf mottling is a citrus disease which was described by several investigators as the principal factor responsible for the decline of citrus in Batangas. Studies on its etiology proved that the disease is of virus nature , with the causal agent determined to be distinct from tristeza virus. The disease was likewise found to be vectored by the citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuway. An extensive indexing of citrus trees grown in various parts of the country was pursued by the BPI Lipa Experiment Station to determine the distribution of the disease.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library;




NO. 39313

Some biological studies of nematodes associated with the citrus decline in the Philippines


Davide, RG
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology;Institute of Biological Sciences;U.P. Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 9(1&2): 2(1973)

Abstract:
Through a series of inoculation experiments, it has been established that the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cob, is capable of causing serious damage on roots of citrus varieties such as laud, szinkom, calamansi and pomelo. As a result of severe nematode infection, top growth of the plants was significantly reduced by more than 50 per cent. There was evidence that the degree of damage on the plants was dependent upon the population density of the nematodes. An inoculum level of approximately 50,000 nematodes per plant was more destructive in shorter period of time than that of 10,00 level. The different isolates of T. semipenetrans showed varying effect on laud and calamansi seedlings. This indicated a possible existence of biotypes of the nematodes in this country. Results of the interaction experiments revealed that the rate of reproduction of T. semipenetrans was greatly increased in the presence of other citrus pathogens such as Corticum, salmonicolor, Fusarium sp., Phytophtora sp., and the greening pathogen, a mycoplasma-like organism. On the other hand, results of the inoculation experiments with the other genera of nematodes such as Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Criconemoides and Diphtherophora did not show any sign of reproduction nor damage on roots if the inoculated Szinkom seedlings.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library;




NO. 39315

The interrelated effects of some meteorological factors on the onset and development of citrus scab at Catarman, North Samar


Fuentes, FD
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology;Institute of Biological Sciences;U.P. Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytophatology 6 (1&2)4(1970)

Abstract:
This study was conducted to 1) determine the interrelated effects of temperature, dew, point, relative humidity, wind velocity, rainfall, and sunshine on the onset and development of citrus scab, and 2) establish a prediction equation that will serve as a basis for timing spray applications in the control of its disease. A grove consisting of bearing mandarin trees was divided into 3 lots. Each lot represented a replication. Weekly observation was made on trees randomly tagged in each lot. Using a disease rating scheme with categories ranging from 1 to 6, weekly observations on the onset and development of the disease were started in July 1969 and terminated in January 1970. The weekly ratings were transformed into percentages for statistical analysis. Daily observations on the meteorological factors for the same period were recorded and transformed into weekly average. Simple correlation revealed that the temperature was associated with dew point and significantly correlated with bright sunshine; dew point was associated with relative humidity and rainfall and significantly correlated with bright sunshine; relative humidity was significantly correlated with rainfall; wind velocity was associated with rainfall; and rainfall was associated with bright sunshine. The onset of the disease was associated with dew points, wind velocity and rainfall. It was significantly correlated with relative humidity and rainfall at 1% and 5% level. By multiple correlation and regression, the variance in the onset of the disease R2 was 0. 576. this indicated that these meteorological factors could account for about 57.6 % of the disease onset. The multiple correlation coefficient was found to be statistically significant, indicating that the set of variables used was adequate in estimating the rate of the disease onset. About 50.45% of the disease development could be explained by the interrelated effects of the different meteorological factors. Quantitatively, dew point contributed the most of the onset while rainfall contributed the most to the disease development. These 2 meteorological factors should be critically considered in planning an effective spray program to control this disease by the use of effective chemicals.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library;




NO. 25098

Cryoexposure behavior in several citrus species


Normah, Mn; Laili Nordaini, O.
Department of Botany; Faculty of Life Sciences; National University of Malaysia; 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Proc. Of the 1st National Congress on Genetics; 7-8 Nov. 1994; Kuala Lumpur; p 209-211

Abstract:
The effects of desiccation and cryoexposure on embryonic axes of three Citrus species namely C. aurantifolia, C. reticulata and C. mitis were studied. Embryonic axes were desiccated to different moisture levels and consequently cryoexposed for 16 hours in liquid nitrogen. In all the species studied, desiccated axes at a moisture content of 3- 16% gave 47- 100% survival after cryoexposure in liquid nitrogen. C. aurantifolia embryonic axes gave the highest percentage survival (93.33-100%) after cryoexposure to liquid nitrogen at a moisture content of 3-15 %. The other two Citrus species gave much lower percentage survival especially with decreasing moisture content.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 93481

Ventilation of truckloads of carton-packed citrus fumigated with ethylene dibromide


Grierson, W; Miller, WM; Center, WF; Ismail, MA
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticutural Society;Miami Beach,Florida; 2-4 November,1976;pp.172-174

Abstract:
In general, truck fumigation of Florida citrus fruit necessitated by the Caribbean fruit fly infestation has been very successful. However, occasional peel damage has been reported. These and other studies indicates that some of this damage is attributable to postfumigation retention of ethylene dibromide (EDB), particularly in the lower front part of the load. In preliminary trials to improve ventilation of this parth of the load, CO2 was used insted of EDB.Results were later confirmed using EDB. Anair deflector attachment was devised that reduced EDB retention by improving air circulation within the load. Removal of EDB was facilitated by having the front vent doors of the truck open during fumigation. Fumigation in truck bodies without front and rear vent doors often results in fruit injury and is not recommended.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 39783

Biology, ecology, periodic occurrence and chemical control of some important mites attacking citrus


Gavarra, MR; Daug, EG
SMARRDEC Abstracts of Researches pp. 6-8.

Abstract:
Seven species of mites were identified as follows: common citrus flat mites, Brevipalpus obovatus red and black fat mite, B. phoenicis, citrus green mite, Schiizotetranychus baltazarae; citrus red mite, Panonychus citri; citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora, citrus broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Soctobelba sp. The last three are new records from the Philippine Citrus mites undergo egg. larva protonymph, deutonymph and adults stages. The duration spent for each stage varied depending on the species and sex involved. In general, males required shorter period to develop compared to females. Egg-laying to adult emergence of female rust mite, red and black flat mite, citrus red mite common citrus flat mite and citrus green mite lasted 9.27 + 0.77, 12 + 0.55, 14.00 + 2.16; 18.96 + 0.37 and 26.65 + 0.52 days, respectively. Mated females of the citrus red mite and citrus rust mites produced three and five fold increase in eggs being laid compared to virgin females. The latter give birth to male progenies only while the former produces eggs that ultimately develop into male and female offsprings. Percentage egg hatchability ranges from as short as 18 to as long as 31 days and during their reproductve period could lay as much as 105 eggs for citrus red mite and 163 eggs for citrus rust mite. Certain aspects on the ecology of citrus mites were studied. It was found for example that Brevipalpus sp. and S. baltazarae prefer more of the matured leaves than the immatured ones. Very young leaves were least preferred. S. baltazarae and P. citri appeared well distributed on the ventral and dorsal leaf surface. On the contrary Brevipalous sp. and P. oleivora prefer the neither rather than the upper exposed portion of the leaves. A greater percentage of citrus mites prefer the middle and lower parts of a tree canopy than those of the uipper portion of it. Citing observations made with Brevipalpus spp. and S. baltazarae, samples on pummelo leaves, mites tend to fluctuate at various period of the season. Apparently, this fluctuation could be strongly influenced by rainfall and to certain extent temperature and percent relative humidity. Some varieties of pummelo like de la Cruz (white) and Amoyco were more preferred by mites than other varieties like de la Cruz (pink) and Magallanes. Different species and different stages of the same species of mites differ in their respond to different insecticide tested. In general, eggs and deutonymphal stages were more tolerant to insecticidal treatment compared to protonymph and adults.

Availability :
Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium




NO. 39784

Monitoring, identification and control of rind borer on pummelos


Gavarra, MR; Costales, DP
SMARRDEC Abstracts of Researches pp. 9-10;1989-1993

Abstract:
The citrus rind borer (CRB) was identified as Prays endelomma Diakonoff and should henceforth be referred as such instead of Prays citri as described in earlier literature. The CRB infest both flowers and fruits of pummelo and probably other species of citrus. This pest could cause nearly 20.0 percent premature drop of flower and furthermore contribute to varying degree of damage to developing and matured fruits. The mean duration spent for egg, larva and pupal stage lasts 4.50 + 0.47, 13.55 + 1.62 and 4.80 - 0.58 days, respectively. Thus, egg laying to adult emergence takes 22.13 + 2.68 days. The larvae undergo five instars. As to the pest ecology, close to 50.0 percent of last instar larvae existed from the rind surface of pummelo fruits between 6:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. as early as 2 hours after emergence from exit holes, last instar larvae starts constructing protective web. A high percentage estimated at 87,32 percent of the adults emerges from their pupal cocoon between 6:00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. Female adults prefer to oviposit their eggs on the ovary of pummelo fruits. Pupation preferably takes place on leaves although they may occassionaly do so on twigs and interestingly inside flowers about to open. Adults being described as noctural starts getting active later afternoon past 5:00 p.m. During daytime, majority of adults rests on live parts of the side portion of tertiary branches usually one (1) meter above ground surface of inclined or bending branches not exceeding 40 degree. Pummelo fruits as early as one (1) week after fruit set becomes vulnerable to CRB egg-laying and infestation. Early developing fruits up to about 8 weeks from fruit-set were more susceptible to severe damage attributable to CRB damage than during maturing or matured pummelo fruits. Citrus rind borer was found year round on pummelo orchards on account of constant availability of its hosts from both flowers appear rather than seasonal during certain parts of the year. Differential susceptiblity existed among varieties of pummelo and King Mandarin, Notably, Panacan DES # 1 de la Cruz pummelos, Valencia F-25-11 and Palerno sweet orange were observe less susceptible to CRB infestation compared to Siamese and Mintal pummelos, pineapple and Hamlin oranges. Seven (7) insecticides namely: azinphos-ethyl, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, azinphos-ethyl BPMC, malathion, lambdacythlothrin and triazophos were found highly primising in the control of CRB. A newly recorded pupal parasite identifed as Brachymeria sp. was reared from field collected specimen.

Availability :
Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium




NO. 39785

Survey of predatory spiders in citrus orchards of Laguna, Batangas and Ma- a, Davao Cty, Philippines


Barrion, AA; Taylo, LD
The Philippine Agriculturist 72(1)73-78;1989

Abstract:
Three-year survey and investigation of spiders in citrus orchards in Batangas and Laguna provinces and Ma-a, Davao City revealed the occurrence of 71 species under 45 genera and 16 families. More diverse spiders inhabit the Batangas orchards compared with those in Laguna or Davao City. The dominant spider species in Batangas are Neocona spp., Ero furcata (Villers), Oxyopes javanus Thorell, Methaphidippus galathea (Walchenaer) and Leucauge decorata (Blackwall). From Laguna, the major spider predators encountered are M. galathea, Scytodes thoracica Latreille, O. javanus, Habrocestum pulex Hentz and Neoscona spp. In Davao City, the lynx spider, O. javanus, was the dominant spider species encountered. The aforementioned spider species are the potential predators which should be conserved and can be augmented in thier respective orchard habitat to regulate the insect pest population.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 39786

Augmentative releases of the parasitoid, Aphytis lingnanensis Compere (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), against California red scale and snow scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in citrus


Rejesus, BM; Javier, PA; Bilog, GP
Crop Science Society of the Philippines;c/o Institute of Plant Breeding; U.P. Los Banos;College;Laguna

The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 17(2): 57-65;1992

Abstract:
Twenty of 32 citrus orchards surveyed prior to the field releases were heavily infested with scale insects parasitized by Aphytis lingnanensis, A. holoxanthus, A. philippinensis and A. chrysomphali. A. lingnanensi, the most effective parasitoid of California resd scale, snow scale and coconut scale (Aspidiotus destructor) was succesfully mass reared in the laboratory using coconut scale reared on squash as the unnatural host. The life cycle of A. lingnanensis on coconut scale was critically studied for better release synchrony. The total development period of the parasitoid is 13-15 days. Longevity ranged from 7 to 30 days and sex ratio is 65:35 (female:male). Augmentative releases of azinphosethyl-resistant population of A. lingnanensis effectively controlled the snow scale and California red scales in three locations namely: Masapang, Victoria, Laguna; Adduas Pagas, Nueva Ecija; and Villaverde, Nueva Vizcaya. Reduction of the scale insects was achieved within a period of about four to six months only.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 90035

Taxonomic notes on a hyperparasite found associated with citrus black mildew


Concibido, EC; De Guzman, RO
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Department of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines;Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 23(1&2): 35;1987

Abstract:
A hyperparasite found associated with the citrus black mildew, Meliola sp. (synonym: Epinectria), belonging to the Family Hypocreaceae, Order Sphaeriles and Class Ascomycetes.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 90036

Status of citrus bud-transmissible diseases in Mindanao


Magnaye, LV; Herradura, LE
Davao National Crop Research and Development Center;Bureau of Plant Industry;Bago Oshiro;Davao City

Philippine Phytopathology 27(1 & 2): 48;1991

Abstract:
Determining the status of the diseases in the different citrus orchards will lead us to the potential parent sources of clean materials as well as to other strategies in solving one of the existing problems which is the presence of bud-transmissible diseases. Results of survey and biological indexing in the citrus growing areas of Mindanao revealed that out of 94 trees surveyed, no single tree is free from any known bud transmissible disease with two or more diseases co-existing in a single tree. Using the conventional biological indexing, resultant budlings which were found free of leaf mottling and exocortis but with mild vein in clearing on key lime were established inside screen houses as nursery mother trees to serve as scion sources. For continuous indexing of NMTs and direct indexing of potential citrus sources, side-shoot grafting was developed in the station. This is a modified biological indexing technique which can give results in 2 to 6 months with a limited number of indicator plants to be maintained.

Availability :
Davao National Crop Research and Development Center;Bureau of Plant Industry;Bago Oshiro;Davao City




NO. 90037

Survey, selection and indexing of candidate citrus parent trees


Magnaye, LV; Herradura, LE
Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium;Department of Agriculture;Davao City

SMARRDEC Abstracts of Researches p. 30;1989-1993

Abstract:
Results of indexing on the different candidate citrus parent trees surveyed in the citrus growing region of Mindanao revealed that no single tree is free from any known bud-transmissible disease. Resultant budlings which are free from leaf mottling and exocortis bud with mild stem pitting on keylime (indicator for tristeza) were established inside insect-proof cages as nursery mother trees.

Availability :
Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium




NO. 90038

Effect of amino acids on antibiotic production by Aspergillus spp. antagonistic to citrus canker pathogen


Masroot, MK; Chandra, S
The Philippine Journal of Science 199(2): 165-170;1990

Abstract:
Effect of amino acids on antibiotic production by Aspergillus clavatus Desmazieres, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fried and Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem antagonistic to Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse) Dye was studied. It was found that aspagarine followed by glutamine, proline, alanine, glycine, isoleucine, valine, glutamic acid, arginine and peptone proved to be good sources for antibiotic production in all the antagonists.

Availability :
Science and Technology Information Institute; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 90040

Survey of virus and virus-like diseases of citrus in the highlands of Northern Luzon


Ochasan, JM; Guerrero, MB; Verzola, EA
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Department of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines;Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 28: 56;1992

Abstract:
A survey was carried out in the highland provinces of Northern Luzon in 20 orchards. Identification was done through biological indexing using specific indicator plant. Aside from citrus tristeza virus, which was known to be widely distributed in the area, citrus greening disease was detected and its insect vector, Diaphorina citri Kuway. was noted in some areas. Another disease called woody gall/vein enation, previously unreported in Philippine citrus was found in two orchards. However, its economic importance is yet to be assessed as they do not seem to cause major damage even on susceptible cultivars such as lemons.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 90039

The status of citrus nurseries in Batangas and Laguna and their importance in the development of the Philippine citrus industry


Nora, VM; Dimalig, VM; Austria, AF
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Department of Plant Pathology; University of the Philippines;Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 23(1&2): 35;1987

Abstract:
The Philippine citrus industry declined because of a disease popularly known as leaf mottling. The disease is know locally to our citrus growers as "nag sasanfrancisco" because of the close resemblance of leaf symptoms of infected tree to an ornamental plant called San Francisco, or croton, Codiaeum variegatum pictum, a tropical shrub with variegated foliage. This disease is transmissible by grafting and by insect vector. The only identified insect vector of this disease is the Citrus psyslla, Diaphorina citri Kuway. Aside from leaf mottling, other virus diseases in the Philippines are exocortis, xyloporosis and psorosis. All these viruses are also transmissible by grafting. Recognizing the problems on diseases as the principal constraint in the development of the citrus industry, the creation of Plant Board for fruit trees was proposed. Under the concept, scheme of certification and/registration with defined procedures and sets of standard would be organized and implemented so that only quality and disease-free planting materials are distributed to farmers. Cognizant of its importance, the Director of Plant Industry in 1983, created a project management staff that formulated a program which is now known as Plant Material Certification Program (PMCP) with responsibility to produce and develop scion-source trees of superior varieties that are free from bud-transmissible diseases.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 90041

Citrus yellowing and dieback: A common incidence at USM


Tangonan, NG; Miral, PR; Arguelles, JA
University of Southern Mindanao;Kabacan;North Cotabato;Philippines

USMARC Monitor 10(2): 2;1989

Abstract:
Citrus plantations at USM, specifically calamansi, were surveyed for incidence and severity of what was commonly noted as yellowing and dieback disorder/disease. Various areas of the Fruit Crops Section of USMARC, the calamansi area near the USM Museum, Cafeteria, Housing and Pomology were surveyed and plantings were assessed for percentage infection (PI). Highest PI was observed to be 16.66% (Museum area), 11.90% (USMARC area), 8.69% (Cafeteria area), 4.44% (Pomology area), and 3.6 (Housing area). Initial symptoms of yellowing or dieback consist of failure of the affected tree to bear fruits. If it does, the three is not as productive as the healthy or unaffected trees. The fruit size is very much reduced. The leaves all turn pale green, with reduced sized, and eventually become yellow in color. When all the leaves have turned yellow, "leaf fall" begins. The twigs or branches dry up, shrivel and automatically die.

Availability :
Central Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium - University of Southern Mindanao




NO. 90043

What causes leaf spot of pummelo at USMARC-USM


Lamban, SQ; Silvestre, JC; Tangonan, NG
University of Southern Mindanao;Kabacan;North Cotabato;Philippines

USMARC Monitor 11(2): 15;1990

Abstract:
The incidence of leaf spot disease affecting pummelo was surveyed in two plantations at USM and USMARC respectively. Early symptoms of leaf spot of pummelo is the appearance of light green circular spots which eventually turn yellow brown. Lesions measure 0.4 mm in diamater (Fig.1). The center of the lesions becomes straw colored as it ages and a halo-hypersensitive reaction- surrounds the lesion where a distinct circular brown margin is apparent. Severity of infections (SIs) varied in the two plantations. At the USM (Old Water Pump Area) SIs ranged from 0 to 11.66 (healthy to severe) with a mean of 33.25%. At USMARC Area, SIs ranged from 3.33 to 48.33 (slight to moderately severe) with a mean of 19.50%. Based on the pathogenicity tests, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes was found to be the causal agent of leaf spot of pummelo. The mycelial growth of this fungus appeared white to grayish at it matured in potato dextrose agar. The conidia (spores) are typically one celled, hyaline, and avoid in shape.

Availability :
Central Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium - University of Southern Mindanao




NO. 90044

Etiology and control of gummossis of pummelo at USM


Sigua, LM; Evangelista, RB
BSc. thesis;University of Southern Mindanao;33p.;1993

Abstract:
Gummosis of pummelo at USM is caused by Botryodiplodia sp. Pathogenicity test revealed that the organism is pathogenic to one-year old pummelo seedlings. Typical symptoms of diseased stem were water-soaked barks with gum oozing-out nine weeks after inoculation. Among the fungicides tested in the field against gummosis of pummelo, Tridemorph (Calixin) and Benomyl (Benlate) at their recommended rates were as effective as the chemical check, copper hydroxide (Kocide) in controlling the disease after four rounds of eradicative spray application. Thiophanate methyl (Fungitox) and Kamantigue Fruit Extract (plant extract) were less effective against the disease.

Availability :
University of Southern Mindanao




NO. 90155

Fungicidal property of fruit peelings against Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack causing anthracnose of coffee


Sumaoy, PQ; Tangonan, NG
Philippine Phytopathology 23 (1&2): 38; 1987

Abstract:
Crude sap extracted from the peelings of mango, pineapple, mabolo, banana, calamansi, avocado, guava, papaya, and santol were assayed for fungicide properties against Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack causing anthracnose of coffee. Crude sap of calamansi was the most potent against the test fungus, with a mean inhibition zone of 20.42 mm followed by the crude sap of mango, santol, papaya, and banana peelings with inhibition zones and means of 16.55, 15.23, 13.87, and 12.61 mm, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the five crus saps against the test organisms was further confirmed in the screenhouse test. Seedlings treated with calamansi and mango crude sap had the least infection means which was comparable to the effect of Captan.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 91562

Ascorbic acid, color provitamin A and sensory qualities of calamansi (Citrus mitis Linn.) juice after various processing operations and lengths of storage


Nisperos, MO; Raymundo, LC; Mabesa, LB
The Philippine Agriculturist 65(4): 353-361;1982

Abstract:
Calamansi (Citrus mitis Linn.) was extracted, diluted with emulsifier, homogenized and pasteurized in boiling was for 15 min. Ascorbic acid, provitamin A, color and other chemical constituents were determined during the processing operations and subsequent storage of the juice. Sensory qualities were determined for the juice which was stored for 1 week up to 1 1/2 years. Homogenization and pasteurization did not significantly affect ascorbic acid content of the juice. Significant reduction of ascorbic acid from 52.84 to 38.64 mg/100 ml was observed after 12 days storage at room temperature. Homogenization significantly reduced the color from 0.37 to 0.18 mg/100 ml and the provitamin A from 0.26 to 0.17 mg/100 ml. No further change occurred during subsequent processing steps and storage periods. Titratable acidity changed from 7.02 to 5.44 mg/100 ml, pH from 2.22 to 3.33, soluble solids from 8.00 to 8.73 Brix, and dry matter from 8.58 to 9.58 during homogenization. Sensory qualities of processed juice stored for 1 week up to 1 1/2 years did not differ. Pasteurization did not result in the development of cooked flavor. Stale flavor was not detected in the bottled juice after 1 1/2 years storage.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 92067

Farming seen to become more of a part-time occupation


Sarian, ZB
Manila Bulletin; Agriculture; December 1997

Abstract:
Because of the modernization, including in the rural areas, rice farmers are resorting to planting other crops such as orange and banana.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92103

Proper timing for picking pomelos


Fernandez, RA
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Press Releases (Oct-Dec 1997)

Philippine Star; p.23; Oct 5, 1997

Abstract:
Unlike other fruit crops, pomelo no longer ripens after harvest. PCARRD study focused on the maturity indices of major pomelo cultivars. The cultivars studied during the four year research were Amoy mantan, Magallanes, Dela Cruz (Pink), Siamese and Sunwiniluk. Results showed that A. Mantan, Magallanes, and Dele Cruz fruits could be harvested 166 days from flower opening Siamese and Sunwiniluk required 173 days.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92356

Flavonoids in medicinal plants


Manalo, GD
7th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Spices, and Other Natural Products (ASOMPS VII); Manila; Philippines (1992) Feb 2-7.; HERDIN Database; PC920814; MFN 007484

Abstract:
The flavonoids are the largest groups of naturally occurring phenols which exhibit varied therapeutic actions. Recent chemical studies on plants containing flavanoids together with their medicinal use will be reviewed. From the 'albedo' of Citrus maxima L. (Citrus grandis Osbeck) naringin has been isolated. This can be hydrolyzed to naringenin which can be converted to its glucoside. This latter compound exhibits hypotensive action. The flavonoids from Citrus plants will be given emphasis in this report. Casticin, chrysophenol D and isoorientin were isolated from two pharmocologically active (bronchial relaxant) fractions of the extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo L.

Availability :
South East Asia Research Center for Agriculture Library




NO. 92661

Ultrastructure of chloroplast in the young leaves of satsuma mandarin top sprayed with different fertilizers under plastic house conditions


Aguja, SE; Shiraishi, M
Asia Life Sciences 7 (2): 109-119 (1998)

Abstract:
The ultrastructure of chloroplasts, starch grains, thylakoids and grana of 15-day-old leaves of summer shoots of 'Okitsu Wase' satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) trees top sprayed with different foliar fertilizers were studied under plastic house conditions. The upper and lower epidermis in all treatments were composed of small rectangular cells while the mesophyll consisted of an undifferentiated palisade and spongy cells. The no-fertilizer control and Liquid Fertilizer-B (LF-B;0-6-4) treated leaves possessed bigger and spherical chloroplasts while urea (46-0-0), Liquid Fertilizer-A (LF-A;10-3-4) and Liquid Fertilizer-C (LF-C;1-6-4) treated leaves formed small and ellipsoidal to elongated ones. The number and size of starch grains in the chloroplasts decreased but the number of thylakoids increased with the application of nitrogenous fertilizers such as urea, LF-A and LF-C. Grana formation was promoted by foliar sprays of LF-A and LF-C, fertilizers that contain low nitrogen levels, whereas the non-nitrogenous fertilizer, LF-B resulted in less formation of grana.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 93059

The influence of rootstock species on Japanese summer grape fruit and Unshiu mandarin


Tipayno, AC; Dimas, BB
MSAC Research Journal 11: 22-46 (1982)

Abstract:
The influence of 5 citrus rootstock species on the growth and yield of Japanese summer grape fruit and Unshiu mandarin was determined at the Mountain State Agriculture College Pomology Experimental Project from May 1978 to April 1982. The different rootstock species used were: Calamandarin, Trifoliate orange, Pomelo, Yuzu, and Wild citrus. Tree developed from Japanese summer grape fruit scion had faster growth in terms of stem diameter, height, and canopy size. Wild citron rootstock induces rapid growth of the trees while Trifoliate orange rootstock had the slowest growth. To Toa yield of Japanese summer grape fruit was higher than that of Unshiu mandarin. This is attributed to the fruits being large and heavy rather than to the number. There were no significant differences in yield among the rootstock used. Fruits obtained from trees with Wild citron rootstock had the thickest rind and lowest sugar content while those from Trifoliate orange rootstock had the highest sugar content so that the latter had good eating quality. Fruit granulation was common in the Japanese summer grape fruit during rainy season, especially those obtained from trees budded on Wild citron and Calamandarin rootstocks. Fruit puffiness was severe in Unshiu mandarin fruits with Wild citron and Calamandarin rootstock during rainy season. To produce high quality fruits from the Japanese summer grape fruit and Unshiu mandarin, Trifoliate orange rootstock so far observed seems to be the best.

Availability :
Post Harvest Training and Research Center, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93154

Screening of some essential oils against dermatophytes


Dubey, NK; Yadav, P; Joshi, VK
Philippine Journal of Science 127 (2): 139-147 (1998)

Abstract:
The essential oils cinnamomum tamala and Citrus maxima exhibited absolute inhibition of mycelial growth on dermatophtes viz. Trichpyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouini. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the oil was found to be 500 ppm at which they exhibited fungistatic nature, broad mycotic spectrum and long shelf life. Their fungitoxic properties remained thermo-stable in nature up to 100oC. Besides the oils showed superiority in fungitoxic potency over some prevalent synthetic anti-fungal drugs.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 93251

Stylar-end breakdown in the 'Tahiti" lime: Some causes and cures


Davenport, TL; Campbell, CW; Orth, PG
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meetiing;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.245-248

Abstract:
Recent studies of stylar-end breakdown in 'Tahiti lime fruit have revealed that has been thought to be a rind disorder is, in reality, a breakdown of juice vesicles in the pulp tissue. The rupturing of juice vesicles results in release of juice which is subsequently invades the rind at stylar end and on occasion the stem end of the fruit. This juice invasion of the rind then sets into motion the degradative processes which give rise to the watery patches of discoloration which are the visible symptoms of the disorder. In an effort to determine the factors involved in juice sac breakage, we have isolated heat stress and high turgor pressure associated with fruit maturity as the major elements contributing to stylar end breakdown. These observations are discussed along with positive steps that the lime industry can take to reduce the problem in the field and eliminate inshipment breakdown.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93252

Comparison of natural field infestation versus laboratory infestability of 'marsh' white grapefruit by Caribbean fruit fly, Anatropha suspensa (LOEW)


Von Windeguth, DL; Arner, A; Owens, JB; Burditt, AK, Jr
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.248-249

Abstract:
Grapefruit picked from a Fort Pierce grove over a 6-month period were divided into 3 groups: 1)as picked from the grove, 2)exposed to gravid females in the laboratory colony for 24 hours within 2 days of picking from the grove, and 3)held at 75 F(24 C) for 2 weeks, then exposed to gravid females for 24 hours. Although fruit flies were observed in the grove, no natural infestatin was observed in the fruit. Infestability of fruit when exposed to high populations of females increased over the period of the study (November-May). Holding fruit for 2 weeks before exposing it to gravid females did not increase infestation rate.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93265

Concentrations of ethylene dibromide gas during fumigation of grapefruit


Burditt, HK; Von Winchegnth, DL
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society; Miami Beach,Florida; 2-4 November,1976;pp.220-225.

Abstract:
During large-chamber fumigation of semi-trailer vans containing grapefruit for export, concentrations of gaseous ethylene dibromide (EDB) were determined with a halide detector at 6 locations within the load and at 5 in the chamber. Concentration was maximum uring the 20 min. evaporation period, and the 1 hour post-treatment aeration period. A single location in the chamber could be used to monitor concentraton in the load varied somewhat depending upon location of the sampling tube. There was no advantage in using a hinge to elevate duct extension during the evaporation period, and opening ventilator doors at the front of the vanmade no major change in distribution or concentration during fumigation. However, aeration of the load was expedited by introducing outside air directly into the blower intake when the baffle was used and the ventilator doors were closed.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93372

Performance of commercial 'nova' tangelo plantings


Jernberg, DC; Krezdorn, AH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November, 1976;pp.14-17

Abstract:
Data on certain production practices and performance were obtained from 45 plantings of 'Nova' (Citrus reticulata Blanco X (C.reticulata Blanco X C.paradisi Macf.)) These were augmented with experiments that assisted in interpreting the survey. Both effective pollenizers are being used. Gibberelic acid (GA) resulted in increased numbers but not volume of fruit per tree because of the small sizes resulting from GA sprays. Leaf mineral content of samples from 25 'Nova'plantings on 'Cleopatra ' mandarin (C.reticulata) rootstock were all within the range acceptable for sweet ornges(C.sinensi (L.) Osbeck). Levels of individual macro-nutrients in leaves were not significantly corrected with yields obtained from grower records. A wide range of rootstocks were found. 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstock predominated and it appears to be an excellent one for 'Nova'.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93374

Field performance of several common citrus scions on 'milam' rootstock


Castle, WS
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November, 1976: pp.11-14

Abstract:
A field study of the horticultural performance of common sweet orange (Citrus sinensis(L.) Osbeck) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf) cultivars budded to 'Milam'rootstock was conducted. Approx 217 acres of trees, 6 to 11 years of age, in commercial plantings, were evaluated. The survey including. Measurements of yield, fruit quality, and tree size indicated that 'Milam' meets generally accepted standards of performance as a rootstock for 'Hamlin', Pineapple , and Valencia sweet oranges and 'Marsh'grapefruit. Leaf nutrient values for all scions were generally in the satisfactory range. No evidence of stem pitting was found on budded trees; however, several trees appreated affected by blight.

Availability :
Post Harvest Training and Research Center, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93375

Nutrient composition of dried citrus pulp as influenced by season of production and production source


Ammerman, CB; Hansen, DA; Martine, FG; Arrington, LR
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November, 1976: pp.168-170

Abstract:
Nutrient composition data for 3,630 samples of dried citrus pulp obtained by the Feed Laboratory,Division of Chemistry,Florida Department of Agriculture during the years 1963-1975 were summarized. The average moisture content was 8.48%. The average proximate composition, expresses on a dry matter basis was as fallows: protien, 6.80%; ether extract, 4.08%; ash, 5.42%; crude fiber, 13.32%; and nitrogen-free extract, 70.38%. All nutrient levels deffered (P<.05) among production sources, among years or seasons, and for production sources x season interaction. The range in proximate composition,expressed on a dry matter basis according to production source was as follows: protein, 6.58-7.03%; ether extract , 3.61-5.07%; ash 5.07-6.26%; crude fiber, 12.15-15.68%; and nitrogen free extract, 67.68-72.08%.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93376

Chilling injury of 'marsh' grapefruit as influenced by diphenyl pads


Mc Cornack, AA
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Floria;2-4 November,1976: pp.200-202

Abstract:
'Marsh'grapefruit were picked at monthly intervals in a series of 10 experiments, starting September, 1975 to study the seasonal effect of different treatments on chilling injury (CI). Diphenyl pads (DP), Benlate, and fumigation with ethylene dibrimide (EDB) were compared in each experiment with fruit stored at 40o (4.5oC) and 600F (15.5oC). Grapefruit at 60oF did not develop CI during the 6 weeks storage period, regardless of treatments. In the fruit stored at 40oF, dipheny pads increased peel injury caused by chilling. Fumigation with EDB did not result in increased CI. Benlate-treated fruit generally had less CI. The lowest CI was in fruit picked in February.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93377

Concentration of oxygenated flavor compounds in citrus oils


Braddock, RJ; Kesterson, JW
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach, Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.196-189

Abstract:
The concerns of the major aldehydes present in 'Hamlin''Pineapple' and 'Valencia orange oils; Temple,Dancy tangerine Orlando tangelo and Duncan grapefruit oils and Valencia essence oil were determined. The most predominant aldehydes were octanal and decanal. Ratios of total aldehydes,esters, alcohols, and organic acids present in the oils were studied and found to be very improtant to the flavor characteristics of the individual oils. Coldpressed Valencia oil showed a higher aldenhyde/ester ratio than Valencia essence oil. The higher ester contents of the essence oil accounted for a more juice-like arome of the latter.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93379

Extending the grapefruit harvest season with growth regulators


Dinar, MA; Krezdorn, AH; Rose, AJ
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.4-6

Abstract:
Aqueous sprays of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D) alone and in combination with gibberellic acid (GA) decreased fruit drop of 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) held late in the season but GA alone did not. Both GA treted fruit were inferior in color to those from 2,4-D and control plots but all met market standards for color. Juce content of 2,4-D treated fruit was slightly higher at the end of the season but juice quality data were inconclusive. GA and 2,4-D alone and in combination reduced the germination of seed in the fruit.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93380

Large chamber fumigation of grapefruit infested with the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)


Burditt, JR, AK; Von Windeguth, DL
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;MIami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.170-171

Abstract:
Grapefruit infested with eggs and larvae of the CAribbean fruit fly were packed in boxes that were loaded into a semi-trailer van which was placed in a 9000-ft(255m3) chamber. After fumigation for 2 hours with 4.0 oz ethylene dibromide/1000 ft3 (4g/m3),99.95% of the immature flies were dead. The estimated dosage necessary to obtain adequate security for quarantine pupose (99.9968% mortality) was between 6.5 and 8.0 oz ethylene dibromide/1000 ft3

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93383

The effect of ethylene, fruit color, and fungicides on susceptibility of 'Robinson' tangerines to anthracnose


Brown, GE; Barmore, CR
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.198-200

Abstract:
Mature, green-colored 'Robinson' tangerines was very susceptible to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, when fruit were degreened with ethylene. Increassing ethylene concentratios in increments of 10 ppm from 0 to 50 increased the incidence of an thracnose in inoculated tangerines until a maximum level of 87% was reached with 40 ppm of ethylene. When commercially degreened tangerines were seperated into 2 lots on the basis of color following degreening, the well-colored orange fruit developed 10% anthracnose during storage,while poorly-colored yellow to pale orange fruit developed 34%. Fruit drenched with benomyl before degreening developed less anthrracnose than fruit receiving sodium orthophenylphenate or chlorine.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93384

Color in canned commercial grapefruit juice


Huggart, RL; Petrus, DR
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.194-196

Abstract:
Commercially canned single strength grapefruit juice were collected from 11 processing plants during the 1975-76 citrus season. Visual color evaluation.Hunter Citrus Colorimeter measurements and inherent fluorometric characteristics of the juices were studied. Carotenoid visible absorption characteristics of alcohol solution of the juices were investigated. White, chamois yellow and pink chararcteristic the three families of colors found in the 121 samples collected. Subjective evalutions understandarized conditions were found to relate to objective measurements.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93385

New grapefruit product:debitterizing albedo


Roe, B; Bruemmer, JH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meetings;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.191-194

Abstract:
The skeletal membranes and rind of grapefruit, consisting of 50% of the fruit wieght, are discarded as inedible. We have developed a method of debitterizing the aldebo portion of grapefruit rind so that it can be consumed with the sections. The method consists of removing the flavedo to expose the albedo. A solution containing the enzyme naringinasee, nutrients, colorants, flavor substances, and preservative was vacuum infused into the albedo and gas filled cavities of the fruit. Treating a medium sized grapefruit with 350 U/1 of pectinase-free naringinase at 50oC for 60 minutes lowered the neringin content of albedo juice 81%. A panel of six tasters judged the enzyme-treated albedo to be less bitter. The significance of this development is that grapefruit can be processed to contain food fiber, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and still be attractive and tasty.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93386

Influence of fertility and irrigation on yield and leaf and soil analyses of 'temple' orange


Reese, L; Koo, RCJ
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.46-48

Abstract:
Six year's data of nitrogen(N),phoshorus (P), potassium(K), and irrigation treatments applied to Temple orange on 'Cleopatra'mandarin rootstock(Citrus reticulata)showed increased yied most years with increased rates of N and K. Inclusion of P in the fertilizer also increased yield when compared to no P. Spring irrigation produced more fruit than fall irrigation but the increased yield was significant only 1 years. Increased N rates resulted in higher leaf N and magnesium(Mg) but lower P,K, and calcium(Ca) content. The addition of P in the fertilizer resulted in higher laef P and Ca contents but lower K content. Spring irrigation produced leaves lower in K but higher in Mg in certain years. One years data soil analysis reflects the treatments for certain elements.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93388

Citrus fruit injury as related to mechanical harvesting with limb shaker-catch frame system


Gaffney, JJ; Miller, WM; Coppock, GE
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;MIami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.179-182

Abstract:
Studies were conducted for 2 seasons to investigate injury to mecahnically harvested Hamlin Pineapple and Valencia oranges and Marsh grapefruit in comparison with hand harvesting. Fruit were harvested with 2 different limb shaker-cath frame machines and were evaluated for cases, the machine harvested fruit sustained higher levels of injury than did the hand harvested fruit, although in some tests the difference was not very great. Holding studies on in garde (non-eliminated) fruit showed consistently higher levels of decay for machine harvested fruit than for fruit that were harvested by hand. Treatment of fruit with Benlite(Benomyl) fungicide reduced decay levels foe both machine and hand harvested fruit. Results of this study indicate a good potential for mechanical harvesting of oranges and grapefruit for shipment on the fresh market, but fruit will require careful inspection and grading for injury.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93395

Florida citrus packinghouse cost-volume relationships


Tilley, DS
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach, Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.183-185

Abstract:
This paper is a report on 2 analyses of the relationship between average, per-unit total packing cost and volume of fruit packed for Florida fresh citrus packinghouses. The first analysis shows itemized packing costs for high, medium and low-volume firms. High-volume firms were found tot have lower costs for nearly every cost item. Medium-volume firms had lower cost for most items that did low-volume firms. The ranges in total costs among size categories overlapped indicating that some low-volume firms had lower costs that some high-volume firms. The second analysis used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between packing costs and selected packinghouse characteristics. Packing cost and volume were found to be inversely related within the range of volumes found in Florida. Packout percentage and packing costs were also found to have an inverse relationship. Firms with high packout to have lower costs that firms with low packout.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93394

Recovery of naringin and pectin from grapefruit albedo


Grandall, PG; Kesterson, JW
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.189-191

Abstract:
Samples of Duncan grapefruit albedo were obrtained at 2-month intervals from October through April from commercial plants which use the Automatic Machinery Corporation Shaver. A hot water leach was used to remove the soluble solids and niringin from the albedo priot to the pectin extraction. Highest yield of naringin were obtained using s 1:3 ratio of albedo to leach water at 190-194oF (88-90oC) for min. A threefold concn of leach water increased the yield of isolated naringin by approx 33%. In 5 out of 6 tests,the hot water leach resulted in as great or greater recoveries of naringin that did the control, a caustic leach similar to commercial practice. Pure naringin recovery ranged from 4.9-10.6g per 2,000g of wet albedo. After the hot water leach, pectin was extracted from the leached grapefruit albedo using nitric acid and an alcohol preciptation. The jelly units ranged from 88.1-79.9 for the albedo. There are 2 major economic advantages of using a hot water leach for pectin. It permits the recovery of naringin and allows reuse of the distilled water recovered during the concn of the naringin leach water.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93422

Aerial sprays vs.blanck on Florida citrus


Bullock, R
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.62-63

Abstract:
Dialifor, methidathion, and phenthoate, when applied by aircraft in the absence of biological control agents, significantly reduced the number of Caribbean black scale, Saissetia nelects Di Lotto, found per fruit and prevented an increase in number of stems becoming infested following treatment. In concert with the egg predator,Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky, all 3 scalicides provided a significant greater number of scale-free stems than did prediation by S.cyanea alone on one occasion, but only Dialifor was superior to predation in a second test.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93425

The use of release - an abcission agent to increase the productivity of pickers on processing oranges


Clark, Jr.RK; Ellis, MT
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida States Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.72-73

Abstract:
Several studies were conducted during the 1975-76 harvest season evaluating RELEASE ( 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole),as an aid to improve the efficiency of hand harvesting oranges for processing.RELEASE was applied to 1 to 2 acre plots of 'Hamlin' 'Pineapple' and 'Valencia'orange with an airblast sprayer. Picking crews moved from the non-treated to the sprayed area. Records from the picking crew foreman were used to evaluate the picking rates of the sprayed and unsprayed areas. Data developed in this study show that RELEASE improves the picking rate from 30 to over 50%

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93424

Effect of reduced pest control programs on yield and quality of 'Valencia' orange


McCoy, , CW; Brooks, RF; Allen, JC; Selhime, AG; Wardowski, WF
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.24-77

Abstract:
Three different pest control strategies were applied in 3 adjacent 10-acre plots of 3 'Valencia 'orange groves for 4 years. Where disease control was absent or applied incorrectly, greasy spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella citri Whiteside was the major pest causing excessive leaf defolition each year and subsequent loss of yield. Various species of spider mites,scale insects white flies and other potential pests remained low under all pest control strategist and required no specific chemical control during the 4 years. The citrus rust mite,Phyllocoptruta oleivora(Ashm.), caused injury to fruit in the summer and fall each year in all plots. However, wind damage(windscar)appeared to have the greatest overall effect on packout. Leaf injury by citrus rust mite was seldom observed, however severe injury in localized areas of the tree occurred on occassion. Fruit injury by citrus rust mite appeared to have no gross effect on internal fruit quality. Melanose injury was generally low even in plots receiving no postblomm fungicide. Numerous pesticides, including oil,were effective in suppressing citrus rust mite populations when natural control was considered unacceptable. In 2 strategies, the fungal pathogen Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was effective in reducing citrus rust mite populations in the summer and fall.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93426

Removal of surface iron deposits from citrus leaves


Basiouny, FM; Biggs, RH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.67-69

Abstract:
Several Fe formulations are now being used to raise the availability of Fe or to correct Fe deficiency in us. Washing citrus leaves with differnt washing protures immediately following foliar application of Fe did remove or leach Fe. Methods for sampling leaves receiving foliar sprays of FE Methods for sampling leaves receives foliar sprays of Fe are discussed. It was concluded that, der Florida conditions, rainfall 3 hr following foliar application of Fe would not totally leach this element to citrus.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93427

A necrotic ringspot-like virus found in a'star ruby' grapefruit tree imported without authorization into Florida.


Garnsey, SM; Youtsey, CO; Bridges, GD; Burnett, H
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.63-67

Abstract:
A virus, provisionally designated as the Star Ruby isolate of citrus ringspot virus (CRSV-SR), was discovered in a 'Strat Ruby' grape fruit tree(Citrus paradisi Macf.) brought into Florida by a private grower witnout aouthorization from the State Department of Agriculture. Dieback of young shoots and chlorotic leaf patterns were observe in spring flush growth of this tree and fruit symptoms were observed in JUne. Dieback of new shoots, leaf abscission and variable chlorotic leaf patterns were observed within 3 to 5 weeks in new growth of gratf-inoculated 'Duncan'grapefruit and 'Mexican'lime (C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle)seedling. Similar shock symptoms or chlorotic leaf symptoms were subsequetly seen in other graft-inoculated citrus varieties. Field and indicator plant symptoms were similar to those described for citrus necrotic ringspot virus inTexas. The Star Ruby isolate was mechanically transmitted to citrus and herbaceous host. Chlorotic-to-necrotic local lesions formed in 3 to 5 days on Chenopodium quinoa Willd., and this plant is a useful, rapid indicator for indexing. CRSV-SR passed through a 0.22-pm filter, but no characteristec viruslike particles were an electron microscope. The exact relationship of CRSV-SR to citrus necrotic ringspot virus and 2 ringspotlike viruses previously discovered in Florida has not yet been determined. CRSV-SR has not been found in 'Star Ruby' tree improted officially for testing and release.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93428

Uptaken and distribution of "release" in 'valencia'and 'hamlin'oranges


Murphy, SK; Biggs, RH; Winkler, VW
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.43-45

Abstract:
Uptake and distribution of release ( C-labeled 5-chloro-3-methyl-4 nitro-1H-pyrazole) in 'Valencia'and 'Hamlin'orange peel was followed. Litte lateral or poral movement of Release was observed. Seventy-eight to 94% of the recovered C-labeled material was found in the flavedo, less than 1.5% in the pulp and the remaining activity in the albedo tissue. Uptake and distribution of C-Release varied between tree and laboratory treated oranges. Humidity and temperature are major factors in uptake biological effectiveness. rain during the frist eight hours after application of Release removed 70% or more of the applied C-Release, but a 24-hour rainless perind resulted in up to 66% recovery of C. Implications from the data for field applications of Release for fruit loosening will be discussed.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93429

Influence of fertility and irrigation treatments on fruit quality of 'temple'oranges


Koo, RCJ; Reese, RL
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.49-51

Abstract:
Increased nitrogen (N) and potasium (K) rates in fertilizer resulted in higheracid content in juice. The addition of phophorus (P) resulted in lower solable solids and acid contents. The influence of P on the acid content of juice was more pronouced than on soluble solids which resulted in a higher soluble solids-acid (SS/A) ration. Fruit from spring irrigation treatment had higher soluble solids than fall irrigation. In external fruit quality, N treatment decreased and K treatments increased both the fruit size and wt while no consistent trend was found with irrigation treament The same treatments also resulted in higher incidemce of creased fruit. More late blomm fruit was found in plots teated with high N and fall irrigation.

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Post Harvest Training and Research Center, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93430

Artifical wildbreaks and the reduction of wind scar of citrus


Freeman, B
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.52-54

Abstract:
Windscarring is aring blemish problem of citrus in Australia. It occurs almost exclusively within 12 weeks of petal fall in the October, and this coincides with the period of the strongest and most frequent winds. Artificial windbreaks of polyethylene woven fabric of 44% permeability were constructed 5.2m (17 ft) high by 61m (200 ft) long and located in an exposed grove with a known history of badly scarred fruit. Mean packouts of top grade fruit for protected and exposed tress were 53% and 30% respectively. Protected trees outyielded exposed ones on a unit canopy area basis by 17% and 21% for fruit number and weight, respectively. Wind-spped reduction ranged from 25% to 70% between 2 parallel barries 50m (160 ft) apart;and wind run wind protectionand the practicability of artifical wind-breaks are discussed.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93431

Influence of prevailing winds and hedging on citrus fruit wind scar


Albrigo, LG
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida; 2-4 November, 1976;pp.55-59

Abstract:
Seasonal patterns of wind direction and speed were analyzed and wind scar development was examined for several years. Averages wind velocity was highest during the spring when young fruit are most susceptible to wind damage. While many fruit developed severe wind scar by May, few additional fruit were damaged severely after May. Annual variation in amount of wind scar could be primarily explained by the total hours of high spring winds from blomm through May. As most of the damaging spring winds were westerly or easterly, hedging mature tress N-S afforded appreciable wing scar protection to fruit inside the grove.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93443

An analysis of citrus grower allocation decisions fresh vs. processed fruit


Niles, JA; Fairchild, GF
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach, Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.185-188

Abstract:
Whether to produce citrus for fresh or processed marketing channels is an annual decision to be made by the Florida citrus grower. Prior to the production season, the grower must first decide whether to attempt to produce fruit for the fresh market. This desicion is based upon expectations with the outcome controllable to acertain extent. At harvest, the grower must decidev to route the fruit into fresh or processed marketing channels. Cultural practices and enviromental conditions during production will have a critical influence on this decision. Thus, in deciding, the grower primarily reacts known conditions. This paper discusses the major factors affecting these decisions, including cost, pounds solids prices and returns. A decision framework suggested to assist growers in thier decision making.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93444

Bod, cod and tc measurements of citrus processing waste water: a comparison


Ratcliff, MW; Colter, CE; Woods, AR
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.175-179

Abstract:
The Biological Oxygen Demand,Chemical Oxygen Demand and the Total Carbon of the waste water effluent of a citrus processing plant were compared. Equivalent solutions of pectin,sourse and orange juice were tested in like manner. One citrus processing season was considered. Some statistical evaluations are presented in comparing the three methods of nalysis.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93445

Image analysis of multispectral sensing data of young tree of citrus


Edwards, GJ; Davis, T; Blazquez, CH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.26-28

Abstract:
Image analysis of multispectral data of citrus trees visually rated as having Young Decline (YTD) are reported here. The multispectral data was taken in areas where spectral differences correlate with disease ratings. An alphanumerical printout of the diseased trees was made from a ration of spectral range 0.800-0.890 to 0.500-0.600 and from the thermal spectral range 8 to 14. The ratio technique agreed with the visual ground truth ratings 86% of the time. The thermal range showed an 87% agreement with the ground truth. The lack of repeatability in the method will be worked on the method will be worked on to make the technique reliable.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93446

The Florida grapefruit industry an economic analysis


Parker, A; De, VH; Myers, LH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.1-3

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the results of an econometric study of the economic relationships existing within the Florida grapefruit industry. Objectives of the study centered on the identification of factors affecting the levels of production storage and demand for four grapefruit products; fresh frozen concentrated juice (FCGJ), canned single-strenght juice (CSSGJ) and canned sections (CGS). The results indicate that the demand for CSSGJ is influenced significantly by CSSGJ-FOB prices, retail prices of FCOJ and an intraseasonal trend. Based on the estimates it was concluded that grapefruit on-tree cash price adjustments are only 50% of the FOB price adjusment for CSSGJ on an equivalent box basis. A change of 10 cents per dozen in the FOB price for FCGJ on the average results in monthly sales adjusment of 0.3 million single-strength gallons. These along with other results provide useful information for evaluating the economic implications of the larger grapefruit forecast for the future.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93447

Soil moisture distribution in a sprinkler irrigation orange grove


Myers, JM; Harrison, DS; Phillips Jr., WF
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976: pp.23-26

Abstract:
Soil moisture pressures were measured in soil under irrigated orange tress to determine soil moisture extraction patterns. Measuring points extended in depth from 6 to 48 inches and horizontally from the base of the tree to midpoint between trees. Initially after wetting soil to field capacity, moisture is extracted primarily from soil near the center of the tree and at shallow depths. As moisture depletion processes, the soil zone supporting major moisture extraction is transitive, both laterally away from the center and downward. The soil moisture status with respect to time and position is presented graphically for several soil moisture depletion cycles during different segments of the growing season.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93540

Citrus blackfly control by foliar treatments of dooryard citrus


Reinert, JA
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Baech,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.365-366

Abstract:
The citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was found in Fort Lauderdale, Broward County, Florida on January 28, 1976. Acephate and chlorpyrifus applied with a mist blower provided 91-100% and 82-98% control of second and third instar larvae and 82-97% and 69-94% control of pupae, respectively. At least three foliar spray applications of malathion were required to obtain 98% larval control, but mist blower applications of malathion did not provide greater than 89% control of citrus blackfly larvae. Naled provided no more than 77% control while a mist blower treatment of Pyrellin and an ultra-low-volume application of malathion provided no control of this pest.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93569

Effect on abscission-inducing chemicals on mandarin oranges


Rasmussen, GK
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.39-41

Abstract:
After two-thirds color break, fruit of several mandarin orange cultivars produced ethylene and were loosened from their pedicels in response to abscission-inducing chemicals. Before two-thirds color break, the fruit loosening was not consistent. Fruit loosening was satisfactory only when the rind was injured by Acti-Aid, Release, Pik-Off or D5-27914. Most of the fruit were not acceptable for the fresh market because of rind injury. Ethephon at 400 ppm caused satisfactory loosening of satsuma fruit, but with excessive defoliation. The degrees of loosening, rind injury, and defoliation varied greatly among cultivars and treatments.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93570

Air shaker harvest trials in 'Valencia' oranges with two rates of abscission chemical


Whitney, JD
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.41-43

Abstract:
During May and June of 1975 when the young fruit diam. averaged 1.2 inches, 4 harvest experiments were conducted in 'Valencia' oranges with the AREC air shaker at 2 mph ground speed and 2 concns (250 and 375 ppm) of the abscission chemical, Release (5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole). The trees were shaken 5 days after spraying. Pre-harvest mature fruit drop at the low and high concns of chemical averaged 13 and 31%, respectively. Mature fruit removal with the air shaker averaged 88 and 96%, respectively. In 1976, subsequent yields of trees sprayed with 250 ppm of Release were not significantly reduced, whereas 375 ppm did cause a significant reduction. Harvest efficiency of the air shaker was 80% with 250 ppm and 78% with 375 ppm Release.

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Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93563

Dislodgable residue of ethion on citrus


Thompson, NP
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach, Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.7-8

Abstract:
The importance of dislodgable residues of pesticides on agricultural commodities with respect to worker re-entry has been indicated by recent promulgation of re-entry standards for various chemical/crop combinations. This, report concerns applications of ethion to orange trees during two periods when differing weather patterns could be expected. Fifty leaves were collected from each treatment on days 0,1,3,5,7,14,21,28 and 34 following application. Dislodgable residues of ethion and the monoxone decreased with time after application.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93564

The case for biological control of lantana in Florida citrus groves


Habeck, DH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.17-18

Abstract:
Lantana (Lantana camara L.) is a serious pest in Florida citrus groves, especially in the Indian River area. Research in Hawaii and Australia and recent work in Brazil shows that a number of host-specific insects are available for use in biological control of lantana. Efforts to introduce some of these insects into Florida are opposed by nursery-men who consider lantana a valuable ornamental. Unless this conflict of interest is resolved, further efforts for biological control of lantana in Florida will have to be abandoned.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93565

Evaluation of herbicides for lantana control in citrus groves


Phillips, RL; Tucker, DPH
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida,2-4 November,1976;pp.19-20

Abstract:
The woody shrub lantan (Lantana camara), considered a serious weed pest in citrus groves of south-eastern Florida, is rapidly spreading throughout the state. It is tolerant to presently registered herbicides which eliminate competitive weed species. Excellent control of lantana was obtained in field trials with glyphosate (Roundup) and BAY MET 1486 at 4 lb/A, respectively. Two applications of silvex at 2 lb/A each gave good control of succulent, vigorously growing plants, R-2491 and DPX-1108 (Krenite) at 4 lb/A each were also effective but less consistent. GS-14254 (Sumitol), VCS-438 (Probe) and 2,4-D formulation did not provide satisfactory control. None of the above products are presently registered for use in Florida citrus.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93567

Combinations of release, acid-aid and sweep for abscission of oranges


Wilson, WC; Holm, RE
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.32-34

Abstract:
Two and 3-way tank mix combination of RELEASE (5-chloro-3-methyl-4nitro-1 H-pyrazole), cycloheximide (ACTI-AID), and SWEEP (chlorothalonil) have been extensively evaluated for fruit abscission activity on 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' oranges. The 3-way combinations of RELEASE + ACTI-AID + SWEEP have consistently resulted in better fruit loosening than the 2-way combinations of RELEASE + ACTI-AID. The 3-way combinations require 25 to 50% less abscission chemical to obtain the desired loosening response with less tree and fruit damage compared to ACTI-AID or RELEASE used alone. With 'Hamlin' oranges, the combination of RELEASE + ACTI-AID + SWEEP (25 + 5 + 250 ppm, respectively) was effective as RELEASE (100 ppm) or ACTI-AID (20 ppm). With 'Valencia' oranges, a combination of RELEASE (100 to 150 ppm) + ACTI-AID (5 ppm) + SWEEP (250 ppm) was as effective as RELEASE (250 ppm) in obtaining adequate fruit loosening. During 'Valencia' regreening, when fruit are less responsive to the individual abscission chemicals, a combination of RELEASE + ACTI-AID + SWEEP (200 + 5 + 250 ppm) gave good fruit loosening while RELEASE alone (250 ppm) was less effective. In addition to lowering fruit removal force, combinations have significantly reduced fruit burn (particularly severe ring burn which RELEASE can cause) and reduced leaf drop which ACTI-AID can cause under some conditions.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93568

Loss in the capacity of 'Valencia' oranges treated with abscission chemicals to produce ethylene and fruit loosening during the regreening period


Holm, RE; Wilson, WC
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Beach,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.35-38

Abstract:
'Valencia' fruit from young and mature trees were monitored weekly from April to June 1976 for color changes and response to abscission chemicals. Mature fruit became more green in color, especially in the rind tissue surrounding the stem, during April. Abscission chemicals were less effective after regreening started. The period of reduced abscission chemical effectiveness was termed the unresponsive period and lasted about 2 weeks in older trees and more than a month in younger trees. Fruit treated with 250 ppm 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (RELEASE) produced 72% less ethylene during the unresponsive period, and showed only a 55% reduction in fruit removal force (FRF) compared to an 85% reduction in FRF earlier and later in the season. The combination of RELEASE plus cycloheximide (ACTI-AID) plus chlorothalonil (SWEEP) (100 + 5 + 250 ppm) caused longer sustained fruit ehtylene production than 250 ppm RELEASE during the early part of the 'Valencia' season and better fruit loosening. However, during the unresponsive period, it was necessary to use 150-200 ppm RELEASE with 5 ppm ACTI-AID and 250 ppm SWEEP to obtain good fruit loosening and ethylene production. Application of glyoxal dioxime (PIK-OFF) resulted in erratic fruit ethylene production and loosening.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 94842

Seedling vigor and other phenotypic characters of different pummelo cultivars


Magnaye, MC; Manceras, AD
8th National Fruit Symposium;Elvira O. Tan Hall, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD);Los Baños, Laguna;14-16 November 2000

Abstract:
The study was conducted from July 1999 to February 2000 at the Plant Breeding and Genetics Nursery, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato to a)evaluate seedling vigor and other phenotypic characters of different pummelo cultivars and b)determine which pummelo seedlings has faster growth rate which can be utilized as rootstock for asexual propagation.|This was composed of the following treatments: accession 1 (sour pink), accession 2 (sweet white), accession 3 (sour red), accession 4 (sweet pink) and the check (Nenita selection). Highly significant difference was observed in weekly germination rate, seedling height, number of leaves and leaf length of different pummelo accessions.|Accession 4 (sweet pink) had the fastest rate of germination of 1.60, the standard check Nenita variety obtained the lowest rate of 1.12. This accession had also most number of leaves (30.44). While accession 4 (sweet pink) obtained the least number of leaves (24.40) and the shortest with mean of 26.24 cm. The longest leaf was obtained from accession 3 (sour red) of 10.91 cm and obtained the shortest leaf of 9.61 cm.|Result revealed significant differences on the number of days to80 percent emergence, monthly seedling height increment and leaf width. Percentage germination, number of lateral branches, seedling vigor and stem diameter did not show any significant differences among treatment means.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 94334

Flavonoids in medicinal plants


Manalo, GD
HERDIN Database 005967-PC920814;7th Asia Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Spices and other Natural Products (ASOMPS VIII)1992

Abstract:
The flavonoids are the largest group of naturally occurring phenols which exhibit varied therapeutic actions. Recent chemical studies on plants containing flavonoids together with their medicinal use will be reviewed. From the 'albedo' of Citrus maxima L.(Citrus grandis Osbeck) naringenin has been isolated. This can be hydrolyzed to naringenin which can be converted to its glucoside. This latter compound exhibits hypotensive action. The flavonoids from Citrus plants will be given emphasis in this report. Casticin, chrysophenol D and isoorientin were isolated from two pharmacologically active(bronchial relaxant) fractions of the extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo L.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94368

Indexing greening in the Philippines


Magnaye, LO; Bautista, R; Herradura, L; Dimailig, V
Proceedings of the 2nd FAO-UNDP Regional Workshop,Lipa,Philippines, ASIAN/Pacific Citrus Greening.November 20-26,1988,p.25.

Abstract:
Greening is and important disease of citrus caused by a bacterium like organism(BLO).This pathogen devastated the Philippine citrus industry in the early 60's and at the present time causing considerable concern in the major growing areas of our country. Earlier surveys and studies have demonstrated the coexistence of both a bud and insect transmitted disease,namely Greening and Tristeza(Martinez and Wallace,1971).Moreover,the Philippines orchards are occasionally affected by Exocortis,Xyloporis and Psorosis. It is obvious that the ultimate development of the citrus industry depend upon the nursery trees and the development of a disease free certification scheme.

Availability :
Bureau of Plant Industry-Davao National Crops Research and Development Center




NO. 93566

Use of sodium erythorbate sprays for control of young tree decline in citrus


Leonard, CD
Proceedings;Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting;Florida State Horticultural Society;Miami Baech,Florida;2-4 November,1976;pp.29-31

Abstract:
Foliar sprays with several different solutions of m erythorbate (NaE) with urea, calcium nitrate and the ctant Tergitol TMN-6 were applied in 1975 and 1976 to g tree decline (YTD)-affected orange trees in 2 groves.Results are compared with those on trees that were given injection treatments and one or more foliar sprays in . Addition of 3 lb. of citric acid per 100 gal to some any solutions resulted in more vigorous and more rapid development of new twigs and leaves on the sprayed trees was obtained with similar sprays without citric acid. Results show that it is not necessary to supplement NaE ys with soil injection treatments to obtain good control of on trees showing mild to moderate YTD symptoms.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 94728

Somatic embryogenesis in calamansi (X Citrofortunella mitis J. Ingram and H Moore) and pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.)Merr.)


Pate¤a, LF; de Leus, GR; Dimaculangan, JG; Barba, RC
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21(sup. 1): 66 (1996)

Abstract:
Somatic embryos were obtained from nucellar-endosperm (NE) explants of calamansi (X Citrofortunella mitis J. Ingram and H. Moore) two and a half (2 1/1) months after inoculation (with one month subculture) onto Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium with 0.05 mg/L picloram. Embryos germinated and are currently grown on picloram-free medium for shoot and root growth. This technique is an alternative approach to produce triploid (seedless) plants from the calamansi endosperm. Earlier work consisted of inducing calli from NE tissues using a different medium and ageing (more than one year) the calli resulting to plantlet regeneration (Avenido, Zamora, Barba and Pate¤a, 1991). Similar work is being done in pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm)Merr.) but using only nucellar tissue. his technique is being done as an alternative to meristem culture to obtain true-to-type and virus free-plants. This work is in progress.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 93988

Production guide for citrus


Solano, E; Ochasan, J; Mamaril, R
Technoguide Series No.1: 1-16(1995): Production Guide for Citrus

Abstract:
Citrus as a group is one of the major fruit crop grown in the Pilippines. This production guide discuss the most common varieties of citrus plants in the Philippines. Also found in the production guide are the varieties' adaptation, cultural requirements, harvesting, marketing, insect pests and diseases and sources of planting materials in the Cordillera region.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 94082

An in vivo study on the antitussive effects of freeze-dried leaf extract of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (suha) on citric acid-induced coughs on guinea pigs


Leongson, MCJ; Lacao, C; Lacorte, L; Lampa, F
Inventory of Health Researches : 143(1994-1996)

Abstract:
Determination of LD50 of Citrus grandis was done on mice using an initial dose of 1.4gm/kg BW leaf extract of 0.2 log interval. This was further increased to 0.5 log interval, and results showed that toxicity to C. grandis occurs was then investigated on 45 guinea pigs by inducing cough through administration of citric acid. Dose was arbitrarily set at 10 gm/kgBW. The guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups;positive and negative controls and test drug. These groups were administered Dextromethorpan, NSS and C.grandis extract,respectively. Baseline and post-treatment coughs of the guinea pigs were determined. One-tailed analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the means of Dextromethorpan, NSS and C. grandis. Further analysis through t-test revealed that means of Dextromethorpan and C.grandis varied significantly with NSS. Moreover, it was found that C.grandis reduced coughs comparably with Dextromethorpan.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94980

Food value of mangoes as compared to some common fruits


Crops Sector Division;HVCC-Mango Task Force

Proceedings; First Regional Mango Congress; Metro Centre, Tagbiliran City, Philippines; 20-22 July 2000; pp

Abstract:
This article present the major nutritional contribution of mango and other fruits commonly eaten.

Availability :
Mango Information Network (MIN); Crops Research Division (CRD)




NO. 91561

Citrus wastes for vinegar production


Manalo, JB; Torres, RC; Manongsong, EB; Vuelban, AM
Philippine Technology Journal 12(2): 20-24;1987

Abstract:
Kalamansi pupl and seeds which constitute 20 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively of the fruit were found to be good sorces of quality vinegar, comparable to the commercial vinegar with titratable acidity of from 5.00 to 6.64 per cent after four months storage at ordinary conditions. Organoleptic scores given by the evaluators for the three samples namely: vinegar from the seeds, pulp, and a mixture of seeds and pulp, were, for odor, color, taste, texture and general acceptability 7 or an equivalent of like moderately for the vinegar from the seeds and pulp and 8 or the equivalent of like very much for the vinegar obtained from the mixture of pulp and seeds. As for the degree of sourness, a score of 5 was given by all the evaluators who agreed that the samples were indeed very sour, and their willingness to purchase the product if commercialized.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 39316

Responses of trifoliate orange, its hybrids and some citrus relatives to the greening pathogens


Martinez, AL; 1970
Philippine Phytopathological Society;c/o Dept. of Plant Pathology;Institute of Biological Sciences;U.P. Los Baños;College;Laguna

Philippine Phytopathology 6(1&2): 6(1970)

Abstract:
Seedlings of Severinia buxifolia a citrus relative, inoculated with the greening (leaf-mottle-yellow) pathogen, developed symptoms of slight leaf yellowing, faint mottling, and slight stunting. The three symptoms did not develop on inoculated seedlings of trifoliate orange and its hybrids. Troyer and Carrizo citranges and 2 citrus relatives, Aeglopsis chevalieri and Triphasia trifolia. But sub- inoculation from these symptomless plants in seedlings of laud, ponkan, szinkom, sziwuikom, and Madam Vinous sweet orange resulted in symptoms of severe yellowing, mottling and stunting, demonstrating that the symptomless plants are apparently tolerant and that they can serve as carriers and/or hosts of the greening pathogen. When Laud, Ponkan, Szikim, Sziwuikom, and Madam Vinous scions were grown on trifoliate orange, Troyer and Carrizo rootstocks and these were inoculated with the greening pathogen, all the scion varieties showed severe symptoms as when inoculated as seedlings. It is evident that trifoliate orange, Troyer and Carrizo, which are considered to be tolerant of the greening pathogen when inoculated as seedlings, do not impart tolerance to the scion varieties.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 26800

Fruit budwood nursery setup and production


Chong, ST; Raziah, ML
Fruit Research Division; MARDI Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p399-405

Abstract:
The planting system and management of a four hectare budwood nursery is described. Fruit types and their recommended clone with commercial values only are chosen for this budwood nursery. The development and operational costs of setting-up the budwood nursery are also discussed. The budwood production estimates for each fruit type are listed. The cash flow for this proposed budwood nursery production for a five year period is also given.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26801

The effect of water-logging on citrus rootstocks


Ko, WW
Fruit Research Division; MARDI Cameron Highlands; Pahang

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p406-410

Abstract:
In low-lying areas, citrus are severely affected by the wet soil condition. The citrus varieties not only should be resistant to soil-borne diseases, but they should also be able to withstand the adverse effect of water-logging. Thus, 20 varieties of citrus rootstocks were evaluated for their growth performance in wet alluvial soil in Cameron HigWands to select those which are tolerant to waterlogging. Citron (Citrus medica), Alenow (C. macrophylla) and Mexican lime (C. auranJifolia) did not survive in wet soils. Citron was the most susceptible to water-logging, and it did not survive for more than a year after planting. However:, no symptoms of Phytophthora infection were found on these varieties.|Although Rangpur lime (C.limonia) was known to be tolerant to tristeza virus and Phytophthora collar rot disease, a few trees were affected by water-logging. Rangpur lime is only suitable in drought-prone areas. Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) under water-logging condition showed chlorosis on the foliage and the trees eventually declined. The adverse condition predisposed the trees to Phytophthora infection causing necrosis and gummosis at the collar region of the tnmk. Limau Langkat (C. suhuiensis) survived longer than Valencia sweet orange, but eventually it was also severely affected by Phytophthora collar and root rot disease. Rootstocks that were tolerant to water-logging were Cleopatra (C. reticulata var. reshni), Tirnkat (C. reticulata var. oleocarpa), Sunki (C. reticulata var. austera), Brazilian sour orange (C. auranJium), Poorman orange (C. grandis hybrid), Troyer citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis), Swingle citrumelo (Poncirus.trifoliata xC. paradisi) and the Poncirus trifoliata strains (Rubidoux, Pomeroy and Karatachi). Brazilian sour orange as well as other varieties of sour orange, though tolerant to water-logging and Phytophthora collar rot disease, should not be used as a rootstock because it is very susceptible to tristeza virus. Poncirus trifoliata was too dwarf that early growth was too slow in the nursery. However, it should be only evaluated as a rootstock for high density planting. Cleopatra, Timkat, Sunki, Troyer citrange and Swingle citrumelo can be used as rootstocks in water-logged areas because they are also not affected by tristeza virus.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26802

Microbud grafting (MBG) and graft healing process in citrus


Abd. Jamil, Z; Masao, I; Nobumasa, N
MARDI Research Station; Jerangau; Terengganu

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p414-419

Abstract:
A technique of microbud grafting (MHO) using lateral buds of size 0.4 to 0.8 mm long and 0.3 to 0.6 mm base diameter was successfully done on citrus and most of closely related genera in the same sub-tribe Citrinae. Rootstocks were etiolated in small polyethylene bags and grafting was done under dissecting microscope at 12-14 days after sowing. When grafted buds were placed at temperature of24-27°C, they successfully sprouted within 10-14 days after grafting. Using Poncirus trifoliata culLivar "Karatachi" as rootstock, scions of Citrus unshiu, Microcitrus australasica, Fortunella margarita, Atalantia ceylanica, Citropsis schweinfurthii, Hesperethusa crenulata, Pleiospermium species and Severinia buxifolia were successfully grafted on it.|Sectioning of the union portion of the graft combination Citrus unshiu cultivar "Okitsu Wase" scion on "Karatachi" rootstocks at various ages was done to study the graft healing process. Cellular activity at graft union in MHO was first observed at 24 hours after grafting where callus tissue appeared from both the scion and rootstock. The scion and stock adhered to each other within five days after grafting. In the zones within the vascular ring, most callus proliferated from the rootstock vascular bundles and pith whereas outside the ring most callus originated from the scion and moved downward. Procambium bridging between stock and scion occurred at 10 days after grafting followed subsequently by differentiation of vascular vessels. Within 21 days after grafting, differentiation of organs were completed. The graft wound necrotic layer gradually disappeared and the sprouted buds gained its full leaf size and green color. Not much changes occurred anatomically from 28 to 56 days after grafting.|During grafting, when there were poor vascular bundles contact between the stocks and scions, the procambium formation tended to move outward causing delay in bridging the stocks and scions.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26849

Larvicidal activities of essential oils from two selected Citrus species


Zaridah, MZ; Nor Azah, MA; Abu Said, A; Abd. Majid, J; Mohd. Faridz, Z;. Siti Asha, AB
Medicinal Plants Program; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p125

Abstract:
Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever is still one of the main diseases in Malaysia transmit by vector mosquito. It can cause death if there's no prevention was taken. One of the controls to prevent the disease is against the larvae of the vector mosquitoes. In view of this, two selected Citrus species from various resources and plant parts were distilled and the essential oils obtained were subjected to larvicidal assay against Aedes aegypti Linneaus, vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values after 24-h exposure exhibited that fruits of Citrus hystrix essential oil from Rembau gave the strongest larvicidal property of 15.1 ppm. The rest of Citrus essential oils also showed convincing LC50 value within range of 15.7 ppm to 40.3 ppm.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 25607

Effect of enzyme recycling on the ease of peeling of Pommelo (Citrus grandis)


Aziz, AG; Osman, A; Ghazali, HM; Abdul Rahman, R
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 12th National Biotechnology Seminar; Lumut; Perak; 12-15 November 2000; p413-415

Abstract:
Recycling the enzyme solution for further peeling of pommelo was optimised. The peeling process involved removing the peel near the stem end, scoring, immersion in 0.45% Peelzyme solution at pH 4.5, vacuum infusion followed by incubation at room temperature. The peeled fruit was then rinsed with tap water. After the first peeling process, the enzyme solution was recovered by filtration and fresh batches of fruits were then immersed in this enzyme solution for repeated use of the enzyme. The enzyme solution the first peeling process was analysed for residual enzyme activity as well as the solution for second and third peeling processes.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25604

Membrane removal of Mandarin Orange (Citrus suhuiensis) segments by enzyme infusion


Liu, F; Osman, A; Ghazali, HM
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 12th National Biotechnology Seminar; Lumut; Perak; 12-15 November 2000; p386-387

Abstract:
The production of minimally processed, fresh produce is a new emerging industry in Asia. Peeling is one of the most important preparatory steps in the processing of some fruits and vegetables. It was found that Honey Mandarin Oranges (Citrus suhuiensis) that were enzymatically peeled (with the aid of pectic enzyme (Peelzym 11.) infusion) also has the potential of having its segment membranes (rag) removed with the aid of a different enzyme (cellulase). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the ease of membrane removal of Citrus suhuiensis segments using cellulase (Celluclast.). Fruits that have been enzymatically peeled were placed in a dessicator together with one litre of diluted enzyme (Celluclast.) solution ranging from 0.4 to 6.0% (v/w) at pH 6. This was followed by 15 minutes of vacuum infusion at 700 mm Hg. Vacuum infused segments were then transferred along with the enzyme solution into a 3 litre beaker, and placed in a shaking incubator at a temperature of 28 1 2'C. The time taken for complete membrane removal for different Celluclast concentrations was recorded. Results obtained indicate that 3% (v/w) Celluclast. is optimal for membrane removal of mandarin segments producing segments that were firm, with less broken segments, had good appearance and relatively free of adhering rag (membrane).

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25605

Peeling of Limau Kasturi (Citrus mitis Blanco) by enzyme infusion


Hazniza, A; Azizah, O; Hasanah, MG; Russly, AR
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 12th National Biotechnology Seminar; Lumut; Perak; 12-15 November 2000; p392-394

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to determine the optimum concentration of Peelzym 11 (commercial preparation of pectinase from Novo Nordisk Ferment Ltd., Switzerland) required to loosen the peel for easy peeling because up to date, enzymatic peeling for Limau kasturi is yet to be established. Enzymatic peeling was performed by means of infusion of Peelzym II under vacuum. This process was then followed by a period of incubation (15 minutes) in the enzyme solution and removal of loosened peel. At the optimum vacuum pressure of 500 mm Hg, different concentrations of Peelzym 11 (0, 0.4, 0-6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.4 %; v/w) were used. The time taken to loosen the peel was recorded for each concentration. Results obtained indicate that a shorter time was required to loosen the peel of Limau kasturi increasing Peelzym II concentration. There was also a significant (P<0.05) difference between enzyme concentration in the capability of loosening the peel, except for 1.0 and 1.2% (v/w). Enzyme concentration of 1.0% (v/w) was found to be the optimum concentration as it produced fruits which were free of adhering albedo and injured segments at the fastest time (135 minutes) as compared to fruits exposed to other concentration of the enzyme.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25788

Effect of using different packaging films on the texture and weight of enzymatically peeled pommelo (Citrus grandis) segments during low temperature storage


Aziz, AG; Osman, A; Ghazali, HM; Abdul Rahman, R
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001); Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001; p164- 167

Abstract:
The effect of using different packaging films during storage of enzyme peeled pommelo segments at 7±1ºC, 90-95% RH on segments firmness (compression force), toughness (shearing force) and fluid loss (dehydration) during storage were studied Pommelo fruit segments were placed in polystyrene tray and wrapped with PVC films of different thicknesses (10 and 14µm). The unwrapped samples served as control The dry-pack unpasteurized pommelo segments were stored at 7±1º C; 90-95% RH and changes in the physical characteristics were analysed at one day intervals for a duration of seven days. Generally, changes in the physical characteristics were delayed in samples wrapped in packaging films as compared to the control Samples wrapped with PVC loss less fluid compared to the control which turned drier and drier during the storage study for one week On the other hand, samples wrapped with PVC 14µm thickness loss less fluid than samples wrapped with PVC 10,um thickness during the study. Samples wrapped with PVC remain firm and moist throughout the study while the control became dry and tough. Generally, segments wrapped Kith PVC 14,um thickness remained more fresh and had a very good shiny appearance compared to the other samples wrapped with PVC 1O µm thickness film.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25809

Observation on plant characters, fruit quality and consumer acceptability of pomelo mutants induced by gamma rays irradiation


Ibrahim, 0; Mohd. Bahagia; Rusli, I; Mohd. Zahidi, Z
Horticulture Research Centre; MARDI Cameron Highlands; 39000 Tanah Rata; Pahang

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p8-11

Abstract:
Pomelo clone Shatian (J8) was irradiated with gamma rays at the rate of 20, 30 and 4OGy to generate new pomelo mutants. Only results from Shatian mutant (J8 2OGy) plants are presented in this paper. Many changes in agronomic characters were observed. Plants are smaller with obloid shape, more spreading and without spine. A reduction in fruit weight and a slight change in fruit shape was observed with a good pyriform fruit shape maintained. The thick albedo in standard variety, considered unacceptable character was changed in fruits of certain mutants. Brix readings in mutants range between 13 to 14% compared to 9-10% in standard variety. Survey conducted showed that Shatian mutants are highly preferred by consumer because of their sweet and low acid character.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25811

Drought stress and recovery of Mango and citrus plants


Ismail, I; Mohd. Razi, I
Department of Crop Science; Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 10 ( (2001);Proceedings of the 12th. Plant Physiology Conference; 29 September 2001;p85-87

Abstract:
Drought stress has reduced photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance of mango and citrus plants. After 6 days under drought stress the value of physiological responses was reduced more than 50?lo. Citrus plants showed high peroxidase activity compared to mango plants. High peroxidase gave ability for faster recovery than plants with low peroxidase activity.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25876

Antimicrobial property of methanolic extract of Citrus mitis seeds


Arif Zaidi, J; Radzali, M; Johari, R; Mohd Aspollah, S
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Towards Modernisation of Research and Technology in Herbal Industries; Proceedings of the Seminar on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; FRIM; 24-25 July 2001; p102

Abstract:
Citrus mitis (Rutaceae), locally known as "limau kasturi" is generally regarded more as an edible plant than medicinal properties have been less studied compared to other Citrus species such as C. hystrix ("limau purut"), C. paradisi (grapefruit) and C. aurantifolia ("limau nipis"), despite its common use in local cuisine. In this study, 60% methanolic extract of the seed has been tested for its antimicrobial activity using seven bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherechia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a pathgenic fungus (Candida albicans). The microbes were plated and inhibitory zones around the discs infused with the extract were observed after 12 and 24 h. Simultaneously, positive controls using antibiotic discs of tetracycline (5(g), streptomycin (10 (g) and chloramphenicol (5 (g) were set up. After 12 h of exposure to 1.5 mg methanolic extract, significant inhibition was observed. Varied inhibitory effect were observed for the subsequent 12 h. The results showed that the extract had successfully inhibited bacterialgrowth but the degree of inhibition varied from species to species. Reverse phase high performence liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) technique was used to identify and quantify the presence of common citrus flavonoids in the methanolic extract. Among others, the common flavonoids present were naringin, rutin and hesperidin.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26312

Potential application of citrus hystrix oil as an active ingredient in hand cleanser formulation


Mailina, J; Nor Azah, MA; Mastura, M; Abdul Majid, J; Mazurah, MI; Mohd. Faridz, ZP
Medicinal Plants Programme; Biotechnology Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Seminar on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants; Current Trends & Perspectives; FRIM; 20-21 July 2004;p49

Abstract:
The application of Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) oil in the development of hand cleanser as a value-added product was carried out. In this study, the fruits of C. hystrix collected from Kuala Krau, Pahang were subjected to large-scale hydro distillation. The oil has a fresh pleasant lemon-like, citrusy aroma. Due to its aroma and other additional possible benefits such as natural cleanser with antimicrobial potential, been used as an active ingredient in the development of hand cleanser. The formulated products then undergo several product performance studies such as pH, viscosity and stability. Initial results from a preliminary consumer acceptance study shows encouraging response from a majority of 50 respondents.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26262

The production of flavonoids (Quercetin and Hesperatin) from callus culture of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm and Panzer) swingle


Siti Mahyuni
University Putra Malaysia [UPM]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; 1999; p106

Abstract:
The application of plant tissue culture technique for plant flavonoids production shows some promising results. However, certain limitation exist mainly because many cultures do not produce significant amount of the characteristic compounds from the plants which they were derived. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish the C. aurantifolia (Christm & Panzer) Swingle callus cultures for bioproduction system of flavonoid compounds (quercetin and hesperetin) and to optimize their production by application of yeast extract supplementation. The callus culture was established by planting the explant excised from peel of mature fruit on the basal medium Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) supplemented with 1.5 mg/L (w/v) a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 0.5 mg/L (w/v) 6-furfurylamino purine (kinetin), 30 g/L (w/v) sucrose and solidified with 3.0 g/L (w/v) phytagel (pH medium 5.7). Growth of callus cultures incubated in the light and dark conditions at 27 ± 2 °C showed similar sigmoidal patterns, in which their maximum growth at 6th week of incubation reached 314% and 264% respectively. The major flavonoid compounds in callus cultures were determined using HPLC technique with UV detector. It was found that the callus cultures could produce the major flavonoids quercetin and hesperetin. The quercetin production from callus incubated in the light and dark condition was 19.73 mg/g. d. wt. tissue and 1.90 mg/g. d. wt. tissue respectively whilst the hesperitin production from callus incubated in the light and dark conditions was 0.64 mg/g.d.wt. tissue and 0.58 mg/g.d.wt. tissue respectively. Supplementation of relatively low concentration of yeast extract (YE) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L, (w/v)) to the culture medium did not show any effect on the quercetin and hesperitin production from callus cultures. Higher concentration of yeast extract (YE) supplementation (4.0 g/L, (w/v)) was found to decrease the production of quercetin and hesperitin by 18.92% and 7.82% for the callus incubated in the light condition 13.56% and 6.54% for the callus incubated in the dark condition. This results indicated that yeast extract was not a suitable elicitor for enhancing the production of quercetin and hesperetin from C. aurantifolia callus cultures.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26322

Aacceptability of aromatherapy fragrances scented with limau purut leaves oil


Norma, H; Rohani, MY; Ahmad, AW; Badrul Hisham, AB; Abdul Malek, Y; Juliana, AE
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Seminar on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants; Current Trends & Perspectives; FRIM; 20-21 July 2004; p 35

Abstract:
Citrus aroma has been used as flavour and perfumery materials in food, flavour, beverage and fragrance industries. Limau purut or Citrus hystrix DC is one of the potential citruses that can be planted in Malaysia. Essential oil can be extracted from fruit peels and leaves with different aroma characteristics. As a flavour material, it is used for appetizing and culinary purposes. For perfumery, it poses a refreshing note or top note. The objectives of the project were (i) To formulate aromatherapy fragrance with Limau purut leaves oil (local) as a base ingredient and scented with other essential oils for increasing the aromatic conditions, and (ii) To determine the degree of refreshing index and acceptable formulation for aromatherapy fragrance. Three formulations of aromatherapy fragrances (AF1, AF2 and AF3) were formulated based on the ratio of 3:2:1 representing 50%, 30% and 20% of top note, middle note and base note respectively. After mixing the three notes, the base oil was diluted with diethyl phalate at a dilution of 3% v Iv, as recommended for aromatherapy massage or fragrance oils. As a result, the evaluation of Limau purut aromatherapy fragrances showed that AF3 formulation was the most refreshing fragrance (significance at p<0.05 level). AF1and AF2 were also found to be acceptable as refreshing aromatherapy fragrances.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26331

Characterisation of aroma volatiles in llmau purut essential oils (Citrus hystrix)


Nor Azah, MA; Mailina,J; Abd. Majid, J; Mohd. Faridz, Z; Abu Said, A; Nor Nadiah, MY
Medicinal Plants Programme; Biotechnology Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Seminar on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants; Current Trends & Perspectives; FRIM; 20-21 July 2004;p80

Abstract:
The chemical composition of the peel and fruit oils of Citrus hystrix D.C. (limau purut) was investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils were mainly made up of monoterpenes with sabinene, beta-pinene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol being the principle components. The major constituents of the fruit peel oil were sabinene and beta-pinene, contributing to 21.5% and 19.0% of the total oil, respectively. The other main components were limonene (15.3%), terpinen-4- o1 (12.6%) and alfa-terpineol (5.0%). The fruit oil on the other hand, contained limonene (15.2%), terpinen-4-o1 (15.0%), sabinene (14.7%), beta- pinene (13.4%), and alfa-terpineol (9.7%). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC- O) was also used to identify the key odorants present in the oils. Amongst the chemical components identified, terpinen-4-ol, alfa-terpineol, linalool and citronellol were the odour- characteristic compounds, giving out the distinct 'limau purut' odour, a fresh sharp lemon-like, citrus aroma.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 96642

Status of banana production in Oriental Mindoro


Bacudo, AA; Leynes, JC
MinSCAT [Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology] Research Journal 1 (1): 1-8 (2002)

Abstract:
Survey was conducted to generate information on the present condition of banana industry in the province and to describe the production and postharvest practices performed by banana growers.|Descriptive survey was used. Total area planted to banana was 21,784 hectares. Naujan had the biggest production of 48,685 MT in 2001 while Pola had the highest average yield/ha. Suckers were the planting materials commonly used. Most of the farmers sold their produce to the assemblers in their locality. Problems encountered and suggested solutions were discussed.

Availability :
Office of the Director for Research and Extension; MinSCAT Main Campus, Alcate, Victoria, Oriental Mindoro; Philippines




NO. 26489

Chemical constituents of essential oils in Citrus hystrix D.c. and Citrus microcarpa Bunge from Peninsular Malaysia


Nadyawati, CN
Department of Pharmacy; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract of Research and Health Science (Abstrak Penyelidikan dan Sains Kesihatan) 1996-1999; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The chemical composition of citrus oil, water-distilled from the leaf of Citrus hystrix D.C. and Citrus microcarpa Bunge, was determined by gas chromatography (GC), equipped with a non-polar capillary column (SE 30), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Most of the compounds identified were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The major compound of C. hystrix was citronellal (65.9%). Other compounds present in significant amounts were citronellol (6.2%), geranyl acetate (5.0%) and linalool (4.1%). Sesquiterpenes were more abundant than monoterpenes in C. micropcorpa. Hedycmyol (20.8%) and x-eudesmol (12.5%) were the major representatives of sesquiterpenes whereas B- pinene (12.2%) and limonene (6.6%) were the major monoterpenes present in the oil.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26491

Essential ols o a few species from Malaysia in insect repellent preparation


Norhasyimah, AR
Department of Pharmacy; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract of Research and Health Science (Abstrak Penyelidikan dan Sains Kesihatan) 1996-1999; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
The chemical composition of the essential oils, water-distilled from Cymbopogon nardus (L.), Rendle, Melaleuca leucadendron Linn. and Citros hystrix D.C., was investigated especially for the presence of the insect repellent agents, i.e. citronellal, geraniol, limonene, citronellol, terpinolene and a- pinene by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of C. nardus contained citronellal, geraniol and limonene with a concentration of 35.18%, 22.93% and 1.78% respectively. The essential oil of C. hystrix contained a very high content of citronella, i.e. 65.92%. B-pinene (8.05%), citronellol (6.19%), limonene (0.16%) and a-pinene (0.13%) were also present in the oil. M. leucadendron was also found to contain monoterpenes which act as insect repellent The oils were used as active ingredients in the preparation of insect repellent cream and ointment.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26488

Toxicity screening of essential oils of some Malaysian Plants with Artemia salina Leach and determination of chemical components of the most active essential oils


Mastura, A
Department of Pharmacy; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract of Research and Health Science (Abstrak Penyelidikan dan Sains Kesihatan) 1996-1999; National University of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Toxicity screening of essential oils from nine plant species (i.e. Citrus aurantifolia, C. hystrix, C. microcarpa, Curcuma aeruginosa, C. domestica, C. xanthorriza, Zingiber cassumunar, Z. officinalis and Z. zerumbet) were performed on brine shrimp, Artemia salina Leach. The objectives of this study were to compare the toxicity of the essential oils and to identify the chemical components of the most active essential oil. Essential oils, which were extracted by water distillation method, were diluted to certain concentrations and exposed to the brine shrimp. The number of dead brine shrimp, after 6 hours (acute) and 24 hours (chronic), was recorded and analysed to determine the LC50 values for all essential oils with 95% confidence interval. The LC5o values of the essential oils were within the range of 28.5 ug/ml to 221.5 ug/ml for acute test and 4.5 ug/ml to 35.6 J.1g/ml for chronic test. The oil of C. hystrix leaf exhibited the highest toxicity with LC50 28.5 ug/ml for acute test and LC50 4.5 ug/ml for chronic test. The chemical components of the oil of C. hystrix leaf was analysed by gas chromatography (Ge) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GeMS). Citronellal (60.41%), geraniol (9.45%) and geranyl asetate (5.25%) were found to be the major components in the essential oil. Other components present in significant amount were neryl asetate, B-elemene, x- cubebene, sabinene, B-pinene, humulene dan myrcene.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26562

Effect of sowing media on germination of seeds of Citrus hystrix (Limau purut)


Farah Fazwa, MA; Mohd Noor, M; Nor Azurawati, MS; Ab. Rasip, AG
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong 52109; Kuala Lumpur

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p20

Abstract:
The effect of sowing media on germination capability of Citrus hystrix seeds (Limau Purut) had been investigated. This was to find out the best sowing media for germinating seeds of C.hystrix. The experiment was carried out in the nursery of the Forest Research Institute Malaysia. Complete randomized design was chosen in this experiment due to limited number of seed sources. The four kinds of sowing media used were 100 % of coconut husk, mixture of forest top soil and sand (1:1), 100 % of sawdust and 100 % of rice hulls. Germination was recorded at two days interval. The results showed that germination capability of seeds of C.hystrix was significantly different in different kinds of sowing media. The best sowing media for germinating seeds of C.hystrix was sawdust followed by mixture of forest top soil and sand, coconut husk and rice hulls. It was also observed that germination period of C.hystrix seeds took almost one month to complete. The seeds, however, reached their germination peak at the week of 3-4 after sowing.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26585

Callus induction on a basal medium of murashige and skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators by using different explants of Citrus grandis L. Osbeck


Rafidah, S; Suryani, A; Johari, R; Radzali, M
Department of Biochemistry; Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

15th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference;14-16 September 2004;Port Dickson; Negeri Sembilan;p32

Abstract:
This preliminary study was performed in order to induce callus on different concentrations of plant growth regulators supplied to A basal medium of Murashige and Skoog by using young leaf, stem, root and peel explants of Citrus grandis. According to the results obtained, they showed that the basal medium of Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962), containing 3.0g.L-1 (w/v) of gelrite, 30g.L-1 (w/v) of sucrose, pH 5.7 and supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators such as Kinetin (KN), 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NM) were capable initiated callus derived from young leaf, stem, root and peel explants of Citrus grandis. Calluses were more succesfully induced and proliferated from young leaf and peel explants on the basal medium of Murashige and Skoog supplemented with KN (3 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (3 mg.L-1). A combination of KN (1 mg.L-1) and NAA (2 mg.L- I) are the best plant growth regulators for induction of callus from young stem explant of Citrus grandis. Meanwhile, a combination of KN (l mg.L - I) and 2,4 -D (3 mg.L -I) is the best plant growth regulators for induction of callus from young root explant of Citrus grandis. Most of calluses formed were friable, compact texture and yellowish-white in colour for all young explants because they were actually meristematic tissues which were more suitable for the plant tissue culture systems.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26610

Determination of antioxidant activities in various II organic extracts from different parts of local Citrus grandis (Limau bali)


Mashitoh, AR; Radzali, M; Mahmud, TMM
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 12(2003); Proceedings of the 14th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference 2003; Genting Highlands; Pahang; 23-25 September 2003; p10-15

Abstract:
This preliminary study was analytically performed in order to investigate the percentage of yields and antioxidant activities of various organic extracts such as diethylether, ethanol, methanol and water from peels, leaves and juices of Citrus grandis. Among four organic solvents used, ethanol extract of peels yielded of 29.733 ± 0.64%, juices: 26.05 ± 0.97% and leaves: 17.83 ±0.52% and methanol extract of peel yields: 20.153 ± 0.45%, juices: 25.86±0.75% and leaves: 19.37±0.80% are showed the most effective in extracting of studied of C. grandis respectively compared to diethylether extract of peels yielded of: 2.60 ±0.11%, juices: 14.27±0.87% and leaves 2.13 ±0.25% and water extract of peels yielded of : 12.80±0.20%,juices: 14.27±0.87%andleaves 10.132±0.42%. However, water extract also showed an appreciable yield. Results indicated that the yield of most extracts was greater with the more polar solvents used. Antioxidant activities of various extracts were biochemically evaluated by using two established tests: -(a) Linoleic acid model system (conjugated diene) and (b) 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The antioxidant activities were scientifically compared with authentic standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and a-tocopherol (Vitamin E). Results of conjugated diene test were as followed for ethanolic extract of peels: 0.97 ±0.03 activity per 10ul soluble extracts, leaves: 0.775±0.06 activity per 10ul soluble extracts and juices: 0.74 ±0.06 activity per 10ul soluble extracts, methanolic extract of peel: 0.818 ±0.02 activity per 10ul soluble extracts, leaves: 0.884 ±0.02 activity per 10µl soluble extracts and juices: 0.70±0.03 activity per 10ul soluble extracts, water extract of peel: 0.924±0.03 activity per 10µl soluble extracts, leaves: 0.653 ±0.02 activity per 10ul soluble extracts and juices 0.615 ±0.04 activity per 10µl soluble extracts and diethylether extract of peels: 0.15 ±0.04 activity per 10µl soluble extracts, leaves: 0.102±03 activity per 10ul soluble extracts and juices 0.069±0.04 activity per 10µl soluble extracts. Results also exhibited that antioxidant activity of peel in ethanolic extract (0.97 ±0.03 activity per 10 ul soluble extracts) was found to be a best as compared to synthethic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) (0.98±0.04 activity per 10µl soluble extracts) and it was showed a slightly less potent antioxidant than a-tocopherol (0.95 ±0.04 activity per 10µl extract). DPPH antioxidant activity test showed a positive result by decreasing absorbance with time in all types of organic solvents usedfor different samples of Citrus grandis.

Availability :
Mohd Rizal Kassim




NO. 26611

Preliminary transformation study of Pomelo (Citrus grandis)


Rogayah, S; Azlinda Erny, Y
Biotechnology Centre; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); P.O. Box 12301, 50774 Kuala Lumpur

Transactions of the Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Vol. 12(2003); Proceedings of the 14th. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology Conference 2003; Genting Highlands; Pahang; 23-25 September 2003; p21-25

Abstract:
Various factors affecting gene transformation through hypocotyl ex plants of Citrus grandis were investigated to optimize gene transformation. Those factors included strains of Agrobacterium, bacterial densities, transformation enhancer concentrations and co-culture conditions. The results showed that hypocotyl ex plants infected with Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 demonstrated higher level of transient GUS expression than those infected with AGLI and LBA 4404 and strain EHA 105 was used in all subsequent experiment as the basis for identifying the most appropriate condition for transformation. Higher percentage of GUS expression was obtained with explants inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 (OD600 0.2) for 40 min. The best co-culture condition was the incubation of the explants for three days in culture medium supplemented with 200,µM acetosyringone.

Availability :
Mohd Rizal Kassim




NO. 26655

Effects of different desiccation methods on the survival of Citrus grandisand, Citrus madurensis seeds in liquid nitrogen


Ugap, AW; Sinniah, UR
Department of Crop Science; Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Agriculture Congress 2004; University Putra Malaysia; 4-7 October 2004; p151-153

Abstract:
The effects of desiccation methods on the survival of C. grandis and C.madurensis seeds with and without exposure in liquid nitrogen (LN) were studied. Two desiccation methods were employed, namely laminar airflow (LAF) and silica gel (SG). Survival percentage of seeds prior to LN was satisfactory for both citrus species irrespective of desiccation. As for seeds exposed to LN in C. grandis seeds, desiccation with LAF resulted in better survival than SG. From this study, it was observed that desiccation in LAF is a suitable method to reduce the moisture content without much loss in survival.

Availability :
Azarudin




NO. 26748

Pomelo improvement using gamma irradiation: preliminary studies


Mohd Bahagia; Ibrahim, O
Horticulture Research Centre; MARDI, GPO. P.O Box 12301; 50774 Kuala Lumpur.

Proceedings of the fifth National Genetics Congress; 25-27 March 2003; Kuala Lumpur; p83-86

Abstract:
In 1994, pomelo varieties namely Melomas, J8, P .Manis, P .Masam and C4l were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 20 Gy, 30 Gy and 40 Gy to generate mutants so as to broaden the genetic pool for subsequent pomelo improvement. Treatment on J8 variety with 30 Gy showed many interesting changes. The most significant change was plant size whereby the mutant plants were smaller than the original non-irradiated parent. Other related changes include tree shape, growth habit, branch density, branch angle, pulp colour, sugar and acid content. These findings indicate that mutation induction is a valuable tools in pomelo improvement and the paper will discuss further these desirable traits in relation to their usefulness in pomelo industry.

Availability :
Salwana




NO. 26746

Cloning and expression of the genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the peel of the MaLaysian pummelo (Citrus grandis) during fruit development


Maheswary, Vl; Tan, CS; Anisah, H; Au, SL; Marzukhi, H
Biotechnology Centre; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); P.O. Box 12301, 50774 Kuala Lumpur

Proceedings of the fifth National Genetics Congress; 25-27 March 2003; Kuala Lumpur; p 76-78

Abstract:
We have isolated, cloned and sequenced the partial genes specific for phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and lycopene-beta-cyclase (lyc-B-cyc) of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway from the peel of the Malaysian citrus fruit at different stages of fruit development. Comparison of the partial nucleotide sequences of the genes showed that there was 97-98 % identity with the Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu [ Marc.), Citrus x Paradisi and Citrus sinensis. Expression analysis revealed the highest level of the PSY transcript in the flavedo (peel) at the early developmental stages, decreased towards the 3rd month and later began to accumulate towards fruit maturation.|In contrast, the lyc-B-cyc transcript was present in lower levels at the early developmental stages, decreased slightly towards the 2nd month and then increased again until fruit maturation and ripening. The PDS transcript was also present in low amounts, remained constant until the 3rd month, decreased towards the 4th month and then increased towards 1 fruit maturation. PSY gene induction appears much stronger in the peel throughout the developmental stages, followed by lyc-B-cyc and PDS. Comparison of the expression patterns indicated non-coordinate regulation of the genes in the peel at the different Q: stages of pummelo fruit development.

Availability :
Salwana




NO. 26792

Estimated water requirements of some Malaysian commercial fruit crops


Wan Hassan, WD; Mohd Noor, J; Embi, Y
Agricultural Engineering Division; MARDI Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p188-197

Abstract:
Application of irrigation technology especially the micro irrigation system for fruits production in this country has started only recently i.e less than a decade ago. Realizing that irrigation can enhance crop growth, increased and consistent yield and ensure better fruit quality, irrigated fruit production will continue to increase at an accelerated rate. The benefits of irrigation can be fully exploited if proper system design and practice are adopted. Not withstanding the success of several irrigated fruit farms in this country, experimental data on the crop water requirements of local fruit are not available. Knowledge of crop water requirements is essential in water resources planning, irrigation system selection and design and as well as irrigation scheduling. Whilst waiting for experimental results, which would take significantly long time, it is felt that there is an immediate need to formulate practical estimate figures for design and management purposes.|This paper presents the estimated crop water requirements for every growth stage of some 15 local commercial fruits. It is a useful guide particularly to agricultural/irrigation engineers, irrigation designers, agronomists and farm managers. These values were obtained through mathematical computations applying micro irrigation system approach. They were based on a number of estimated parameters. The most important input parameters were reference evapotranspiration (ETo), crop coefficient (Kc), crop spacing and percent area shaded by the canopy. Crop water requirements were tabulated into four different groups according to four broad agro- ecological zones. However, judicious use of these figures is recommended before a more refined data are available through field measurements.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26796

Citrus cultivars rediscovered - tolerant to greening disease?


Shaharudin, S; Hashim, B
Fruit Research Division; MARDI Cameron Highlands; Pahang

Proceedings of the 3rd National Fruits Symposium; 24-26 September 1991; Genting Highlands; Pahang; p312-314

Abstract:
In the mid-60's there was an upsurge of citrus cultivation in Malaysia. By 1970 there were 3,670 ha planted with citrus by individual growers as well as in collective schemes. However, by 1980 almost 1,000 ha were decimated by diseases, one of which was probably citrus greening disease.|This disease was only confirmed present in Malaysia in 1989 (Lim et aI. 1990). The disease remains the major stumbling block to a healthy and continued growth of our citrus industry and so in 40 other countries in the world.|The growers in the East coast have known very well the devastating effect of greening disease and they aptly called it as 'penyakit daun inai' because the leaves of severely affected trees resemble that of senna leaves in shape and size. To be independent of imports, Malaysia, by the year 2000 needs to grow 14,000 ha citrus to cater for a population of 25 million at a consumption level of 10 kg/capita per year.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26787

Flavour compounds from local aromatic plants


Wong, KC
University Science Malaysia; Minden; Penang

Proceedings-ASEAN Workshop on the Production of Natural Flavours For Food; Kuala Lumpur; 18-22 May 1992; p66-68

Abstract:
The flavour compounds from some local aromatic plants, viz. Kaempferia galanga, Phaeomeria speciosa, Citrus hystrix and Citrus grandis were identified by capillary GC and GC-MS. Areas of application of their flavour mixtures and major components are suggested.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26788

Development and application of Citrus hystrix flavour for food


Muhammad Nor, O
Food Technology Research Centre; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute [MARDI]; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings-ASEAN Workshop on the Production of Natural Flavours For Food; Kuala Lumpur; 18-22 May 1992; p73-77

Abstract:
Steam distilled Citrus hystrix leaf oil was used to develop natural flavour for food use. Analysis of the oil indicated that 93.65% of the oil content was citronellal, a terpenic aldehyde. Other minor volatile constituents were citronellol (1.01%), linalool and ?-terpinolene (0.88%). Suitable applications of C. hystrix natural flavour (water and fat soluble flavours) were recommended.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26858

A study on seed germination of Citrus hystrix (Limau purut) under laboratory and nursery condition


Farah Fazwa, MA; Nor Azurawati, MS; Rozihawati, Z; Ab. Rasip, AG
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM); Kepong, 52109; Selangor

Malaysia Science and Technology Congress 2004: Harnessing R&D Output for Sustainable Development; 5-7 October 2004; Selangor; p200

Abstract:
Germination rate from the fresh seeds of Citrus hystrix (Limau Purut) collected in Mata Ayer, Perlis were investigated. These germination tests were carried out in the laboratory and nursery. The medium used for the germination test in the FRIM nursery is a mixture of sand and forest topsoil in the ratio of 3: 1 by volume which is assumed suitable for all species. Under laboratory condition the temperature is about 28°-30°C and the media used was tissue paper. Daily observation and record of germination were made. Germination percentages under laboratory and nursery conditions were 46% and 24% respectively. T -Test results showed that laboratory condition gave better germination rate. Germination in the laboratory took about two to four weeks while the germination period under nursery was longer, between two to eight weeks. The seed of Citrus hystrix under laboratory condition performed better because the light intensity and the temperature required were constantly controlled.

Availability :
Noor Azlin




NO. 96146

Maturity indices for major pummelo cultivars


Petalino
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Lorica, MV; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; p 49

Abstract:
Pummelo fruits do not ripen further after harvest, hence picking at the right stage of maturity is important. Petalino (DA-BPI-DNCRDC) determined the maturity indices of major pummelo cultiavrs such as 'Amoy Mantan','Magallanes', Dela Cruz (pink','Siamese', and 'Sunwiuluk' through physico-chemical analysis.|Based on a four-year study, pummelo cultivars Amoy Mantan, Magallanes, and Dela Cruz fruits can be harvested at 166 days from flower opening while Siamese and Sunwiuluk reqiure 173 days.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96253

Propagation and uses of some medicinal and aromatic plants in the Cordillera


Noble, BF (ed)
Technology Transfer Tips 5 (1): no pagination (1995)

Abstract:
This technology transfer series volume presents information on the propagation and uses of 23 medicinal and aromatic plants in the Cordillera. Plant descriptions and plant parts utilized are likewise discussed.

Availability :
Technical Services-Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cordillera Administrative Region Loakan Road, Baguio City; Philippines




NO. 96355

Perante orange production and marketing


Patricio, HP; Pasion, EQ; Serra, FG
Sustainable Livelihood Options: An information Kit, Upland Ecosystems; Visayas Avenue, Diliman,Quezon City; Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 1997; pp. 255-265

Abstract:
Perante orange is both sweet-tasting and high-yielding. Among the Philippine orane varieties, it is belived to be the sweetest that even surpasses some imported oranges in taste and quality. Aside from a profitable livelihood alternative for upland farmers, perante orange production enhances biodiversity in the locality as it serves as buffer to adjacent monoculture plantations against pest and diseases. The plantation also serves as vegetative cover to open areas.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 27076

Chemical investigation on essential oils from some Malaysian aromatic plants


Nor Azah, MA; Mailina, J; Abu Said, A; Abd. Majid, J; Mohd. Faridz, Z; Siti Aishah, H; Zainon, AS; Noorsiha, A
Medicinal Plants Programme; Biotechnology Division Forest Research Institute Malaysia; 52109 Kepong; Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
In an ongoing research on the chemical composition of some local Malaysian aromatic plants and evaluation of their potential beneficial properties, leaf, stem bark or flower essential oils from selected families; Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, Piperaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Magnoliaceae and Lauraceae were investigated and chemical constituents determined. Species such as Zingiber zerumbet, Curcuma manga, Curcuma aeruginosa, Amomum testaceum, Citrus hystrix, Citrus maxima, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Xylopia caudata, Xylopia malayana, Vallaris glabra, Michelia alba, Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum scortechenii and Cinnamomum impressiscostatum were included in this study. Identification of the chemical components was based on comparison of their mass spectral data with the Wiley library data base, comparison of calculated retention indices with literature values and co-chromatography of some of the chemical constituents with authentic chemical standards. The current research carried out by the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia will enhance the use of local essential oils in product development especially towards the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmeceutical industries.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27098

Detection of citrus greening disease on citrus varieties in Peninsular Malaysia


Khairulmazmi, A; Kamaruzaman, S; Habibuddin, H; Jugah, AK.
Department of Plant Protection; Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang; Selangor

International Science Congress 2005; 3-6 August 2005; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Citrus greening (CG) is the most destructive disease of citrus in the world. In Malaysia, it was first confirmed by Garnier and Bove, 1989 even though the symptom of the disease and the vector has been observed as early as 1978. Series of survey has been carried out in three states of Peninsular Malaysia i.e. Terengganu (Dungun and Marang), Pahang (Cameroon Highlands), and Selangor (Serdang). A total of ten citrus varieties has been evaluated in this study i.e. Limau Madu (Citrus suhuiensis), Limau Langkat (c. suhuiensis), Limau Purut (c. hystrix), Limau Bali (c. grandis), Limau Kasturi (c. madurensis), Limau Nipis, Sweet Orange (c. sinensis), Cleopatra (c. reticulata), Citrimelo (Poncirus trifoliata x C. paradise) and Troyer citrange (P. trifoliata x C sinensis). Results showed that all citrus varieties showed typical symptoms of greening such as vein yellowing, green vein, dieback, and aborted seed, except Limau Purut. Generally, infected citrus trees seem to produce less shoots compared to healthy citrus trees. Field study showed that disease incident range from 0% (Limau Purut) up to 70%, depending on citrus varieties. Greening vector, Diaphorina citri was detected in all locations surveyed except for Cameroon Highland in Pahang. For verification, symptomatic citrus leaves from all locations were collected and tested using PCR protocol. Data obtained from PCR showed that all citrus varieties were positive to CG except for variety Limau Purut.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 27178

Antioxidative activities of some selected medicinal plants


Salfarina, R; Saidatul Husni, S; Umi Kalsom, Y; Mawardi, R
Department of Biology; Faculty of Science; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
Psidium guajava, Sesbania grandiflora, Citrus aurantifolia and C. hystrix were extracted with methanol to obtain their crude antioxidant extract. The antioxidant properties of these extracts were evaluated using B-carotene bleaching method. The result showed that the crude extract of Sesbania grandiflora, Psidium guajava, Citrus aurantifolia and C. hystrix leaves having significantly strong antioxidative properties compared to the commonly used synthetic antioxidant BHT and Quercetin. Thus, these medicinal plants may have potential as natural antioxidants.

Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 27177

Antioxidant activities of flavonoid components isolated from the leaves of Citrus aurantifolia (Limau nipis) and Citrus hystrix (Limau purut)


Salfarina, R; Umi Kalsom, Y; Saidatul Husni, S; Mawardi, R
Department of Biology; Faculty of Science; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Major Research Findings in the Plantation & Commodities Sector at UPM; Research Management Centre (RMC); UPM Serdang; Selangor; year 2005 [Editors: Zulkifli, D; Nayan Deep, SK; Raha, AR]

Abstract:
Antioxidant has been known for its ability to lessen the free radicals damage. In addition to recognize more natural sources of antioxidant, intensive studies have been done to chemical components of plants to investigate their antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the identified flavonoid components isolated from C. aurantifolia and C. hystrix. Apigenin was found from the leaves of both C. aurantifolia and C. hystrix. Apigenin 7-0-arabinoside, quercetin 7-0-arabinose, tamarixetin and genkwanin were isolated from the leaves of C. aurantifolia, whereas apigenin 7 -a-arabinoside, quercetin 7,4' -0diglucoside, quercetin- 7,4' -O-dirhamnoside and tamarixetin 7-0-glucoside were isolated frqm C. hystrix. All of these components exhibited antioxidative activities that siginificantly different (P
Availability :
Khoo Lip Khoon




NO. 14797

Sugar pattern of exotic fruits in a German market


Sugiyama, N; Roemer, K; Bunemann, G
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Japan.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 123

Abstract:
23 samples of tropical and subtropical fruits were analysed for sugar and acid contents. Glucose and fructose were present in all of them, sucrose was not detected in persimmon (Kaki), fig, pomegranate, and lime. Sorbital was found only in Rosaceae. Citric and malic acid varied considerably between species. Carambola contained soluble oxalic acid. A classification by gross amount of glucose was attempted: kumquat, lychee, and pomegranate led the list, but in pomegranate and kumquat the sweet flavour is alleviated by high titratable acidity. Other fruits with high acidity (exceeding 200 meg.1-1) were cape gooseberry, passionfruit, cranberry (Vacc. macrocarpon) and lime.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14982

Effects of Thai plant extracts on oriental fruit fly. II. Repellency test


Areekul, S; Sinchaisri, P; Tigvatananon, S
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasart [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Sciences] 22 (1): 56-61 (1988)

Abstract:
The repellent potency of plant extracts to oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) was determined on the basis of the rate of oviposition on cups containing 20% citrus juice and coated outside with a mist spray of one gram equivalent of each plant extract per cup. One hundred and thirty extracts from 110 plants, including 13 unidentified species were tested. Fifteen day-old female flies which were known to lay high number of eggs were used in this experiment. Plant extracts which exhibited high repellency to the oviposition of the female flies were obtained from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, Bixa orellana, Citrus hystrix, Citrus melo, Citrus citratus, H. coccineum var. angustifolium, Heliotropium indicum, Homalomena sp., Ocimum gratissimum, Ricinus communis, and T. japonica. The unidentified species were 'enluang' and 'phrataba'. Moderate effect was recorded from the extracts of Allium sativum, M. fruticosum, and 'mehakamlang'. Mild effect was exhibited by plant part extracts of Manilkara zapota, Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, Andrographis paniculata, Annona squamosa, A. nobilis, B. spectabilis, C. siamense, C. zeylanicum, C. comosa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zedoaria, E. blanda, E. adenophorum, Jatropha.curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Litsea cubeba, M. cordifolia, Momordica charantia, Myristica fragrans, P. sarmentosum, P. pilosa, Q. indica, S. tuberosa, and T. crispa. The unidentified species included 'kaikhan', 'kanthamala', 'laima', 'mahao', and 'morakot'.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14821

Effect of various soil moisture regimes on fruit cracking in lemon ( Citrus limo (L.) Burn.)


Josan, JS; Sandhu, AS; Singh, R & Dhillon, DS
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Abricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 158

Abstract:
Studies on fruit cracking in lemon cv. Baramasi were conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, during 1989 and 1990. Fruti cracking was minimum (10.08%) with 20% available soil moisture deficit (ASMD), followed by that under partial shading coupled with 40% available soil moisture deficit (17.86%). However, the cracking of fruits was maximum (33.21%) in the control when irrigation was given at 10 to 15 day interval, starting from April through July. The observations of fruit cracking were recorede from mid June onwards when some of the fruits showed initial symptoms of cracking. The peak fruit cracking period was between the third week of June and third week of July during both years.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14364

Medicinal herbs
Samunphrai klai tua

Wichainan, S
Khaosan Kaset Phak Tawanok Chiangnua [NEROA Newsletter] 22 (1): 47-50 (1993)

Abstract:
Some medicinal properties of Citrus hystrix are discussed.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14377

Factors controlling flowering and fruitset of citrus
Patchai khuapkhum kan ok dok lae titphon khong phut trakun som

Phongsombun, W
Phichit Horticultural Research Centre, Thailand

Witthayasan Sthaban Wichai Phutsuan [Journal of Horticultural Research Institute] 14 (10): 61-64 (1992-1993)

Abstract:
Review article on flowering of citrus.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14471

Study on the physio-morphological characteristics of lime, lemon and other sour pulp citrus fruits of Bangladesh


Abdullah, AM; Hoque, A; Bashar, A
Citrus and Vegetable Seed Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 22 (4): 313-321 (1989)

Abstract:
Characteristics of lime, lemon and other sour pulp citrus fruits of Bangladesh were studied during the period from December 1984 to June 1986. The plant and fruit characteristics of 28 cultivars/lines comprising 6 species were studied and described.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14732

Metaxenia studies in lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm) cv. ludhiana selection


Dhillon, DS & Sandhu, AS
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141, India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 29

Abstract:
Ludhiana Selection lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm) was crossed with six selections of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle), Grapefruit (C. Paradisi Macf.) cv. Marsh Seedless and kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle) during 1986. Jatti Khatti pollen increased fruit size significantly over selfed fruit while grapefruit pollen increased fruit weight. Peel thickness was increased significantly by Moti Mahal lime (1.52 mm.) and Jatti Khatti (1.45 mm.) pollen than selfed (1.10). Peel percentage was significantly higher with Jatti Khatti (20.88) and grapefruit (20.57) over selfed (18.45), at par with PAU Selection lime (17.84) and significantly lower than all other pollen sources. Juice percentage was increased by lime (Raikot, PAU Selection) and kumquat pollen while all other pollen sourcees decreased it. The highest percentage was recorded with Jatti Khatti pollen while the lowest (37.36) with Raikot lime pollen. No significant change in total soluble solids was recorded, however, acidity and ascorbic acid content were affected.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14782

Influence of different polinizers on fruit set, seed number and seed germination in different lemon selections


Dhillon, DS; Sandhu, AS & Sharma, KK
Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; Working abstrak; International Society for Horticultural Science, May 20-24, 1991, Pattaya, Thailand; p 94

Abstract:
Flowers of eight lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm) selections were crossed with pollen of five lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during 1987. The highest fruit set (41.9%) was obtained in cross of Chandigarh-1 x Lime Attari while it was minnimum (5.5%) in Oval x Raikot cross. Six lemon x lime combinations were found incompatible. In some combinations fruits were seedless, however, average seed number per fruit varied from 0.26 to 26 in other crosses. Seeds of seven combinations were found incompatible. In some combinations fruits were seedless, however, average seed number per fruit varied from 0.26 to 26 in other crosses. Seeds of seven combinations failed to germinate, while germination percentage varied from 11.5 (Chandigarh-1 x Assam Lime to 74.4 (Ludhiana Selection x Lime Attari) in remaining cross combinations.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14164

Integrated pest management
Kan pong kan kam chat sattru phut doi withi phasom phasan

Phimonphon, N
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawitthaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 12(4): 252-254(1990)

Abstract:
The objectives, planning and results of integrated pest management were described.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14167

Distribution of Eutetranychus africanus of pumello
Kan phrae krachai khong rai daeng(Eutetranchus africanus nai som-o

Khongchunsin, M; Saringkhaphaibun, C; Charonsi, W; Kunlapiyawat, T
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 12(4): 226-236(1990)

Abstract:
Distrubution of spider mites on pumello trees in Phichit and Chainat provinces showed that the population of spider mites and predators were concentrated on the third leaf from the tip. (Modified and translated Author's Abstract)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14168

Efficiency of insecticide on Eutetranychus africanus(Tucker)
Prasitthiphap khong san khemi nai kan phong kan kamchat rai daeng som

Kunpiyawat, T; Saringkhaphaibun, C; Khongchunsin, M; Charonsi, W; Wongsiri, N; Chirasombat, M
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology)12(4): 215-225(1990)

Abstract:
9 chemical insecticides were tested on eggs, pupae, and adults of Eutetranychus africanus both in laboratory and field trials.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14173

Bacteria cotrolling Archip sp. in citrus
Kan khuap khum non pae bai som duai chua bacteria

Tantichodok, A; Ketnut, U; Nantha
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 14(3): 135-142(1992)

Abstract:
The bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, gave better control of leaf curl worm (Archip sp.) than chemical insecticide. For more effective control, the spraying time should be done after 4 p.m.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14334

Destruction of thrips on pummelo
Kan tham lai khong plia-fai bon phan som-o

Krairoek, S; Unhawut, C
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithya (Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 13(3): 130-135(1991)

Abstract:
Comparison of destruction of thrip among pummelo's varieties indicated high population of thrip on any variety which has high growth ability. Since the high population of thrip has occurred during put forth fresh leaves stage.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14339

Study on the concentration of virus NPV to control Heliotis amigera of citrus
Kan suksa attra khwam khem khon khong virus NPV phua khwup khum non cho samo fai bon som khieowan

Ketnut, U; Tantichodok, A; Nantha, P
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithya (Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 13(1): 26-31(1991)

Abstract:
The optimized concentration of virus NPV is 200 ml/rai mixed with 100 litres of water. The frequiency of spraying is 2 times, the first time sprayed at the 50% flowering stage, the second time sprayed after first time for 4 days. The effective time is after 3 o'clock and should be mixed with surfacetance.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14341

Distribution of oriental red mite in pummelo tree
Kan phrae krachai khong rai-daeng (Eutetrancychus africanus) nai som-o

Khongchunsin, M; Charonnasi, W; Saringkhaphaibun, C; Kunpiyawat, T
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawithya (Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 12(4): 226-236(1990)

Abstract:
The most crowded population of oriental red mite located at the third leaf from top of branch and at the south which 4 feet hight from ground.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14588

Tissue culture of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr.)
Kan pholiang nuayua som-o

Manenoi, A.; Wannakrairoj, S.
Department of Horticulture; Faculty of Agriculture; Kasetsart University; Bangkok

The 33rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference; 30 January-1 February 1995; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; 1995; p7

Abstract:
Tissue culture cloning can aid in molecular genetic engineering of pummelo (C. maxima Merr.). Immature seeds, with their micropylar end removed, of Thong Dee' pummelo were cultured on modified Murashige and Tucker (1969) media. Two types of callus, white or green compact callus and light green friable callus were formed on the medium containing 20 mg/1BA and 50 g/l sucrose with or without 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D and 500 mg/l Malt Extract (ME). Cotyledon like bodies (clbs) were formed on the media without growth regulator. Friable callus on a medium containing 5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D could be induced to yield clbs. Highest shoot and root differentiation were obtained from clbs derived from friable calli and immature seeds on a medium with 5 mg/l BA in combination with 4 mg/l GA. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14592

Priliminary study on cross pollination between pummelo varieties Hom Hatyai and Klang
Kan suksa buangton nai kan thai la-ong keson baep phasom kham rawang som-o phan homhatyai lae phan klang

Wunnachit, W.; Kaewtubtim, M.
Department of Plant Science; Faculty of Natural Resources; Prince of Songkla University; Hatyai Songkhla 90110

The 33rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference; 30 January-1 February 1995; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; 1995; p19

Abstract:
The study on pollen viability of pummelo variety Klang was done by suing fluorescein diacetate staining technique and examined with fluorescent microscopy. It was found that the fresh dehisced pollen had high viability of 100%. The pollen stored in open air for 48 hrs. was lowered viability to be 65%. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth of pummelo variety Klang and pistil receptivity of pummelo variety Hom Hatyai were investigated using pollination technique. The result showed that pollen of pummelo variety Klang had high speed of germination growth rate. If penetrated into the ovary of pummelo variety Hom Hatyai within 3 hrs. after pollination but leaving the pollinated flowers flowers for 48 hrs had the highest result in penetrated ovaries. The result in pistil receptivity of pummelo variety Hom Hatyai to pollen of pummelo variety Klang was in the same way with other tropical fruit crops that the peak of its pistil receptivity was at anthesis. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14596

Roles of antagonistic microorganisms and metalaxyl for the control of root rot on tangerine marcottage caused by Phytophthora parasitica
Botbat khong chulinsi patipak lae san khemi metalaxyl nai kan khuapkhum rok rak nao khong kington som khieowan thi koetchak chuara Phytophthora parasitica

Suthamas, C.; Intasorn, S.; Paradornuwat, A.
Department of Plant Pathology; Faculty of Agriculture; Kasetsart University

The 33rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference; 30 January-1 February 1995; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; 1995; p37

Abstract:
Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. used solely or in combination with a chemical fungicide, metalaxyl, was compared with the use of antagonistic bacteria, Bacillus sp. (isolate B-03) and gram negative bacterium (isolate UB-164) for the control of root rot on tangerine marcottage caused by Phytophthora parasitica. The mixture of Trichoderma powder and supplementing substrate (rice bran, compost and sand) was sprinkled at a rate 20 g/plant around the basal stem of tangerine marcottage, whereas, bacterial suspension prepared from powder preparation at a rate 5 g/200 ml per plant was drenched into soil. Results revealed that a mixture of Trichoderma harzianum (CB-PIN-01) used in combination with 2,500 ppm metalaxyl effectively reduced Phytophthora root rot of tangerine marcottages. In this trreatment, root rot incidence was only 5.5%, while in a control with Phytophthora inoculation (+Php.), the disease occurrence was 63.9%. Moreover, average fresh weight of tangerine root in Trichoderma- metalaxyl (2,500 ppm) treatment was not significantly different from a control without Phytophthora inoculation (-Php). Bacillus sp. (B-03) effectively reduced root rot incidence, similar to the use of T. harzianum (CB-PIN-01) or 5,000 ppm metalaxyl. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14608

In vitro mass propagation of citrus rootstocks
Kan pholiang nuayua tonto som tang prathet phua kan khayai phan nai choeng kan kha

Chartisathian, J.
Fruit Tree; Industrial Horticultural Crops and Herbs Pathology Group; Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Department of Agriculture, Bangkok

The 33rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference; 30 January-1 February 1995; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; 1995; p65

Abstract:
Mass propagation of citrus rootstocks, Troyer and Trifoliate, can be done by two approache methods. One is that the in vitro propagation has been inducing to calli by culturing root callus in modified Murashige & Tucker plus 2 mg./l 2,4-D and 5 mg/l BA and proliferated in the same media. Shoots initiation were obtained by the use of plant growth regulators: 1 mg./l NAA and 5-10 mg/l BA. Another, the axilary buds were grown in coconut liquid endosperm 150 ml./l. Rooting was promoted by a supplement of 1 mg/l NAA. By integrating the two approaches of propagation as necessary, it is promising for commercialization. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14737

Studies on the evluation of F1 hybrods of mandarins on the basis of morphological characters


Chanana, YR; Dhillon, HS; Minhas, PPS & Dhaliwal, GS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Lukhiana-141 004; India.

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 34

Abstract:
The investigations were carried out to evaluate hybrid progenies from seven intervarietal crosses of mandarins, viz. Kinnow x wilking, Kinnow x Fewtrall's Early, Kinnow x Szinkam, Kinnow x Dancy, Wilking x Szinkam, Wilking x Srinagar and Wilking x Dancy for their morphological and some other characteristics in the Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Lauhiana, during 1987-88. The 171 mandarin seedlings were studied for various characters, viz. plant height, girth, spread volume, inter-nodal length, length of thorns, length and breadth of petiole wing, leaf shape and size. On the basis of results available, it has been inferred that there exist great variability with respect to these characters. The seedling population tended to resemble either one or both of the parents or showed transgressive segregation, indicating that such characters are polygenically controlled.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14746

Breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits


Chan, YK
Fruit Research Division, MARDI, P.O. Box 12301, General Post Office, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 45.

Abstract:
The breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits was didcussed in the breeding strategies used and achievement obtained at the Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). The first step in the breeding programme, to many an understatement, but nevertheless of foremost importance, is to set priorities and objectives clearly. Ther are more than 150 tropical fruit species and at MARDI, focus is given only to 16 that have the best potential. The clientele's preference of the fruit characteristics must be known throughproduct specification studies so that breeding objectives become clear. Such studies, however, must be intelligent enough to predict the preferences some time in the future to take into consideration the time gap required for varietal development. The fruit collection and germplasm centres for fruits should be established to provide characterized and comprehensively documented to rpovide the genetic inventory for breeding research. There are, at present, 3 major centres for fruit germplasm in MARDI i.e. Serdang, Kemaman and Bukit Tangga and evaluation and characterization for some fruits notably banana, papaya, citrus, durian, starfruit, ciku and mango have been completed.The breeding strategies adopted for clonally and seed propagated fruit species were different. For clonally propagated fruit species, the main strategy was to identify and select promising maternal trees and testing them over time and space to establish their repeatibility' (adaptibility) of their performance. The success of this strategy depends on the existing variation which may be indigenous or generated through hybridization or recombination. Since in many cases the propagation requires the use of rootstocks, the breeding propramme should also take into consideration their influence and suitability to the scion variety.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14753

Post harvest handling techniques for cv. kinnow mandarin


Sandhu, SS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agicultural University; Ludhiana-141 004, India.

International symposium on tropical fruits. theme: frontier in tropical fruit research. Working abstract. May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 55.

Abstract:
At present Kinnow (and other citrus) is the most important fruit occupying over one-third of the total area under fruits in the Punjab State of India. The area under citrus has increased from 7100 acres in 1962-63 to 72,472 acres in 1988-89 and is expected to increase manifold in the future. Considerable research work has been done in the Department of Horticulture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, regarding post harvest handling of Kinnow. Maturity standards for Kinnow have been standardized. Mid January was found to be the best for harvesting, fresh marketing and storage or fruit. The Tess: acid ratio during this period ranged between 12:1 to 14:1 for out periphery and inner fruits respectively. Packaging in mulberry basedt along with paper shreds had minimum losses during cold storage and suitable for local marketion. Gunny bags, corrugated fibre board carton and tray packed corrugated fibre board carton did not give satisfactory results due to their poor stacking strength and moisture proofing ability. Wooden crate appeared to be the sole package for commercial marketion of this fruit. Fruits treated with 1000 ppm Bavistin (methyl 1-2 benzimidazole carbamate) can be successfully stored in the cold storage (0.3oC and RH 85-90%) from 60-85 days depending on the season (wet or dry growing periods) and age of the bearing trees whereas at ambient conditions the storage life lasted for 40 days.

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NO. 14767

Influence of lactose and glycerol on growth and somatic embryogenesis of citrus callus


Singh, AK; Nito, N & Iwamasa, M
Faculty of Agriculture; Saga University, Saga 840, Japan

International symposium on tropical fruits. theme: frontier in tropical fruit research. Working abstract. May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 73.

Abstract:
Stimulatory effect of lactose and glycerol on growth and somatic embryogenesis of nucellar derived callus of several Citrus species was studied. Lactose 5% and glycerol 2% separately induced growth in alol the genotypes tested. Glyceral 1.5 to 4% induced embryogenesis either poorly or no embryo at al. Lactose 4 to 5% induced embryo formation in Meyer lemon, Valancia orange and Calamondin, but failed toIshizuka Wase and Ponkan. Growth rate of callus in MT medium containing 1.5 to 4% glycerol was slow as compared to those cultured in same medium except glycerol was substituted by lactose or sucrose. Capabiliby of lactose utilization by Calamondin, Valencia orange and Meyer lemon was evident by callus growth and somatic embryogenesis.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14804

Effect of pre-harvest sprays of gibberellic acid, bavistin, vipul and calcium chlorode on the tree storage of kinnow fruits


Sandhu, SS & Randhawa, JS
Department of Horticulture Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 134.

Abstract:
After attaining harvest maturity, Kinnow fruits loose their firmness within two to three weeks thereby reducing its market ability to a great extent. Studies on the effects of pre-harvest sprays of GA, Bavistin, Vipul and Calcium chloride on the tree storage of Kinnow fruits were conducted at Regional Fruit Research Station, Abohar, PAU during the year 1985 and 1986. The increased firmness and delayed coloure break, thin rind and better quality was obtained by 5, 20 November and 6 and 27 December, respectively. The total soluble solids and acidity were not much affected by either of the treatments.

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NO. 14805

Chemical thinning of kinnow mandarin


Brar, SS; Minhas, PPS & Kaundal, GS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 135.

Abstract:
Kinnow is very prolific bearer particularly in the early years of plant growth as compared with other mandarins cultivated in North-Western plains of India. Thinning of fruits is required for better fruit quality and inrpolonging the bearing span of the plants. So an experiment was conducted to achieve this objective by the use of various chemicals. Napthelene acetic acid (NAA) 400, 500 and 600 ppm, Ethrel 300, 400, 500, 600 ppm and Sevin (Carbary 50 WP) 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. were sprayed during the first week of April. All chemicals proved effective in thinning of the fruits as xompared to the control. However, NAA 400 ppm. was the most effectiveamong all the other treatments. Ethrel 300 ppm was the second best treatment in this regard. The quality of the fruit measured in terms of TSS and acidity was also better under these treatments. No toxic effect to any chemical at any concentration was observed.

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NO. 14786

Effect of pollinizer on fruit-set, seediness, polyembryonic level and seedling number in mandarins


Minhas, PPS & Uppal, DK
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; Pattaya; Thailand; May 20-24, 1991; p. ?

Abstract:
Effect of supplementary pollination in anumber of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) crosses on fruit-set, seed content and polyembryonic level were studied. The pollinizers effected the fruit-set to a great extent. Maximum fruit-set to the tune of 52.1 per cent was obtained when Kinnow was pollinated by Dancy, whereas, maximum fruit-set of 25.3 per cent was recorded in Dancy x Unshu. The seed number ranged from 1.0 in fruits of Unsha x Szinkom cross to 24.3 in Kinnow x Dancy. Under open pollination conditions the average seed content varied from 1.0 in Wilking x Dancy cross to 3.95 in Unshu x Srinagar. The number of embryos in seed from open pollinated fruits of parent varieties ranged from 1.02 in Wilking to 4.40 in Unshu. Similar trend was observed in number of seedlings emerging per seed. The maxinum number of seedling (1.34) per seed wrer noted in the seeds of Kinnow x Dancy, whereas, the minimum number (1.03) was found in Wilking x Kinnow. The number of seedling emerging per seed in the parent varieties ranged from 1.0 in Wilking to 1.47 in Unshu.

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NO. 14787

Pollen tube growth and development of ovules in relation to fruit set in mandarins cv. clementine (Citrus retiulata Blanco)


Stosser, R & Eti, S
Institute for Fruit and Vegetable Growing University of Hohenheim; D-7000 Stuttgart-Hohenheim; Germany.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; Pattaya; Thailand; May 20-24, 1991; p.101-102.

Abstract:
In the mandarine variety Clementine fruit set may be limited despite the fact of abundant flower development. Therefore investigations were initiated to elucidate the poor fertility of this variety. The field experiment swere undertaken in the experimental orchards of the Cukurova University in Adana/Turkey. The evaluation and the laboratory work was done at Hohenheim. The flowers showed a normal development. The number of pollen grains per flower is comparable with other citrus species and varieties, as well as the morphological homogeneity of the pollen grains and the germination capacity and viability as demonstrated with different staining methods. In the style no special conducting tissue is evident. The pollen tubes are growing intercellulary in the upper part of the style, and then they reach the ovules by the stylar channels. They enter the ovules through the micropyle. After selfing pollen tube growth was arrested in the upper third of the style, which indicates the self-sterility of this variety. The velocity of pollen tube growth was different. The tubes reached the ovules according to variety after 5-12 days. At the base of the style an abscission layer is formed, and the style can be shed 7-12 days after anthesis. The differentiation of the ovules shows no abnormalities. At time of anthesis the embryo sacs are differentiated. Shortly after fertilization endosperm development is initiated, whereas division of the zygote occurs only 8-10 weeks after anthesis. Between 10-12 weeks the embryo is in the globular stage, and it reachs full size 4 weeks later. Flowers shedded in the first fall period showed degenerated embryo sacs indicating lack of pollination. The reason for the low fruit set to be seen in the early shedding of most flowers due to the formation of an abscission layer at the basis of the style, and the poor cross-pollination in monmoculture with suitable varieties.

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NO. 14846

Removal of NPK by kinnow mandarin and umran ber


Dhatt AS; Grewal, GPS; Chagill, BS & Dhillon, DS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 190.

Abstract:
Studies on the removal of nutrients (NPK) by fruits of Kinnow, a mandarin (Citrus nobilis x Citrus. deliciosa) revealed that the seed had the maximum and the juice minimum NPK concentration on fresh weight basis. The whole Kinnow fruit contained 0.245% N,0.027% P and 0.197% K. The one ton Kinnow fruit is estimated to remove 2.40 kg N,0.27 kg P and 1.97 kg K from the soil annually which works out to be 96.0 kg af N,10.8 kg of P and 78.8 kg of K ha-1 is common in Kinnow under Punjab conditions. The ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit contained 0.071% N,0.071% P and 0.15% K on fresh weight basis. The pruninng wood of ber had 0.014% N,0.08% P and 0.28% K.Annual removal by fruit is estimated to be 25.56 kg N,6.12 kg P and 54.00 kg of K ha-1 and by the pruning wood 14.36 kg N,8.21 kg P and 28.73 kg ha-1 annuallly by an orchard vielding 36 ton ha-1 fruit and 10.26 ton ha-1 pruned wood.

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NO. 14835

Intensive cultivation under plastic coverage for off-season shipping of satsuma


Nito, N & Iwamasa, M
Faculty of Agriculture; Saga University, Saga 840, Japan

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 177.

Abstract:
Early ripening cultivars of satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are cultivated under plastic coverage to produce good quality fruits with beautiful appearance, in summer, off-season for satsuma. Ambient temperature is carfully controlled automatically in combination with the petroleum heater and natural of fan ventilation. Warming the ambient temperature by the heater during the winter hastens the flowering and the early growht of fruits. Careful management of irrigation influences the fruit growth; suffecient watering expand the fruit size and the withdrawal of watering, after reaches full size, stimulates the coloring of fruit rind, accumulation of sugar and decline of acid content in juice. Fruits are harvested at the beginning of June, which is about four months earlier than ordinal practices. The yield is almost two times of that in normal cultivation. After the harvest, plastic coverages are removed and plants are grown under the condition to recover the reserve. Intensive practices of pruning, training of shoots and fruit thinning prevent the decline of tree growth and alternate bearing.

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NO. 14860

Control of stem-end rot (fruit drop) in kinnow caused by Colletroticum gloeosporioides Penz.


Kapur, S; Kapur, SP & Cheema, SS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 211.

Abstract:
Two and four sprays of Bavistin (0.1 per cent) and Dithane M-45 (0.2 per cent) along with one spray of Bavistion followed by Foltaf (0.2 per cent) and Bavistin followed by three sprays of copper oxychloride (0.3 per cent) were given to 4-year-old Kinnow trees for the control of stemend rot caused by Colletroticum gloeosporioides. First spray was given four months after the fruit-set (August) and subsequent sprays at monthly intervals. One spray of Bavistin followed by one spray of Foltaf were found most effective in reducing fruit drop by 64.6 per cent. Two sprays ob bavistin were the next best which reduced the drop by 48.5 per cent. The reduction in fruit drop in remaining treatments varied from 28.1 to 40.1 per cent.

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NO. 14844

Evaluation of critical level of nutrients in kinnow


Chahill, BS; Dhatt, AS; Singh, R & Dhillon, DS
Regional Fruit Research Station; Bathinda-151 001; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 187.

Abstract:
Sand culture studies were carried out to develop the deficiencies of single nutrient elements in Kinnow. The treatments included the plants grown on complete nutrient solutions and single omission of restriction of N, P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu from the culture. The mature leaves from the middle of shoots were analysed for nutrients when (I) deficiency symptoms just started, and (ii) deficiency symptoms fully developed. The nutrient levels in the plants receiving complete solutions had been designated as optimum and ones below the levels when deficiency symptoms started to appear as deficient. Thus the optimum levels were 2.8, 0.15, 1.57, 0.33 percent; 62, 103, 38 and 10 ppm. for N, P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu, respectively. The deficient level for the respective element was below 2.03, 0.09, 0.72, 0.17 percent and 19, 61, 21 and 4 ppm. The leaves of severly N-deficient plants contained the highest levels of P(0.32%), the highest concentration of N(5.07%). K-deficient Kinnow plants had accumlated N,S and Mn in their leaves. The nutrient deficiencies also adversely affected the growht of plants.

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NO. 14845

Role of nutrition and irrigation in regulating the yield, size and quality of kinnow (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa)


Sharma, RK
National Horticulture Board; Ministry of Agriculture; Govt. of India; 442/14 Gurgaon-122 001; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 188-189.

Abstract:
A two year long randomised block experiment on differential NPK and moisture regimes was started at the Himachal Pradesh Agriculture University, Palampur, (India) during 1980-81, on six year old kinnow trees budded on Citrus jambhiri Lush. In all 13 treatments comprising of 4 levels of N (0, 40, 80, 129 g N/year age of the tree) and 4 levels of irrigation (irrigating when IW/OPE = 1, 0.8, 0.6 and rainfed) were tried on the trees receiving a basal dose of 40 g each of P205 and K2O per year age of the tree. The irrigation was started at peak flowering stage and continued till harvest using cumulative Pan Evaporation method. Yield and growth were affected significantly with the highest number of fruits. However, the highest number of ruits was produced by the second highest rate of N without irrigation although initial fruit-set was at the highest with 40 g N level receiving intermediate frequency of irrigation. Differences in respect of fruit weight, volume, peel and juice content and its quality were also significant with differential NPK maintained at various moisturs levels. The only exception was juice acidity, which revealed significant differences in the first year only, with maximun under on nitrogen and no irrigation during both years. Other parameters determined governing the juice quality and showing significant differences during both years were; TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid. Therefore, it can be concluded that highest yield was obtained from un-irrigated duced the largest fruits with the highest TSS;acid ratio.

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NO. 14854

Screening of citrus germplasm for their resistance against citrus leaf-miner Phyllocnistis citrela Stainton


Batra, RC; Sharma, DR & Chanana, YR
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 205.

Abstract:
Screening studies on citrus species/cultivars and its allied genera revealed that out of 134 species/cultivars, Carrizo, Sacaton, Savage, Troyer, Yama Citrumelo, Murraya koenigii, Cambell Valencia, Pomary and Rubidoux were found to be resistant to citrus leaf-miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton on the basis of leaf infestation. Rest of the species/cultivars were found to be least susceptible (19); slightly susceptible (27); moderately susceptible (53) and highly susceptible (25), Cleoptera a promising rootstock for sweet orange was slightly susceptible whereas the commercial rootstock Jatti khatti was highly susceptible. None of the 26 hybrids were found completely free from the attack of citrus leaf-miner. However, three hybrids viz., Poncirus trifoliata x sweet orange; Rangpur lime x Troyer and Kinnow x Mosambi, were found least susceptible whereas six hygrids namely BR x Sweet lime, Grape fruit x Mosambi, Mosambi x Sweet orange, Rangpur lime x Rubidoux, Wilking x Kinnow and Baramasi x Kagzi Lime were found to be susceptible. The rest species/cultivars were slightly to moderately susceptible to leaf-miner injury.

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NO. 14866

A field trial on the efficacy of some insecticides for controlling thrips attacking pummelo


Suwanbutr, S; Tongklad, C; Uhnchit, W; Thayamanon, P; Witthayarug, W & Khewpoompung, P.
Plant Protection Group; Pichit Horticultural Research Centre; Thailand.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 218.

Abstract:
A field trial was carried out in Pichit ot evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides on the suppression of thrips attacking pummelo. The specimens collected throughou the period of experiment indicated that each species of thrips tended to select a specific feeding site on Tha Koi cultuvar as Thrips sp. was found mainly on flowers whereas Scirtothrip dorsalis preferred to attack young leaves and juvenile shoots. The results demonstrated that moncrotophos, carbosulfan and permethrin were effective against S. dorsalis damaging young leaves and juvenile shoots. For controlling those sttacking mainly flowers and reducitng the scarred damage on fruits, four chemicals were recommended e.g. permethrin, cyhalothrin, carbosulfan and monocrotophos.

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NO. 14859

Efficacy of various herbicides in controlling weeds in kinnow orchads


Bajwa, GS; Minhas, PPS & Brar, SS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural university; ludhiana-141 004; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 210.

Abstract:
Both monocot and dicot weed flora in Kinnow orchards causes great hinderance in performing various cultural operations. Hence investigations were carried out in the research of punjb Agricultural Universith, Ludhiana from 1988 to 1990 to check the efficacy of various herbicides in controlling weeds in Kinnow orchards. The herbicides viz. hexuron (diuron 80 WP), tafazine (simazine 50 WP) 4,5 and 6 kg/ha were applied at pre emergence stage of weeds (1 st forthnight of March), whereas round up (glyphosate 41 SL) and gramaxone (paraquat 24) 4,5, and 6 l/ha were sprayed at post emergence stage during second fortnight of March. Hand weeding was done at 30 days interval. The weed count was taken at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days interval. All the herbicide treatments reduced the weed population as compared to the control. However, hexuron 5 kg/ha was most effective treatment in controlling both monocot and dicot weeds in the orchard. Round up 4 l/ha was found to be the best treatment between the post emergence herbicides in reducing the weeds. There was overall umprovement in yield and fruit quality with herbicidal treatments, but the maximum improvement was observed in kexuron 4 kg/ha and round up 4 l/ha. It was concluded that the use of herbicieds is exonomical in controlling broad spectrum of weeds as compared to manual weeding.

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NO. 14861

Role of fungi and tristeza in kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Sw.) die back


Kapur, SO; Idris. AH & Cheema, SS
Department of Horticulture; Punjab Agricultural University; Ludhiana-141 400; India.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits; Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 212.

Abstract:
The role of various fungi and tristeza virus (CTV) alone as well as in combinations in causing die-back in Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Sw.) was determined. Three fungi, namely Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., Kinlodia natalensis Pole-Evans and Fusarium sp. were found consistently associated with twigs of Kagzi lime showing die-back symptoms. Pathogenecith tests with the pure cultures of these fungi induced typical die-back symptoms within 20-30 days of inoculations. Citrus tristeza virus induced characteristic symptoms in 30-60 days after bud-inoculations. Each fungus was inoculated singly and in combinations in CTV inoculated test plants. All the fungi caused more dead-wood in CTV infected than healthy plants which was correlatd with an increased amount of glucose, methionine, tryosine and lower amounts of glycine and tryptophane in CTV infected twigs. The extent of dead-wood was more in plants inoculated single with each fungus as compared to those inoculated in combination. Mixed infections showed antagonistic or synergistic effect on the occurrence of die-back.

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NO. 14872

Storability and some physiological properties of tangerine fruit over-wrapped or individually packaged with plastic film


Sornsricichai, J; Kaiviparabbunyay, K & Gomolmanee, S
Department of Biology; Faculty of Science; Chiang Mai University ; Thailand.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits-Theme: frontier on tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p.224-225.

Abstract:
Tangerine (Citrus reticulata cv. khieowan) were over-wrapped with plastic film on foam trays, 6 fruits per tray, or individually seal packaged with poly venyle chloride film of 0.01 mm. thickness and stored at room condition (28+ 2oC, 78+ 2%RH) and 10oC, 86% RH. Sstorage life of all unpacked fruits were terminated by peel shrinkage after the first week on shelf at room condition. Seal packaging by both over-wrapping or individually-sealed packaging reduced the water loss at the same extend the storage life for 2-3 weeks. At 10 C, 86% RH condition, the unpacked fruits showed peel shrinkage at 2-3 weeks, while the film packed fruits could maintain freshness for more than 2 months. Weight loss of the sealed fruits during the first week was only 1-2% compared to about 5-6% of unsealed fruits at 10oC storage condition and to 10% of fruits at room condition. Seal packaging also retarded fruit softening especially at 10oC 86% RH, the firmness of the fruit were maintained during the whole storage period. Only few fruit sour rot decay were found during storage. Respiration activity of individually sealed fruits during 12 days at room condition were quit consistant and in the same range with the unsealed fruits. Seal packaging also showed on ethylene production. O2 content in the internal atmosphere of sealed fruits was reduced to about 10-15% and 15-16% at room and 10oC storage condition while CO2 was accumulated to the lesser extent of 2-4% which was 1-2% higher than the control. After longer storage period at 10 C, CO2 inside the sealed fruits was not consistently higher, but O2 level was maintained at a lower level. O2 gas was more stressed inside the individualy sealed fruits than the over-wrapped package fruits. Suppression of O2 exchange had no effect on juice quality during storage. Both sealed and unsealed fruits showed gradual decrease in titratable acid to the same extent. Total soluble solids was increased only at room condition.

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NO. 14881

Comparative study of physical and chemical characteristics of seven pummelo cultivars


Ketsa, S & Leelawatana, K
Department of Horticulture; Faculty of Agriculture; Kasetsart University; Bangkok 10903; Thailand.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits- Theme: frontier on tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand.;p.236

Abstract:
Fruit and juice characteristics of seven pummelo cultivars, namely khaohom, khaonamphung, khaopaen, khaophuang, khaotaengkwa, tha khoi and thongdi grow under Thailand conditions were comparatively studies. Fruitweight and size, specific gravity, number of silo glands, carpels and seeds, colour and thickness of rind, and colour and firmness of juice sacs were determined. Soluble solids, titratable solids. Titratable acidity, total sugars, and ascorbic acid were quantitied, Consumer preference was also evaluated. All seven pummelo cultivars were significantly different in almost parameters. All combinations of parameters produced pummeloes of good commercial quality were discussed.

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NO. 14957

Evalution of Species and Effectiveness of Some Parasitaids Attacking Citrus Leafminer


Rut Morakote; Bangorn Samanakkanee; Pimolporn Nanta
Biological Control Research Group, Division of Entomology and Zoology

The 10 th Insect and Pest Annual Conference; Entomology and Zoology Div; Department of Agriculture; 24-25 June 1996. Prachuap Khirikhan. p.718

Abstract:
The evaluation of species of citrus leafminer parasitoids and its effectiveness were carried out from 5 pummelo orchards in Muang District Chainat Province during October 1994 and October 1995 by collecting at least 50 infested leaves st forthnightly interval from each orchard were infested leaves were available. The result revealed that its total parasitism ranged from 36.73-72.05% which everaged 57.31%. The everage parasitism percentages by Ageniaspis citricola, Teleopterus sp., Eurytoma sp., Closterocerus trifasciatus, Citrostichus Phyllocnistoides, Sympiesis striafipes and undertermines parasitoids were 11.39, 8.77, 4.84, 2.25, 0.23, 0.19, 0.18, 0.3 and 29.32% respectively.

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NO. 14952

Effectiveness of Some Acaricides and Neem Extract on Citrus Rust Mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) and Effect on Natural Enemies


Tewin Kulpiyawat; Vatana Charanasri; Manita Kongchuensin
Insect Taxnomy and Acarology Group Division of Entomology and Zoology

The 10 th Insect and Pest Annual Conference; Entomology and Zoology Div; Department of Agriculture; 24-25 June 1996. Prachuap Khirikhan. p.521

Abstract:
Citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) is one of the most important pests of pummelo grown in Thailand. The larva and adult of this mite feed on both sides of the leaf. Severe infestation causes browning or eventually falling of the leaf. Damaged fruits become reddish brown of purplish black. These damaged fruits are normally rejected by the exporting market. Study on the effectiveness of some acaricides and neem extract on a sudden increase in the population of P. oleivora and their impact on the natural enemies, were carried out at Sriprachan and Doembangnangbuat district, Suphanburi province during October, 1994-September, 1995. Amitraz, propargite, pyridaben (2 rates), wettable sulfur, fenpyroximate, neem extrat and neem oil (2 rates) were tested. The experiments were designed in RCB with 3 replications One tree represented each replication. Twenty mature leaves from each tree were sampling of mites on pummelo was conducted at random by selecting of 20 mature shoots at about 4 feet above the groud. From each shoot one of the first three leaves was collected for the investigation of mite specimens. The checking was made for the densities of P. oleivora and natural enemies (phytoseiid mites and predaceous thrips) before and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after sprayings. Dosage of wettable sulfur, pyridaben (rates), propargite, amitraz, fenpyroximate, neem oil (2 rates) and neem cxtract use for spraying were 0.240, 0.010 and 0.015, 0.045, 0.030, 0.005, 0.125 and 0.250 and 0.010%, respectively. The control treatment was sprayed with water.

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NO. 15025

Application of Trichoderma harzianum for control of root rot of tangerine caused by Phytophthora parasite in orchard


Suneerat See, madual; Chiradej Chamswarngl; Ampaiwan Paradornuwatl & Chawalit Hongaprayoon
Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand

The 35th Kasetsart University Annual Conference; 3-5 Febuary 1997; Bangkok

Abstract:
During 1994 to 1996, studies on the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (CB-Pin-01) for the control of root rot of tangerine (C. reticulata) caused by Phytophthora parasitica were conducted in tangerine orchard at Nongsua District in Pathumtliani Province. T harzianum mix was prepared by amending a powder formulation, of T harzianum (CB-Pin-01) with additive nutrient (rice bran) and organic substiate supplement (compost) at the ratio of 1.4:10 by weight. The mixture was broadcasted, four limes during 24 mo. of experimental period, on soil under the canopy of tangerine tree at the rate 100 g/m2. Results revealed that populations of T. harzianum increased 120-165 fold as compared with the control, Populations of P. parasitica in soils broadcasted with Trichoderma mix were markedly reduced throught the experiment as compared to the population in a control (without broadcasting). Determination of plant health during 24 mo. indicated the reduction of plant health index (PI) by 20% in the control whereas the PI of T. harzianum (CB-Pin-01) treatment remained high. Suspension of T. harzianum (CB-Pin-01) was prepared and sprayed over the soil surface under tangerine canopy (approx. 100 g-powder/plant), four times during 23 mo. this application help increased populations of T. harzianum in soil, while the population of P. parasitica were reduced relative to control. Plant health index of tangerine trees in a control was reduced, whereas the Pls of the trees sprayed with T. harzianum (CB-Pin-01) remained high.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15193

Conservation of Citrus sinensis Osbeck, in vitro by using liquid paraffin


Chulalaksananukul, W; Vajarabhaya, M
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology; Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; Bangkok; 15: 167-168(1990)

Abstract:
Seedlings and rooted shoot tips of Citrus sinensis Osb., in vitro under liquid paraffin have slower growth rate than the ones without liquid paraffin. The growth rate at the temperature of 24-26 degree Celsius under 3000 Lux Grolux light and the growth rate at the temperature of 29-31 degree Celsius under sunlight is the same. The submerged seedlings and rooted shoot tips are perished after being treated for 3-7 weeks. The recovery percentage after being sub-cultured to fresh medium is about 100 percent and 57-70 percent for seedlings and rooted shoot tips respectively. The seedlings and rooted shoot tips can be maintained under a liquid paraffin overlay for up to 12-14 months without sub-culturing.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15341

Conservation of Citrus sinensis Osbeck, in vitro by using liquid paraffin.


Chulalaksananukul, W.; Vajarabhaya, M.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 15: 167-168(1990) Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. Bangkok.

Abstract:
Seedlings and rooted shoot tips of Citrus sinensis Osb, in vitro under liquid paraffin have slower growth rate than the ones without liquid paraffin. The growth rate at the temperature of 24-26 degree celsius under 3000 lux Grolux light and the growth rate at the temperature of 29-31 degree celsius under sunlight is the same. The submerged seedlings and rooted shoot tips are perished after being treated for 3-7 weeks. The recovery percentage after being subcultured to fresh medium is about 100 percent and 57-70 percent for seedlings and rooted shoot tips respectively. The seedlings and rooted shoot tips can be maintained under a liguid peraffin overlay for up to 12-14 months without subculturing.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 73300

Citrus medica L.
Phat thu

Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Hospital of national medicine Thanh Hoa

Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; p 188

Abstract:
Citrus medica L. is planted in Tho Xuan, Lang Chanh and Ng °C Lac districts of Thanh Hoa province. The fruit are edible. They are harvested in winter. They can be used as medicine that can treat a vomiting, a cough and a belly-ache.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73715

Citrus aurantifolia
La chanh

Vo Van Chi
Cay rau lam thuoc [Vegetables for medicine]; Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publishing House, 1998; p 110-112

Abstract:
C. aurantifolia is planted as fruit plant. Its young leave are used as spice, the fruit, its coat and roots are used as medicine such as cold, steaming hot, a malaria, asthma.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73778

Citrus aurantifolia
La chanh

Vo Van Chi
Cay rau lam thuoc [Vegetables for medicine]; Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publishing House, 1998; p 110-112

Abstract:
C. aurantifolia is planted as fruit plant. Its young leave are used as spice, the fruit, its coat and roots are used as medicine such as cold, steaming hot, a malaria, asthma.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 15595

Pectin extraction from lime albedo.


Swiawaj, S.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 10: 136(1985)

Abstract:
The study on the extraction of pectin from lime albedo found that it had pectin content of 8.1547% moisture, 2.4862% ash, 864.39 equivalent weight, 13.42 percent methoxy content, jelly grade was 220 grade and jelly unit was 49.63. The results indicated that extracted pectin had high quality because methoxy content, jelly grade and jelly unit were rather high.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15745

Root rot of pummelo, Ta-Khoi clone.


Kamjaipai, Wichian, Intavimolsri, S.; Chairuangyot, T.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 13: 116(1988)

Abstract:
Pummelo, Ta-Khoi clone (Citrus grandis Osb.) has been grown for about one hundred year at Ta-khoi Village, Phichit Province. Diseases mainly found during an observation in 1984 were canker, greasy spot tristeza and trunk gummosis respectively. The fungus, Phytophthora, was isolated from this gummosis and it was identified as P. palmivora MFl. This P. palmivora isolate was different in mating type to that previously found in Nakhon Pathom Province in 1983 which was A1 type while the Pichit isolate was A2.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15746

Citrus disease in Prathum Thani Province.


Kamjaipai, W.; Intavimolsri, S.; Luksanawimol, P.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 13: 116(1988)

Abstract:
Prathum Thani Province is one of the areas where large number of citrus trees are grown in Thailand. Most of them are tangerine, Citrus reticulata Blanco. Observation on diseases to determine the percentage of important diseases was conducted in August, 1984. Among 288 citrus trees in one plantation, thirty-three percent was tristeza symptom, 6.6% greening, 2.8canker, 0.3% root rot, 0.7% canker and greening 30.2% healthy in appearance and the remainder were the combination of tristeza and other diseases including root rot. From this observation, new symptom was found at the bulge of stem bark in which the small pieces of wood were abnormally formed.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16515

Control of Penicillium sp. in tangerine fruits using ethanol vapour.


Boonvakiat, D. and Rattanavanone, N.
Department of Horticulture, Fac. Of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

20th SEAN2/2nd APEC Seminar on Postharvest Technology 'Quality Management and Market Access', 11-14 September 2001; Lotus Hotel Pang Suan Kaew Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001; p 90.

Abstract:
Tangerine fruit was inoculated with spore of Penicillium sp. and placed in polyethylene bag. This bag contained 1 or 3 or 5 ml of ethanol which was allowed to evaporate. Fruit remained in the enclosed bag with or without ethanol for either 2 or 4 days under ambient conditions. The bags were opened and observed for the development of decay. The fruit was scored for the appearance and rate of infection. The enclosure of tangerine with 1 or 3 ml of ethanol in bag for 4 days resulted a good control of decay.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16509

Model of citrus farm development and farmer coperative in barito kuala, south kalimantan, indonesia.


Tridjaja, N. O. and Havati, M,
Horticulture Business Development, Jalan AUP No.3, Pasarminggu Jakarta 12520, Indonesia

20th SEAN2/2nd APEC Seminar on Postharvest Technology 'Quality Management and Market Access', 11-14 September 2001; Lotus Hotel Pang Suan Kaew Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001; p 84.

Abstract:
Indonesia grows approximately 35,258 hectares of citw. Twenty percent was aged two years and under at the year of 1998. In South Kaliinantan citrus area is approximately 964 hectares and in Barito Kuala district itself is about 400 hectares. The other main district production areas in Indonesia are namely Langkat (North Swnatera), Sambas (West Kalirnantan), Selayar, Bantaeng and Bulukurnba (South Sulawesi), Buton (South-East Sulawesi), Ponorogo (East Java), Middle South East Timor (Timor), Bangli (Bali), Garut (West Java) and some others areas with minor production.Barito Kuala is one of district in South Kalirnantan Province which has been established citrus nobilis or siem Banjar or siem mandarin variety production center with mostly swamp land area. The area was designed according to sorjant system with rice at low land. The population of citrus tree per hectare is 200.The area is also provided by drainage system with 26 unit of pump and strengthening by piping system with 12 km long and covered 4 sub district, 6 villages and 21 farmers group, and 400 farmers. This model will be managed under farmer institution or farmer cooperation either on farm management and postharvest handling and marketing. Hope this model is able to maximize the potency of swampland in Kalimantan Island for farmer welfare.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16510

Storability of pummelos cv. khao tangkwa at different temperatures.


Ratanachinakiorn, B.; Suiarithawesu, U. and Sangudom, T.
Postharvest Laboratory, Horticulture Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

20th SEAN2/2nd APEC Seminar on Postharvest Technology 'Quality Management and Market Access', 11-14 September 2001; Lotus Hotel Pang Suan Kaew Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001; p 85.

Abstract:
Storability of pummelos, cv Khao Tang Kwa, were conducted at 2, 5, 10 °C and ambient conditions (28-35 °C). The fruit harvested at 6 months from full bloom were cleaned and waxed with Sta-fresh® 360 prior to be stored. They were sampling once a week and were further stored at ambient conditions for another week before quality evaluation. The results showed that at 2 and 5 °C the pummelos exhibited off flavour and juice sac remained opaque from week 1 of storage. The fruit stored in both temperatures exhibited skin browning and skin pitting from week 3 and week 4 of storage, respectively. The fruit stored at 10 °C and ambient conditions had no off-flavour and the juice sac changed from opaque to translucent. The pummelos of both treatments had good market and eating quality although they were stored for 5 weeks.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16580

Preliminary study of antimicrobial activities on medicinal on herbs of thai food's ingredients


Chaisawadi, S.; Thongbutr, D.; Methawiriyasilp, W.; Chaisawadi, A.; pitakworarat, N.; Jaturonrasamee, K.; Khemkhaw, J. and Tanuthumchareon, W.
Process and Environment Analytical Service Center, Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand.

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 224. (2003)

Abstract:
To investigate medicinal herbs for Thai food's ingredients as natural antimicrobial agents, fifteen medicinal herbs, including coriander, shallot, ginger, galangal, lemon grass, kaffir lime's leaves, kaffir lime's peels, lime's peels, bird chilli, curcuma, sweet basil, holy basil, bitter cucumber, devil's fig and indian malberry were selected to screen for antimicrobial activities. Fresh extracts and oil extracts of all medicinal herbs in this study were tested against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus by using Agar Diffusion Method. Six of them including ginger (Zingiber offcinale Roscoe); shallot (Allium ascalonicum Linn); galangal (Alpinia galanga Swartz); kaffir lime's leaves and peels (Citrus hystrix DC) and lime's peel (Citrus aurantiforia Swing) have shown high activities in the first screening. Second screening for antimicrobial activities of six potential medicinal herbs were performed in duplication. All of them exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of them, except ginger exhibited high activities against Salmonella typhi. In addition, it was found that antimicrobial activities of oil extracts were higher than fresh extracts. Potential of kaffir lime's peels, shallot and lime's peels have been concluded. Identification of active compounds and suitable purification method in these medicinal plants have been suggested to further studies.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16603

Research and development of aromatic oil from the peel of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr.) and its application


Apisariyakul, A.; Siri-sa-ard, P.; Natakankitkul, S., and Kabsri, W.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 394. (2003)

Abstract:
Pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr.) is native to southeastern Asia western world mainly as the principal ancestor of grapefruit. The pamelo tree may be 15-60 ft. tall, thick and low, irregular branches, there are usually spines on the branches. The flowers are white and fragrant, the fruit ranges from round to oblate or pear-shaped, 10-25 cm, the peel may be greenish-yellow or pale-yellow, dotted with Finy green glands; (1.2-2 cm) thick, the albedo soft white or pink, pulp varies from greenish-yellow or light yellow to pink, is divided into 10 to 12 segments, juicy, the segments are easily skinned. The skinned segments can be broken apart and used in salads and desserts or made into preserves. The extracted juice is and excellent beverage. The peel can be candied. The food value can be shown. In our investigation the objective is to study physical property and chemical active principle in aromatic volatile oil isolated from the peel which is discarded from fruit salad in the Warorot market, Chiang Mai city. The peel was extracted by stream distillation for 24-28 hours. The aromatic volatile oil was kept in closed brown bottle, at 4 °C. The chemical compounds in the aromatic oil will be analyzed by HPLC, GC and CE. The dosage forms of different pharmaceutical were studied and applied for medical uses and Thai traditional Medicine. The safety evaluation of the aromatic oil preparations will be also studied. From this study, it was found that there are some chemical compounds in the aromatic volatile oil and it has fragrant, may be it can be useful in some cosmetics and traditional medicine.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16553

Classification and study on qualities index of lime by multivariate analysis technique


Phimpharean, C. and Jangchud, A.
Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 462 (2002)

Abstract:
Standard and qualities index of lime for consumers used to evaluate the lime quality were not well defined in literature. The objective of this study was to establish classification of lime and determine the influential factors for decision making in three target groups (consumer, retailer, and wholesaler) by using multivariate analysis technique. The study showed that the principal component from factor analysis was L* and b* which defined as 'Adjust color'. Nine classifications of lime were established from 'Adjust color' for use in consumer study. Results from discriminant analysis showed that the significant factors which affected on the buying decision of consumer were L*, a* and b* (P-0.01) whereas only L* significantly affected on the buying decision of retailer and wholesaler (P-0.01).

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16521

Citrus exocortis disease in lime.
Rok eksokhotit nai manao

Pomma, S.; Reanwarakorn, K. and Attathom, S.
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Patham, Thailand

The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 38 (2002)

Abstract:
Leaf samples from lime orchard survey in Ratchaburi, Nakhon Pathom, and Chainart provinces were collected for RNA extraction and sequential polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sPAGE). RNA bands shown on sPAGE were further determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with citrus exocortis viroid specific primers and sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were displayed 371 bases and shown 97 percent sequence homology to previous reported CEVd. Moreover, these viroids were replicated in many hosts. This report was the first evidence of citrus exocortis viroid associated in lime in Thailand.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16630

Anticandidal activity of 18 essential oils extracted from thai medicinal plants


Sookkhee, S.; Krisanaprakrnkij, S.; Chatmahamongkol, W.; Muttarak, W.; Wattanarat, O.; Somjitra, P.; Manosroi, J. and Manosroi, A.
Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. (ssookkhee@hotmail.com)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 449. (2003)

Abstract:
Oral candidiasis is one of the oral fungal infection which has been recognized in the treatment for many years ago. Herbal therapy is one of the well-known and popular therapeutic method for many infections including oral cavity. The present study was to screen the anticandidal activity of 18 essential oils extracted form Thai medical plants, namely, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum, Curcuma longa, Alpinia officinarum, Piper betel, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Zingiber montanum, Vetiveria zizanioides, Lavandula angustifola, Piper nigrum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis suaveolens, Fanthoxylum budrunga, Zingiber officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllen, Alpinia nigra and Citrus hystrix. The anticandidal activity was performed by agar-diffusion and broth-dilution technique using one laboratory (Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and 30 clinical oral isolated Candida albicans. Nystatin was used as a positive control. Twelve oil extracts except Ocimum sanctum, Alpinia officinarum, Piper betel, Piper nigrum, Hyptis suaveolens, Fanthoxylum budrunga and Zingiber officinalis gave the potent anticandidal activity. The three most active oil extracts were from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and Eugenia caryophyllen exhibited the activity against all of tested Candida by agardiffusion technique compared with the activity of nystatin standard disk (used as positive control). Approximately 2-fold of clear zone diameter of these oils against C. albicans ATCC 10231 was demonstrated after compared with the diameter of positive control. The further study exhibited that their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) to inhibit C. albicans ATCC 10231 were 1:64 by brothdilution technique. Other active oil extracts which were Ocimum basilicum, Curcuma longa, Cymbopogon nardus, Zingiber montanum, Vetiveria zizanioides, Lavandula angustifola, Zingiber officinalis, Alpinia nigra and Citrus hystrix exhibited their MIC90 in a range between 1:8 to 1:32. This suggested the possibility of using some aromatic oil from Thai medicinal plants for oral candidal infection treatment.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16645

Clean production of commercial freeze-dried lime powder for medicinal herb and nutritional health benefits


Chaisawadi, S.; Chayawattana, T.; Mlthawiriyasilp, W. and Thongbutr, D.
Process and Environment Analytical Service Center, Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. (suchada@pdti.kmutt.ac.th)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 491. (2003)

Abstract:
Lime (Citrus aurantiforia swingle) is one of the important medicinal herb using in Thai's traditional medicine. Lime and its derivatives including lime juice, lime peel and lime oil provides a whole range of medicinal properties. Especially, d-limonin from lime oil posses cancer-chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic properties. The application in medicinal herb and nutritional health benefits of lime were suggested for industrial production. To develop commercial production on freeze-dried lime powder that retains the same quality of fresh lime juice, the production using clean technology has been designed. The clean production on freeze-dried lime powder processing in this study consist of lime powder production process, lime oil extraction process and lime peel processting process. The designed prodaction process has considered the wastes form lime powder production process, which are the peels after squeezing and the filtered off seeds. The waste utilization process has been divided into two processes sequentially. The first one is lime oil extraction process, this has been done by squeezing oil from the lime peels and grinding the seeds, followed by stream extraction. The second process is lime peel processing using the peels obtained from the first process into pickled lime, lime jam, lime marmalade or sweet lime. The residue of the grinded seed and other wastes from the extracthon process can be used as biopesticide or fertilizers. This designed process showed the zero discharge by the end of the process. The designed clean production on freeze-dried lime powder processing, has been implemented by Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, KMUTT. The results showed high productivity and low environmental impact. The preliminary study on financial analysis showed high feasible on commercial production.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16635

Radical scavenging activity in fruit extracts


Kaewsutthi, S.; Surakarnkul, R. and Surinrut, P.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 460. (2003)

Abstract:
Photochemicals in plants, vegetables and fruits have been reported to prevent oxidative strees related diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, brain and immune- system dysfunction and inflammation. Many plant phenolic flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant activity. In our study, the polyphenolic content and the radical scavenging activity of a number of Thai fruit extracts were determined by Folin-Ciacalteu reagent and scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical respectively. We found that grape skins, mulberries, star fruit, mango, lichee and guava possess strong activity to scavenge the DPPH radical (IC50 from 1.10 to 9.60 mg/ml). Moderate antioxidant activity were found in mangosteen, pamelo, papaya and grapes (IC50 from 11.18 to 29.76 mg/ml). Low antioxidant activity (IC50 from 50.62 to 113.89 mg/ml) were found in orange, rose apple and jackfruit.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16659

Immunomodulating activities of extracts and aromatic oils from thai medicinal plants


Manosroi, J.; Dhumtanom, P.; Jansom, C.; Jainonthee, P.and Manosroi, A.
Pharmaceutical-Cosmetic Raw Materials and Natural Products Research and Development Center (PCRNC), Institute for Science and Technology Research and Development, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. (pmptiOO6@chiangmai.ac.th)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 560. (2003)

Abstract:
Immunomodulating activities of extracts and aromatic oils from Thai medicinal plants were tested for in vitro phagocytosis response of mouse macrophages and proliferation assay of mouse lymphochytes from spleen, born marrow and thymocytes. The plant extracts were Turmeric (Curcuma longa, L.), Betel Vine (Piper betle, L.), Peper (Piper nigrum, L.), Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, Bertoni.), Pueraria mirifica, Butea superba, Pouteria cambodiana, Clausena excavala, Chili Peper (Capsicum frutescens), Carthaginian Apple (Punica granatum, L.), Cassia Bark (Cinnamomum cassia), Noni (Morinda citrifolia, L.) Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Solanum laciniatum Ait, Stephania venosa and the aromatic oils which were Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum, Linn.), Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Linn.) Turrneric (Curcuma longa, L.), Lesser Galanga (Alpinia officinarum), Betel Vine (Piper betel, Linn.), Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates, Stapf), Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Rendle), Plai (Zingiber montanum), Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), Lavender (Lavandula angustifola, P.), Kaffir Lime Leaf (Citrus hystrix, DC) and Blaqk Pepper (Piper nigrum, L.). The results suggested the tendency of in vitro immunomodulating activity of some plant extracts and aromatic oils which can be further developed as active constituents in nutraceutical products.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16542

Effect of sequestering agent for extended shelf life of lime juice


Sivawate, S.; Wattanaphu, S. and Phutakul, P.
Department of Food Science and Technology of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 258 (2002)

Abstract:
Extending the shelf life of lime juice by adding several sequestering agent, as SHMP (Sodium hexametaphosphate) and EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) were carried out. Results obtained showed that the reduction of vitamin C, total acidity, total soluble solid and pH of the lime juice with 0.7 % of either SHMP or EDTA added could be retarded, also the color of lime juice were most comparable to the fresh lime juice when 0.7 % of EDTA was added over 4 weeks storage time.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16547

Determination of major organic acids in some tropical vegetables, fruits and herbs by high performance liquid chromatography


Winitchai, P.; Thanapang, W.; Vaithanomsat, P. and Tungkananuruk, N.
KAPI, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, thailand

The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 327 (2002)

Abstract:
Major organic acids such as citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid and quinic acid in nineteen species of Vegetables, Fruits and Tropical Herbs from various markets in thailand were determined by a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) in connection with Aminex HPX-87 H column and the UV-VIS detector at 210 nm. The appropriate condition was at 65°C column temperature 0.6 ml/min flow rate while 0.008 N H2SO4 was used as mobile phase. The results showed the highest total organic acid from cucumber, lime and banana as 60, 041 mg/L, 50, 431.2 mg/L and 50, 193.1 mg/L, respectively, where as the lowest total organic acid was obtained from Tamarind and apple; 17 mg/L and 49.1 mg/L, respectively.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16625

Free radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activity of aromatic volatile oil from thai medicinal plants for cosmetic use


Manosroi, A.; Jansom, C. and Manosroi, J.
Pharmaceutical-Cosmetic Raw Materials and Natural Products Research and Development Center (PCRNC), Institute for Science and Technology Research and Development, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. (pmpti006@chiangmai.ac.th)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 435. (2003)

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate the free radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activity of thirteen aromatic volatile oil samples extracted from Thai medicinal plants. They are Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum, Linn.), Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Linn.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa, L.), Lesser Galanga (Alpinia officinarum), Betel Vine (Piper betel, Linn.), Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates, Stapf), Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Rendle), Plai (Zingiber montanum), Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), Lavender (Lavandula angustifola, P.), Kaffir Lime Leaf (Citrus hystrix, DC.), Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix, DC.) and Black Peper (Piper nigrum, L.). In free radical scavenging assay, a stable free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picryhydrazyl) was used and the absorbance at 570 nm was measured. In tyrosinase inhibition test, mushroom tyrosinase was used and the absorbance at 450 nm was measured by a 96-well reader. Only Betel Vine and Holy Basil oil samples gave free radical scavenging activity of about 15% (%RRA / residual rate of absorbance at 570 nm after 5 mins) comparable to vitamin E and vitamin C which are widely used in antiwrinkle cosmetics. Both Kaffir Lime leaf and Kaffir Lime fruit oil showed the tyrosinase inhibition (inhibition melanin formation from tyrosine by enzyme tyrosinase) potency of about 100% the same as kojic acid which is the popular compound for whitening cosmetics.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16544

Effect of blanching and pasteurizing on quality of pasteurize lime juice


The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 275 (2002)

Abstract:
Fresh lime juice is easily deteriorated either by chemical reactions or micro-organisms. Sedimentation of pectin substances, changing of juice color and flavor due to browning reaction and oxidation of essential oil from the lime peel are frequently occurred during the process of preservation of lime juice. The study on various temperatures and times for blanching and pasteurizing the lime and lime juice indicated that the lime juice prepared by the lime which blanched in boiling water for 10 seconds and juice pasteurized at 85°C for 30 seconds was able to kept at room temperature with out a significant change of the appearance, color and flavor as compared to that of the fresh lime juice for 4 weeks at room temperature. Vitamin C, total acidity, pH and total soluble solid were also well preserved.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16633

Human behavioral and physiological reactions to inhalation of sweet orange oil


Hongratanaworakit, T.; Heuberger, E. and Buchbauer, G.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakorn-nayok 26120, Thailand. (tapanee@swu.ac.th)

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 455. (2003)

Abstract:
Although essential oils are used growingly for the improvement of the quality of life as well as for the relief of various symptoms in patients, scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in healthy volunteers is rather scarce. Up to now, no experiments about the effects of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis) on human physiological parameters and on behavioral measures after inhalation have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on physiological parameters as well as on self-evaluation in healthy human subjects following inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were blood pressure, breathing rate, skin temperature, and heart rate. Self- evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation, and vigour. Additionally, the fragrance was rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity, and effect. Sweet orange oil caused significant increases of heart rate as well as of subjective alertness, which are likely to represent a stimulating effect of the oil. These findings furnish scientific proof for the use of the sweet orange oil in aromatherapy for the relief of mild forms of depression and stress in humans.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16546

Development of mosquito sticks from citronella leech lime tangerine peel and mulberry pith


Khemthong, S.; Haruthaithanasan, V.; Chompreeda, P. and Kongthad, W.
Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

The Proceedings of 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference : 312 (2002)

Abstract:
Development of mosquito sticks from citronella, leech lime, tangerine peel and mulberry pith was studied. A mixture design was used in product formulation. The optimum formulation of mosquito sticks had a solution of the following ingredients in percentage of mulberry pith, citronella, leech lime, tangerine peel, pregelatinized starch, bong and sodium benzoate 32.50, 13.00, 19.50, 5.00, 14.75, 14.75 and 0.50 repectively. The optimum proportion of dried solid matter to water by weight was 1:1.50. The process of making mosquito sticks was done by mixing, kneading, forming and drying at 60°C for 7 hours. Its qualities were studied and found that its were light brown in color with L* a* b* value of 50.80, 4.96 and 22.40 respectively, its physical characteristics were as follows; diameter 0.50 cm, length 28 cm, weight per unit 5.78 g, density 0.58 g/ml., burning rate 15.53 min/g hardness 327.86 N and aw 0.34; and its chemical compositions were moisture, fat, crude fiber and ash in percentage 5.96, 4.43, 47.54 and 3.96 respectively. Repellant efficiency of the product was 80% within 30 min.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16668

Studies on the resistance and resistant development of some acaricides to the african red mite, Eutetranychus africanus (Tucker) in citrus orchard.
Kan sueksa khwamtanthan lae kan phattana khwamtanthan to san kha rai dang chanit khong raidaeng afarikan nai suan som

Kulpiyawat,T.; Kongchuensin, M.; Charanasri, V. and Chaowattanawong, P.
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

The Thirteenth Entomology and Zoology Division Conference, 2002 : 110.

Abstract:
The African red mite, Eutetranychus africanus (Tucker) is a major pest of tangerine in Thailand. Populations of Ban Mi, Phrasaeng, Ongkharak, Suphan Buri, Hat Yai , Pob, Phra, Nong Sua and Fang strains were collected from various tangerine orchards where some acaricides were widely used during October, 1998 - September, 1999. Resistance biossays were studied by leaf-dip bioassay in the laboratory condition of 27 " 2 EC, 65 " 3% RH and the light from fluorescent lamp for 9 hrs. per day. The resistance ratios (RR) were obtained by comparing the LC50 (ppm) values of field strains with that of the susceptible strain. The summarized result showed that all field strains were tolerant to bromopropylate and propargite (RR ranged from 0.98 - 2.81-fold and 0.68 - 3.63-fold). The other method of resistance study was a biochemical detection of a detoxification enzyme extraction, esterase. The relationships between esterase activity and RR of field strains revealed that there were no significant positive correlations between esterase activity and RR of bromopropylate and propargite. Populations of Phuroe and Wihan Daeng strains were collected from tangerine orchards during October, 1999 - September, 2000. The summarized result showed that Phuroe strain was tolerant to bromopropylate, amitraz and propargite (RR= 2.87, 3.89 and 5.39-fold) and resistant to wettable sulfur and dicofol (RR= 11.86 and 12.61-fold). Wihan Daeng strain was tolerant to bromopropylate, amitraz, wettable sulfur, propargite and dicofol (RR= 0.73, 1.28, 1.70, 1.95 and 9.75-fold). The research was aimed at studying the possibility of resistant development of some candidate acaricides, bromopropylate, propargite, amitraz and dicofol on African red mite, E.africanus. The selection pressure was conducted in the laboratory during October, 2000-September, 2001. The resistant development,of African red mite to these acarides were studied by leaf-dip bioassay. The summarized result showed that this mite was not resistant to propargite, bromopropylate, dicofol and amitraz after 8, 7, 5 and 4 generations (times) of selection. These acaricides will be useful in the alternative use to control the acaricide resistance of African red mite.

Availability :
Entomology and Zoology Division Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 16871

Potential of Plant Extracts for Controlling Citrus Canker of Lime


Leksomboon, C; Thaveechai, N; Kositratana, W
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

The Kasetsart Journal Natural Sciences 35(4): 392-396 (2001)

Abstract:
Five plant extracts of Hibiscus subdariffa Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz, and Tamarindus indica Linn. were evaluated for control of canker disease on Citrus aurantifolia (lime) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XC) (synonym X. campestris pv. citri ) under greenhouse condition. Aqueous extracts of H. subdariffa, P. granatum, S. pinata, and T. indica exhibited an inhibitory effect against XC lime strain Xci 12 by reducing canker incidence vary from 18% to 52%. The extracts from T. indica was the most effective control of citrus canker which disease incidence was 48% by one spray after leaf puncture inoculation whereas the control was 100%. In field experiment with natural infection of XC on lime, the aqueous extract of T. indica reduced number of diseased leaves. There was significantly difference in mean disease incidence between sprayed (3.59%) or not sprayed (9.46%) lime (P<0.05).

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16850

Efficiency of certain medicinal plant for inhibit the growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusaritim sp.
Prasitthiphap khong phuet sammunphai bang chanit thi mi phon yapyang kan charoen toepto khorn Colletotrichum gloeosporioides lae Fusarium sp.

Noengpa, K; Prayoonrat, P; Chingduang, S
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Burapha University; Chonburi, Thailand

The Sixth National Plant Protection Conference on November 24-27, 2003; Khonkaen, Thailand.: 119 (2003)

Abstract:
Study on the efficiency of garlic (Allium sativum Liiin.), shallot (Allium ascalonicum Linn.), bitter bush (Eupatorium ordoratum Linn.), leech lime (Citrus hystix D.C.) and onion (Allium cepa Linn.) to inhibit growth of two fungal spores was conducted on the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium sp. Concentrations of 1, 5, 1 0 g per 100 ml was used for testing fungal spores growth. It was found that garlic could inhibit growth of both C. gloeosporioides and Fusarium sp. in all treatments. Onion could also inhibit Fusarium sp.. completely and could inhibit C. gloeosporioides at 1 0 g treatment. The weight of 5 and 10 g of shallot could inhibit both fungal spores reasonably well. The bitter bush 5 and 10 g could inhibit C. gloeosporioides, but could inhibit Fusarium sp. at only 10 g. As for leech lime it could inhibit both of fungal spores in 10 g/ 100 ml water and C. gloeosporioides was inhibit by 5 g.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16137

Improved Shoot Tip Grafting of Neck Orange


Lim, M.; Techato, S.; Muangkaewngam, A.; Kangskul, V.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.352.

Abstract:
Improved shoot tip grafting of neck orange was carried out by treating shoot tip at 38 ± 1ºC for a week. Before grafting, rootstock was also treated with GA3 at various concentrations. Then treated shoot tips were placed on rootstock by 2 positions, vertical and horizontal. From these investigation, it was found that treated shoot tips provided STG success 61% significant difference with untreated ones. GA3 at 200 ?M gave the highest STG success with 46%. However, the percentage of STG success was not significant difference among concentration of GA3 test. In case of placing position of shoot tip, vertical position yielded STG. (shoot tipgrafting ) success slightly higher than that obtained from horizontal position. Grafted plants were successfully transferred to soil with 100% by gradually decreasing humidity. After 6 weeks of transfer, budwood grew with 17-23 node and 7 cm in height.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16049

The Study on Variatins of leaf Nutrients on Chokun Mandarin
Kan Sucksa khwam praepruan khong pariman that ahan bon bai som Cho kun

Pipithsangchan, K.; Karnsuwan, W.; Jalikpakirn, N.; Kunjara na Ayudhaya, V.; pipithsangchan, S.
Abstract The 36th Kasetsart university annual conference, 1998. P.21.

Abstract:
The mean monthly nutrient composition of mandarin (cv. chokun) leaves was assessed since July 1996-May 1997 on 10 trees each of four plant ages (2,4,6 and 8 years) at the orchard in Rattaphum, Songkhla. Leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and copper (Cu) were higher except calcium (Ca) was lower than the USA and Australian standards (Smith, 1966; Reuter and Robinson, 1986). Mean leaf fevel of 3.39-3.50% for N, 0.17-0.20% for P, 2.46-3.05% for K, 1.52-1.66% for Ca, 0.33-0.39% for magnesium (Mg), 117-143 ppm for iron (Fe), 40-48 ppm for manganese (Mn), 22-33 ppm for zinc (Zn) and 48-66 ppm for Cu which found on four plant ages are fit with the Indian standards (Tandon, 1993). However, high statistically significant differences were obtained in leaf nutrient level among plant ages and among monthly sampling.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 17011

Assessment of Fruit Maturity in 'Kao Nampheung' Pummelo Using Image Processing of Oil Glands


Wattanavicheanand, K; Aroonyadet, N
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Correspodence. E-mail : fengkkw@ku.ac.th

Thai J. Agric. Sci. 36(2) : 129-140, 2003

Abstract:
Maturity of 'Kao Nampheung' pummelo was analyzed by measuring both size and density of oil glands on the fruit surface with a developed image processing program. Pummelo fruits age 3.5 to 7.5 months from fruit set were subjected to the experimental procedure. The 6-18 oil gland photos were taken from the middle part of various positions around the fruit using a digital camera. These photos were cropped with a dimension of 1x1 cm and were used as an input of the program. The results from the program were the average area and density of the fruit oil glands. The average processing time was approximately 0.06 s/image. The experimental results showed that the average size and density of oil glands had positive and negative quadratic correlation with fruit age, respectively. Both of quadratic fitted curves had the same R2 value of 0.86. The average size and density of oil glands in the matured 'Kao Nampheung' pummelo were equal to or greater than 0.91 mm2and equal to or less than 26.47 oil glands/cm2, respectively. The oil gland size showed a positive quadratic correlation with sugar/acid ratio with R2 value of 0.77. The results from taking 8 surface photos/fruit of randomly purchased 22 pummelos from markets showed that 18 fruits were matured (81.82%)

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Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15990

A Testing of Sai-Nampueng Orange Sizing System by Image Processing


Ratanapusdekul, S.; Pumarin, V.
Agricultural Science Journal 32 1-4 (Suppl.) : P.123-126 (2001)

Abstract:
The effect of sizing Sai-Nampueng Orange by ordinary method is scratched. The sizing system by Image Processing is to acquire the orange image, extracted the object color by adjusted gray scale to vision the dark field illumination, then calculate the dark field area pixels to represent the projected area of the oranges. Analysis the correlation between pixels and diameter to determine the Regression line. Then correct the sizing 30 samples of Sai- Nampueng orange by standard method. The accuracy by Image Processing method is more than 6.67%

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15968

Control of Penicillium sp. in tangerine fruits using ethanol vapour


Boonyakiat, D.; Rattanapanone, N.
Seminar on Postharvest Technology. p.90 (2001)

Abstract:
Tangerine fruit was inoculated with spore of Penicillium sp. and placed in polyethylene bag. This bag contained 1 or 3 or 5 ml of ethanol which was allowed to evaporate. Fruit remained in the enclosed bag with or without ethanol for either 2 or 4 days under ambient conditions. The bags were opened and observed for the developemtn of decay. The fruit was scored for the appearance and rate of infection. The enclosure of tangerine with 1 or 3 ml of ethanol in bag for 4 days resulted a good control of decay.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15976

Growth and Development of Pummelo Fruit cv. Kao Nam Pheung


Wongsrisakulkaew,Y.and Sethpakdee,R.
Agricultural Science Journal 32 1-4 (Suppl.) : P.29-33 (2001)

Abstract:
The growth pattern of pummelo fruit cv. Kao Nam Pheung was single sigmoid curve. Fresh weight increased and nearly constant at 30 weeks. In the twentieth week peel weight more than pulp weight after that pulp weight more than peel weight. Fruit height increased since the first week and after the tenth week were unequal. The height were 16.3 and 17.3 cm. Rind thickness was 3.3 cm. at the ninth week and decreased. Rind thickness was 1.9 at 35 weeks. Diameter of fruit at 2 weeks after anthesis was 1.3 cm.and increased continually. At 35 weeks diameter of fruit was 18.4 cm. The color of fruit was green in early stage and then changed to yellow green since the twenty-sixth week. At 15 weeks had TSS TA and TSS/TA was 10.2% 1.37% and 7:1. TSS was increased slowly and nearly constant at 28 weeks. TA was decreased since 26 weeks. At 35 weeks TSS TA and TSS/TA was 11% 0.56% and 20:1 respectively. Since 31 weeks the pulp was granultion and increased. The period of harvesting was suitable at 28-30 weeks.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15975

Effect of Pollination on Fruit and Seed Setting of Pummelo (Citrus grandis L.) cv. Hom Hat Yai


Kanjanapakorn, S.; Wunnachit, W.
Agricultural Science Journal 32 1-4 (Suppl.) : P.23-27 (2001)

Abstract:
A study on the effect of pollination on fruit and seed setting of pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai was carried out at a farmer's orchard, located in Amphur Hat Yai, Changwat Songkhla, between April and December 1998. Pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai was used as a maternal parent for selfing and crossing with pummelo cv. Pattavia, Kaw Pan, Klan and local pummelo cultivar, open pollination and no pollination were included. Pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai was also interspecific crossed with lime cv. Nhang. Fruit setting was examined weekly until physiological maturity and seediness was also recorded at the final. The results showed that the source of pollination affected both to fruit and seed setting of pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai. Crossing between pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai and Klan provided the highest fruit set of 82.30 percent, while the selfing had the lowest result of 13.00 percent and no pollination resulted in 20.50 percent parthenocarpially fruit set. Crossing between pummelo cv. Hom Hat Yai and local pummelo cultivar produced an average of 39.80 seed per fruit, while the treatments of selfing, open pollination and no pollination prodeuced no seed

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16086

Natural enemies of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton
Sattru thammachat khong non chon bai som Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae)

Kernasa, O.; Charernsom, K.; Suasa-ard, W.
Abstract The 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 1998. P.23.

Abstract:
Study on natural enemies of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae) was conducted in unsprayed pesticide pummelo orchards at 3 locations, Kasetsart University Kampaengsaen Campus, Nakhonpathom Province, Suan Mai Det 1 and Suan Mai Det 2 Muang, Prachinburi Province. The investigation revealed that Quadrastichus sp., Cirrospilus ingenuus, Citrostichus phyllocnistoides, and Ageniaspis citricola played the important role. Study on percent parasitization was conducted in these locations during July 1998 to June 1999. The highest parasitization were 60.27, 51.87, and 38.53 percent at Suan Mai Det 1, Kampaengsaen, Nakhonpathom, and Suan Mai Det 2, respectively.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16087

Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis for the protection of Phytophthora root rot on tangerine
Prasitthiphap khong chuea ra Tri choduma harzianum lae chuea baek thiria Bucillus subtilis nai kan pongkan rok rak nao fai thopthora khong som khiao wan nai saphap suan.

Kitjaideaw, A.; Chamswarng, C.; Paradornuwat, Am.; Sethpakdee, R.
Abstract The 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 1998. P.24.

Abstract:
The efficacy of Trichoderma mixture and B. subtilis for the protection of Phytophthora root rot on tangerine was conducted at tangerine orchard in Pathumthani. Trichoderma mixture perpared by amending the powder formulation of T. harzianum isolate CB-PIN-01 or M4 with nutrient additive (rice bran) and organic supplement (compost) at the ratio of 1:4:10 by weight, were broadcasted on soil under the canopy of tangerine tree at the rate 100 g/m2 . These antagonists provided promising efficacy. After the first application Trichoderma populations in samples collected from all soil applied with Trichoderma mix were significantly higher (P=0.05) than the population obtained from non-applied soil (control). For soil drenching with suspension of B. subtilis B-03, the bacterial populations were increased as relative to the populations in soil without drenching (control). Every treatments applied with antagonistic microorganisms caused the reduction of populations of P. parasitica as compared to control. Evaluation of plant health index and surface area of stem Cross section, the values of mosf treat ments applied with antagonistic microorgahisms were higher than control. Plant health index in the control was reduced by 20-30%. It was proved that T. harzianum applied under tangerine canopy could survive and increase in natural soil. The efficacy of T. harzianum (M4) to reduce P. parasitica populations was comparable to T. harzianum (CB-PIN-01).

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16111

The impact of pesticides used in tangerine orchard to soil and soil bioindicators
Wichai phon krathop chak kan chai watthu mi phit nai suan som khiao to din lae sing mi chiwit nai din thi mi prayot to rabop niwetkaset.

Panwiriyapong, S.; Podisuk, V.; Haruethaithanasan, P.
Abstract The 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 1998. P.57.

Abstract:
The research conducted under the Integrated Pest Mangement Program (IPM), Department of Agriculture (DOA). Two tangerine orchards were selected as the experimental trails for IPM and conventional plots. For the IPM, pesticides were applied under the DOA recommendation, but the farmer took care of his own onventional plot. The comparison of pesticide impact in soil was studied; soil samplings were made every 2 months from both plots for pesticide residues analysis during Oct. 1997-Sept. 1998. Six pesticides were used 10 times in the IPM plot; they were imidacloprid, copper oxychloride, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, malathion, methamidophos and cypermethrin thru the whole experiment. Meanwhile, there were totally 13 applications of pesticides in the conventional plot ; they were copper oxychloride, carbendazim, phosalone, cypermethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos and propargite. So there were less pesticide use in the IPM than in the conventional trial. Soil analysis in the IPM resulted 2 pesticide residues; chlorpyrifos-ethyl and copper (II) with the range of 0.004-0.006 ppm and 5.49-8.19 ppm respectively. But dimethoate and copper (II) were detected in the conventional plot with the range of 0.005-0.062 ppm and 13.98-25.26 ppm respectively. The experiment of the pesticide impact on bioindicators was carried out monthly in both plots by using formalin $ litter bag method to quantify earthworms and soil microorganisms. The result revealed that bioindicaters in the IPM plot were more than that of in the conventional one.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16138

Response of Neck Orange (Citrus reticulata) to Zinc


Lim, M.; Nualsri, C.; Lim, S.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.353.

Abstract:
A study on the growth response to zinc application of neck orange (Citrus reticulata) is one of a solution to solve the problems of the neck orange decline in Songkhla province. Plants showing symptoms resembling zinc deficiency in a farmer's orchard were selected for this investigation. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments i.e. plants were sprayed with either zine sulphate (ZnSo4 . 7H2 O) or zinc salt of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (Zn-EDTA) solution at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2%, soil drench with Zn-EDTA at the rate of 0, 15, or 30 g plant-1 . Each treatment was repeated two times. The growth rate and percentage of symptoms on leaves of new shoots were recorded at 1, 3, and 4 months after imposition of the treatments. Results demonstrated that plants which were sprayed with 0.1% ZnSo4 gave the best growth rate and new leaves showed less symptoms than the other treatments, suggesting that zinc may be one of the growth limiting factors of neck orange in the area.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16140

A Feasibility Study for Cell Culture on Some Economic Crops in Southern Thailand


Lim, M.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.354.

Abstract:
The feasibility study for cell culture on some economic crops in Southern Thailand was conducted. Literatures, reports and bulletins of Southern organizations were reviewed. Questionairs were sent to people in private and governmental section, 83 from 120 of them were replied. Forty on percent of them are interesting in tissue culture technology, twenty eight percent were interesting to conduct research in this field. The outstanding crops, thought to be improved by cell culture, are Oil Palms (75 percent), Longong (45 percent), and para rubber (41 percent). By the point of view, neck Orange, Mangosteen and Som Keaw Wan have highly potential in using cell culture techniques for their collection, propagation including disease-free seeds and crop improvement.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16139

Study on Problems and Improvement of Neck Orange (Citrus reticnlata) Cultivation


Lim, M.; Pantanahiran, W.; Lim, S.; Nuansri, C.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.353.

Abstract:
Yellowing and decline are a serious problem of neck orange (Somchuk) orchards in Songkhla Province. In order to solve the problem and improve the cultivation and production of neck orange, and experiment was conducted in 3 parts : a study of the response of neck orange to zinc, soil analysis, and soil amendment in an orchard. For studying the response of neck orange to zinc, 8 treatments were applied to neck orange before new shoot was exposed. Sprayed with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 percent of Zn-EDTA, soil drench with 15 and 30 g Zn-EDTA. After 4 months, plants sprayed with 0.1% ZnSO4 gave the best response, few yellow shoots. Soil analysis of neck orange orchard showed that micronutrients were lower than standard for citrus and the soil pH was only 4.1. To increase the pH to 6.0, the suitable pH for availability of micronutrients, 649.2 kg per rai of lime must be added to the soil. Among soil amendment with 814 g/tree lime, 814 g/tree lime + 30 g/tree Zn-EDTA, 814 g/tree lime + 190 g/tree MgSO, 814 g/tree lime + 190 g/tree MgSO, 15 g/tree Zn-EDTA, and 30 g/tree Zn-EDTA, after 4 months, treated with 814 g/tree lime + 30 g/tree Zn-EDTA was the best method for decreasing the yellowing and decline of neck orange.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16142

Development Technique for Propagation of Economic Fruit Crops by Means of In Vitro Young Grafting


Lim, M.; Techato, S.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.355.

Abstract:
In Vitro shoot tip grafting (STG) of Neck Orange and Shogun was investigated. The results showed that STG of Neck Orange on Calamondin gave the higher percent STG than Shogun. Among rootstock test, Mandarin gave the highest average STG success of 51 percent, followed by Calamondin which provided an average STG success of 34 percent. The formerly mentioned rootstock at 6-7 day-old seedlings provided the most effective on STG success. Shoot tips excised from field grown Neck Orange plants gave STG success slightly lower than in vitro grown plants but without significant difference. After STG, cultures of grafted plants under dark condition for 9 days provided the highest STG success for both rootstock test. Shoot tips collected from mald infectious plants gave a higher STG success at ranging from 25 to 35 percent while moderate infectious plant gave 15 to 20 percent. A high temperature of 38+1 C provided STG success 61.6 percent significant difference to non treatment. In case of application GA3 to the wound before STG, it was found that STG success was slightly increased but not significant difference to control. Vitro-STG plants could produce 6-8 nodes after transferring to soil for 3 months. In vitro grafting of mangosteen was also investigated. First of all amngosteen seeds were cultrued to induce multiple shoots. The seeds were cultured on modified MS medium with 25-50 ?M BA. For elongation of the shoots, seed-derived multiple shoots must be transferred to the medium with decrement concentration BA to 1 ?M. A great number of shoots were sufficient to use for grafting. Among three mehtods of grafting technique, namely cleft grafting, saddle grafting, and whip grafting, it was proved that cleft grafting gave the highest success with 78 percent. In all cases a high success grafting with 100 percent of this plant was enhanced by wrapping with melted Paraplast. In addition, phytohormone, BA and GA3 at 200 ?M could slightly promote grafting success. Survival of vitro-grafted plants when transfer to soil was 14 percent.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16151

Extending the Shelf Life of Lime by Coating with Chitosan


Sophanodora, P.; Praputh, W.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.368.

Abstract:
Chitosan was successfully produced from shell of black tiger shrimp in laboratory, showing a degree of acetylation of 58% and viscosity of 1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid of 1,035 centipoises. Coating of lime, after soaking in 0.1% benlate solution, with 1.25% of produced chitosan in 1% acetic acid solution could remarkedly prolong the degreening period of fruit's skin to 24 and 56 days but without benlate soaking, chitosan coated lime be prolonged the skin color change for only 18 and 49 days of storage at room temperature (30+2?C) and as low temperature (11+1?C), respectively. However, weight loss of chitosan coated lime during storage was not significantly difference from that of control. The quality of lime juice after storage was comparable to the initial quality

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16196

Micrografting of Neck Orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) in vitro for Production of Virus-free Plant


Te-chato, S.; Kangsakun, W.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.424.

Abstract:
In vitro micro grafting of neck orange on the two species of rootstocks, mandarin and lemon, with various ages was carried out. The results showed that mandarin gave 51.7 percent micro grafting success higher than lemon which provided micro grafting success 25.9 percent. The highest percentage of micro grafting was obtained when 6 day-old seeding were use for both rootstocks, followed by 4 and 8 day-old rootstock, respectively. Heat treatment (38 + 0.2?C) played a significant role on micro grafting access far differ than that obtained from non-treated bud. Heat treatment bud before grafting provided micro grafting success with 61.6 percent significant difference to non treated bud which gave micro grafting success only 26.4 percent. Among three concentrations of GA3 at 200 ?M provided the most effective on micro grafting success, followed by concentration 300 and 250 ?M which provided micro grafting success 45.2 and 45.0 percent, respectively. Vitro-micro grafted plants were successfully transferred to soil with 65.2 percent when mandarin rootstock was used. In case of lemon rootstock, percentage successful transfer to soil was recorded to be 62.8 percent slightly lower than that of mandarin rootstock.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16197

Vegetafive Progation of the Shogun and Neck Orange by In Vitro Micrografting


Te-chato, S.; Sama, P.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.425.

Abstract:
An in vitro micrografting of 2 varieties of citrus on Citrus mitis showed slightly differences in success. Shogun could successfully be grafted at 6.63% whereas Neck Orange gave 5.0%. between 2 different kinds of buds used, the success in micrografting could be obtained from axillary bud at 8.33% far different from those obtained from apical bud. With expect to the age of seedlings of stock, stock at 7 days after germination provided the highest success rate of 15%, while 3 days old stock gave as successes.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16282

In vitro Shoot Tip Grafting of Neck Orange for Avoidance of Virus


Lim, M.; Techato, S.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.352.

Abstract:
In vitro shoot tip grafting (STG) of neck orange on various ages and kinds of rootstock was conducted. Grafted plants were cultured under various dark durations before transfer to culture under low light intensity. The results showed that calamondin rootstock at 8 days and mandarin rootstock at 6 days of age after germination in the darkness provided the highest STG success with 68, and 61 percent, respectively. For culture environment, maintenance grafted plants in the darkness for 9 days before transfer to low light intensity gave the highest STG with 45 and 55 percent for mandarin and pumelo rootstock. In another way, shoot tip of neck orange excised from mild infected clone yielded STG success higher than from moderately to serverely infected clone.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16356

Windbreaks for citrus
Kan pluk mai bang lom nai suan som

Kaewngam, A.
Thai Abstracts Series A Science and Technology. 1:108-109(1974)

Abstract:
Windbreaks in several areas of citrus countries have long been an essential part of successful citrus production. These areas are characterized by being situated in the path of occasional severe winds or prevailing winds of considerable velocity and, in coastal areas, of a chilling nature. A good windbreak tree must be up-right in growth and occupy as little space as possible, tall, mechanically strong, rapid-growing, and of density sufficient to offer the necessary resistance to the prevailing winds. Trees used for windbreaks in various citrus countries are gum, athel, cypress, pine, oak, bamboo, oleander and others. Trees that can be used for Windbreak in Thailand are bamboo, pine, rubber gum, jackfruit, mango, and other natural trees. In planting a windbreak, vigorous seedlings of 10-12 inches tall with normal and undamaged root systems should be chosen. They are planted from 1.5-2 meters apart. A second row, 2 to 2.5 meters away and offset, is often advantageous in providing a more dense planting in very windy areas.

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Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16358

The care of pomelo orchard
Kan patibat bam rung raksa suan soms

Masomboon, U.
Thai Abstracts Series A Science and Technology. 1: 109-110(1974)

Abstract:
Advice on good orchard care is given to new pomelo growers using the ridge-and-ditch system of planting as follows: (1) keep the level of water in the ditch at least 50 cm below the top of the ridge; (2) close any leak that interferes with water control; (3) apply fertilizer or manure regularly; (4) spread silt accumulated in the ditch thinly on top of the ridge yearly; (5) thin fruits when they are lime size; (6) prune trees to good shape; (7) weed often; (8) spray against insects and diseases. Serious diseases of the pomelo are gummosis, foot rot, and fungus diseases.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16360

Analysis of tangerine (Citrus reticulata) leaves for diagnosing phosphorus nutrient status in tangerine orchards


Vacharotayan, S.
Thai Abstracts Series A Science and Technology.1:110-111(1974)

Abstract:
Experiments carried out for almost 18 months indicated that leaf phosphorus analysis could be employed as a diagnostic technique for determining the phosphorus nutrient status of tangerine orchards in Thailand. Samples for analysis should be taken during the fruit-bearing period from leaves 4-7 months old from fruiting twigs, as these are more indicative of the status of available nutrients in the soil, although leaves of the same age from non-fruiting terminals can also be used. Critical levels of leaf phosphorus tentatively established when leaves from fruit-bearing terminals are used are: below 0.109% P - low range - unhealthy trees; 0.110- 0.149% P - probable low to medium range - probable unhealthy to moderately healthy trees; above 0.150% P - satisfactory range - healthy trees. Tentative critical levels of leaf P in the case of leave from non-fruiting terminals are : 0.110-0.149% P - low range - unhealthy trees; 0.150- 0.189% P - probable low to medium range probable unhealthy to moderately healthy trees; above 0.190% P - satisfactory range - healthy trees.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16389

The citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stairaton, and its control


Areekul, S.; Phanusan, V.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 6:78(1976)

Abstract:
The citrus leaf miner is one of the most serious pests of the tangerine in this country. The insect was found predominantly in many areas espectially in Nan Province, where 21-63 % of young plants were killed by the insect. The larvae mine in to leaves and feed on tissues under leaf surfaces. Injured leaves show white zigzag streaks and the whole leaves turn pale in color. The leaves curl up very badly in the advance stage of the injury and they dry out before dropping. The severe defoliation, caused by the infestation resulted in the death of young trees. Young shoots are occasionally attacked by the insect. Other host plants found in the study included pomelo (Citrus grandis Osb.) lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swing.) sweet orange ((Citrus sinensis Osbeck) finger citron (Citrus medica Linn.), bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) and Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) Female moths laid eggs singly on the lower surface of leaves which was close to midribs. The eggs, larval, pupal and adult stages lasted 3-5, 7-10, 5-10, 7-10 days respectively. The total life cycle generally completed within three weeks. Demeton, Phosdrin, Parathion, Diazinon, DDT and Carbaryl showed promising and are recommended for the control of the pest.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16438

Studies on the formation and development of tangerine' s embryos


Satiansavat, V.; Pachdikulsumpun, R.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 6:103-104(1976)

Abstract:
Tangerine flowers arises form terminal as well as lateral buds. The flowers are of perfect and solitary types. The inflorescences arrange cymosely from the terminal branch with 4-6 petals, 5 sepals, 16-24 stamens and 10-14 carpels. Each carpel consists of 4-5 ovule arranged as crassinucellate type. The ovule are anatropous with 2 lagers of integument and arranged in the way of axile placentation. The anther consists of two lobes, with two locules in each lobe. The microspore tetrad has tetrahedral arrangement and appears as binucleated pollen. The megaspore tetrad has linear arrangement. The embryo sac develops normally or as the polygonum type in the ovule. The receptive time for stigma is 2-3 days before blooming, and double fertilization occures 4 days after pollination. The zygote divides 45 days after fertilization and develops into gamegic embryo at about the same time as nucllar embryo development which taken place near the micropylar end. The endosperm develops as the nuclear type. The largest embryo may be either nucellar or gametic embryos. If the nucellar embryo quickly develops and becomes large the gametic emgryo may degenerate.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 71189

Handbook on insects damaging cultivated plants
So tay sau benh hai cay trong

Nguyen Xuan Cung
Publishing house (?year) (?p)

Abstract:
Introduction to some major insect pests damaging cultivated plants and the insecticides to control them were discussed.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76404

Citrus aurantium
Cay chap

Le Tran Duc
Trong hai va dung cay thuoc [Planting, harvesting and uses of medicinal plants]; Vol. 1; Hanoi, Agricultural Publishing House, 1984; p 183- 184

Abstract:
This plant id planted in many places of Vietnam. It is propagated by seeds, branches, harvested after planting 2 years. The plant is used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, cough.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70297

Experiences in cutting and shaping of orange and tangerine plants
Kinh nghiem sua canh tao hin cho Cam, Quit

Bui Ngoc Son
Cultivar Department of State Farm Ministry

Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] ?no, ?p, ?y

Abstract:
Depending on the weather and climate conditions and morphological pecurialities of given species Citrus, shape-making for Citrus must suit the ambient. The method of half-stem and high shape-making are applied for the areas where typhoons happen rarely. Shrub and undershrub shape are applied for the areas, with cold wind or where typhoons often happen. Branches cutting time is from November until the end of January in the next year. The old Citrus trees were regenerated by cutting off the main branch at the distance of about 40-60 cm from the ground. A deep about 30-35 cm and wide 40- 45 cm drain around root should be apply up and 100-150 kg organic fertilizers, 0.7 kg phosphor, 0.5-0.7 kg nitrogenous, 0.5 kg K2O must be applied.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 71265

Grafting methods
Phuong phap ghep cay

Nguyen Van Cong
Hanoi, Scientific Publishing House, 1962; 54 p

Abstract:
The author introduces some methods of grafting. Selection of tools and material are necessary for grafting.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71384

The family Rutaceae: Acronychia, Atalantia, Citrus
Ho Cam: cac chi Buoi, Cam quit

Le Kha Ke; ao
Cay co thuong thay o Vietnam [Popular plants in Vietnam]; Vol. 3; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1973; p 359-368

Abstract:
Introduction on 3 genera of Rutaceae family: Acronychia, Atalantia and Citrus. Acronychia peducculata's bark and it's leaves can be used to treat stomachache, itching. The fruits of Atalantia roxburghiana can be used to eat, it's leaves are used to treat respiratory diseases. Citrus with 6 species are mainly cultivated.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70818

The technical cultivation of lemon
Ky thuat trong Chanh

Nguyen Trong Khiem
Hanoi; 1962; 24p

Abstract:
The limon is economical plant in Vietnam.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70961

Citrus leaf mothles
Benh vang la gan xanh Cam, Quit

Tran Van Ha
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 136 (4): 33-34 (1994)

Abstract:
In Can Tho province, Citrus growing areas were infected which has been estimated about 30-40% of areas. This disease may be transmitted by the Psyllid: Diaphorina citri Kawayama and through tissue graftings.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 72860

Limon
Chanh

Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; p 52-53

Abstract:
Its fruit and roots can be used to treat a cough and help digestion.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73012

Major citrus pests at Thanhha state farm
Sau benh chinh hai cam o nong truong Thanhha

Hoang Lam
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] (2): 22-26 (1993)

Abstract:
Thanhha state farm has grown citrus for over 30 years. The pests associated are generally abundant. Through observation and study, the major pests identified are Diaphorina citri, Phyllocnistis citrella, Panonychus citri and the diseases agents are: Xanthomonas citri and virus. The pesticides evaluated to be effective for their control are: Appl - Mipc, Peris danitol, Dipterex and Sumi - 8.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72295

The storage methods of citrus in Vietnamese's houses
Buoc dau nghien cuu mot so bien phap ky thuat bao quan cam trong dieu kien ho gia dinh o Vietnam

Tran Lan Huong
Agricultural University of Hanoi, No. I; Hanoi, Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc trong trot (1992-1993) [The results of Scientific research of planting faculty 1992-1993] Hanoi, Agricultural Pub. House: 135-137 (1994)

Abstract:
The experiment was carried out with citrus cv. sanh bo ha at the department of storage and processing fruit and vegetable of Hanoi Agricultural University. The first results showed that, it was better to store citrus in polyetylene in Vietnamese's houses.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72296

The influence of giberellin acid on maturity and storage lize of some cultivars of citrus fuits
Nghien cuu anh huong cua GA3 den qua trinh chin va kha nang bao quan cua cam, quat

Nguyen Manh Khai; Hoang Minh Tam
Agricultural University of Hanoi, No. I; Hanoi, Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc trong trot (1992-1993) [The results of Scientific research of planting faculty 1992-1993] Hanoi, Agricultural Pub. House: 132-135 (1994)

Abstract:
The experiment have carried out on Songcon cultivar orange and ornamental lemon in 1990, 1991 and 1993. The results show that GA3 20 ppm and 50 ppm have good effect on fruit side, colour and a shape. They also retard the ripe of fruit decrease the fruit's fall.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70156

Inspection of Citrus, Baeckea frutescens and Melaleuca resources in Ha Tinh province
Dieu tra tru luong cay Chi xac,Tram va Choi o Ha Tinh

Anonymous
Institute of Materia Medica; Hanoi, Vietnam

Thong bao Duoc lieu [Bulletin of Materia Medica] 21: 4-10(1974)

Abstract:
Morphological and ecological characteristics of Citrus, Backea frutescens and Melaleuca leucadendron var. minor have been described. The results of reserve estimation of the three species in Ha Tinh province have also been reported.

Availability :
Institute of Materia Medica, Library




NO. 70291

Preliminary results in study on fly (Dacus dorsalis) damage on orange and tangerine plants
Ket qua buoc dau nghien cuu ruoi Be o Cam, Quit

Dinh Ngoc Ngoan
Department of Control and Plant Protection; Vietnam

Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] (7): 402-407(1970)

Abstract:
From September to December there are many broods of Citrus flies Dacus dorsalis in Vietnam, but only the second and third with life cycle is approximately 45 days are most dangerous. The main damage occures in November, some years it has increased about 4-5 % of Citrus yield. The first brood appears in September with life cycle of 40 days, the fourth appears at the end of Citrus harvest with life cycle is 70 - 80 days. Its control method consists of using 666 with 40 - 60 kg/ha and dipterex or wofatox 0.05 - 0.1 %.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 70292

Preliminary remarks on white fungus disease of orange and tangerine in Vietnam
Nhan xet buoc dau ve benh phan trang cua Cam, Quit o Viet Nam

Nguyen Ngoc Thuy
Ministry of State Farm; Vietnam

Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] (5): 298-300(1970)

Abstract:
Ordium tingitanium affects young tissues as young leaves, middle leaves, buds, flowers and young fruit of Orange and Tangerine plants. Every years, the disease appears in Spring. There are three periods in development process of the disease: The period of making disease centers from February to March The period of disease development from April to early May. The period of disease decreasment from the end of May to early of June. The disease control consist of cutting off infected branch, spraying Bordo 1 %; Zizan 1 %.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 71499

Citrus fruits
Cam quit

Nguyen Ky Tam
Departemtn of Industrial plants; Ministry of Agriculture of Vietnam

Gioi thieu mot so cay xuat khau [Introduction of some exported plants] Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi: 5-13 (1975)

Abstract:
Vietnam is country planting many Citrus plant for export. The requires of the standard for exporting citrus fruits. The technologies of planting, harvesting and preserving exporting productivities.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72005

Some initial result of investigation of insect pest and diseases on Citrus in Bac Quang-Ha Tuyen province
Ket qua buoc dau dieu tra thanh phan sau benh hai cam quit o Bac Quang, Ha Tuyen

Than Van Hoi; Hoang Lam
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (): (19)

Abstract:
The Survey showed that: there were 27 species of insect pest and 16 diseases on Citrus. the main insects are Coccus viridis, Cleties trugonis and main diseases are Elsinoe and greening. It can be used a basic to control them in Ba Quang, Ha Tuyen province.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72230

Prevent and against insect pests for Citrus in the summer crop season
Phong tru sau benh hai von cam trong vu he

Vu Khac Nhuong
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] (2): 68-70 (1987)

Abstract:
In spring-summer crop, it is advantage about for development of Citrus, but there are many insect and pests which spoiled Citrus, especially Citrus leaf miner, boll worm (on the young leaves); brown aphid, planthopper are also danger for Citrus, this species also bring tristesa, greening disease to Citrus plant. We can prevent this species by Bi 58 (0.1%) metin-paration (0.1%), dipterex (0.5%). On the Citrus plants having fruits in summer, there are other insects and pests as branch borer, white spider, green bug, we have to apply technique methods to take care Citrus.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72753

Citrus deliciosa
Cay quit

Tran Van Chinh; Le Trung Chinh et al
The Hospital of National Medicine; Quang Nam-Da Nang

Cay thuoc nam va cac phuong phap phong chua benh don gian tai nha [Traditional Medicinal Plants and Methods of Preventing and Treating Diseases at Home]: 194-196 (1995), Danang

Abstract:
This tree is planted by grafting branches. Its dried skin of fruit can be used to treat a diarrhoea and cough. Its fruit are very nutritious. There are much sugar, vitamin in its, 100 g edible part of fruit content 126 mg vitamin C.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71800

Grape-fruit
Cay buoi

Nguyen Huu Doanh
Ky thuat trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting Technic of Fruit plant in garden] Thanh Hoa Pub., 1992. - pag. 11-13

Abstract:
There are vitamin C (70-90/100g), gluco (8-10), acid 0,2-10 in grape-fruit. It's about 100 grape fruit breeds and distributed Doan Hung, Phuc Trach, Me Linh, Thanh Tra... There are some natural salt in grape fruit which have high nutritious value.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 71963

Results of survey on Diaphorima citri
Ket qua buoc dau qua theo doi dac tinh sinh hoc cua ray chong canh Daphorima citri

Hoang Lam
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (1): 4-6 (1989)

Abstract:
Diaphoria citri is pest of Citrus, it can damage Citrus fruits. This paper give review on biological properties of this insect pest, that is basic for suggest control methods.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71975

The effective of pesticides against Diaphorina citri
Ket qua thi nghiem va phong tru vecto truyn benh greening tre cam quit

Hoang Lam; Vu Manh Hai
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (2): 9-11 (1990)

Abstract:
The greening disease is important disease of Citrus spp.. Among the pesticides as Bi-58, Bassa, Azodrin, Mipcin, Wofatoc, Applaud, Sherpa, Zolone etc. The best were Bi-50 and Bassa, Applaud-mipcin, sherpa, Sumi, politrin showed good effect to control the greening disease.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71985

Bacterial caused greening disease of Citrus and contaminated insects
Vi khuan gay benh greening cam quit tu cac con trung truyen benh

M. Chaica
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (4): 31 (1990)

Abstract:
The greening disease of Citrus is caused by bacterial and contaminated by Diaphoria citri and Trioza erytreae. This bacterial can causes diseases for many species of Citrus genus, but heavy for citrus should treating material cross-fertilized branch by hot (49oC) or Tetraxichin (1000mg/CC).

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72187

Preliminary studies and surveys on Citrus greening diseases
Buoc dau khao sat ve phan bo va nghien cuu benh greening cam quit

Do Thanh Lam; Ha Minh Trung
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (3): 29-30 (1992)

Abstract:
During the period of two years (1990-1991), survey on greening distribution were made from the major Citrus growing regions of Northern Vietnam. Results showed the evident occurence of greening disease on every Citrus orchard from nursery stage to commercial production. Average percentage of infected trees is variously changed depending on ecological region and tree age, which may reach up to 99.75% when tree are 15 years old. A description of greening symptom was made and infected buds triks of Songcon cultivar were taken to greening house and grafted on different rootstocks for further disease symptom observation. Symptom expression degree is different in each rootstock and most clearly showed off on Citrus volamreiana. After all, it was regarded as easily transmitted by grafting with symptom indentical to which recorded on the field orchard. Further indexing and insect-vector transmission must be undertaken for and accurate conclusion.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72035

Some results of study on orange leaf yellow in Northern Vietnam
Mot so ket qua nghien cuu ve hien tuong van vang la cam quit o mien bac Viet nam

Do Dinh Duc
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (6): 10-13 (1991)

Abstract:
Orange leaf yellow is popular disease in Vietnam. The infected plant were 40-80% in 1975. All citrus cultivars were infected in different levels. This disease is developed from last October to next March. Initial studies of this disease includes: greening, Tristeza, Exocortes and prorosis. Methods to control them are suggested.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72091

Greening disease of Citrus
Benh xanh qua cam, quit

Ta Hong
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (1): 2-8 (1981)

Abstract:
The greening originated from china and distributes in many countries. This disease caused great damage for Torramycin, Aureomycin, Capoor 74,... Treating cut branches by hot method, selecting uninfected young plant to cultivation.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72124

The first researching for ulcer disease of citrus
Ket qua nghien cuu buoc dau ve benh loet cam

Le Luong Te
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (29): 35-47 (1976)

Abstract:
Ulcer disease of citrus develops and ruins baby plant in the nursery garden. Thanh Ha citrus is influenced so much by this disease. This disease existent on the leaf, the soil and insects. So for eliminate ulcer disease, have to born disease leaves, kill insects. Using drug Bordeau or Simel 5 times, cut disease branches, clean, kill insects by Wofatox 0.1%.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72173

Rhynchocoris humeralis
Bo xit hai cam

Minh Hung; Thai Toai
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (19): 35-43 (1975)

Abstract:
Rhynchocoris hymeralis appears one time by year, since May to November and ruin the citrus. Have to use wofatox, Bi-58 1/500 or Dipterex 1/800-1/500 to eliminate this insect.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72175

Disease and pests on Citrus at Phu Quy - Nghe Tinh
Tinh hinh sau benh hai cam quit o vung Phu Quy - Nghe Tinh

Ha Minh Trung; Do Thanh Lam; Tran Quang Tan
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (1): 14-18 (1992)

Abstract:
In 1990, a survey on Citrus disease and insect pest had been conducted at Phu Quy. At a results, 19 insect pests, 16 diseases and 5 bebeficial bioregulators were detected and indentified. Greasy spot (Mycosphaerella citri) firstly reported in Vietnam, reducing photosynthesis capacity of citrus plant and causing early defoliation. Greening disease, that is one of the most devastating......??

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72520

Ceroplastes rusci L.
Rep sap hong det

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No11: 91-93 (1974)

Abstract:
Ceroplastes rusci L. can harm orange, limon, mandarin, peach, rose and other plants. It's in Anbani, Greece, France, Israen, Liban, Turkey, Japan... The prevention methods are: Using CH3Br for young plant, seed or grafting branch.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72522

Ceratitis capitata Wied.
Ruoi dia trung hai

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 7-10 (1974)

Abstract:
Ceratitis capitata Wied. can harm 180 kinds of fruits such as: limon, grapefruit, orange, banana, apple.. Dicription on morphology, habit action, harming phenomen of this fly, main measures of prevention it are presented in this paper.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72543

Deuterophoma tracheiphila Petri
Benh kho canh cam quyt

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 41-44 (1974)

Abstract:
Deuterophoma tracheiphila Petri can harm the limon, mandarin, orange, grapefruit... It's distributed in Greece, Italy, France, USR, Sri Lanka. The condition of this disease was presented here. For prevention by: No import plant from these countries, where have this disease, good breeding, drying the foot, root and burning them if the plant was infected by this disease.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72546

Tetradacus citri Chen
Ruoi lon cam quyt

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 52-54 (1974)

Abstract:
Tetradacus citri Chen can harm the limon and orange. It's distributed in China. This paper described the morphology, active habit of this pest. The methods of prevention and control were as follows: Expelling disease source in import breeding material from China, using Na3ASO3 to kill it.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72547

The long bug
Rep sap dai

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 55-56 (1974)

Abstract:
The long bug (Leucaspis Japonica Ckll.) can damage the citrus, apple tea and other wood plants. It's in USSR, France, India, China, Korea, Japan, America,... This paper described the morphology and active habit of this bug. The strict control imported breed, using CH3Br for smoking are methods of its prevention.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72548

Pseudococcus comstocki Kuw.
Rep sap Comtocki

??
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 57-59 (1974)

Abstract:
The bug comtocki (Pseudococcus comstocki Kuw.) can damage the mulbery, apple-tree, apricott, banana, grape, orange, potato, ornamentals, forest plants. It's in England, USSR, Mianmar, Israel, India, China, Korea, Japan, Philippines, Kennya, Canada, America and other countries. This paper decribed of its morphological properties and active habit. Strict control of the imported breed from these countries, using natural enemies for killing it were methods of its prevention.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72555

Quick decline
Benh vang cam quyt

?/
Tap chi bao ve thuc vat [Plant protection bulletin] No 11: 44-48 (1974)

Abstract:
Quick decline can harm the mandarin, orange. It's distributed in Southern Africa, America, Argentina, Brazin. It can be seen the year round. The disease resources are: infected cross-fertilizion, bacteria, fungus. Prevention methods are: isolating disease resources, good husbandry plant to increase its antagonic ability.

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National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70558

The study on exploitation and using of essential oil of orange and limon in Vietnam
Nghien cuu khai thac va su dung tinh dau Cam, Chanh o Vietnam

Phung Thi Bach Yen; a.o
Institute of Food Industry, Vietnam

Ky yeu Cong trinh Hoi thao quoc gia ve Cong nghe Tinh dau [The working conspectus of National conference of Essetial oil Technology] 1988; p226-234

Abstract:
The essential oil isolation methods from materials (the fruit peels, flowers of oranges and limon leaves), harvesting time of the material are showed. Essential oil quality had been determined and proposals of its prospects have been mentioned.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology




NO. 70951

Light roasted 'Tran bi' (Citrus deliciosa Tenore)
Vi sao Tran bi

Pham Xuan sinh; Hoang Kim Huyen; Dang Thi Suu; Pham Tuyet Nhung
Institute of Materia Medica; Hanoi; Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] 211(2): 11-14(1992)

Abstract:
According to traditional medicine 'Tran bi' has an energy in circulating and phalegmolytic effects. TLC and GC analysing method showed no changes in the chemical substance nature found in its essential oil and considrable changes in their quantitative composition.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 72826

Citrus plants
Cam, Quyt, Chanh, Buoi

Translated by Do ngoc An; a.o.
Cay an qua nhiet doi [The Tropical Fruit Trees] The Science and Technique Publ. House; Hanoi, Vol. 2(1973); 490p

Abstract:
The book showed the experiences of planting of tropical fruit trees (including: orange, tangerine, lemon and pumello); methods of breeding, nourishing ecology, process of growth and development, diseases, methods of propagation (grafting). General situation of planting of orange and tangerine in America, India, Russia, Japan and South-East Asia.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72845

Citrus sp.
Chap

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; pp. 55-56

Abstract:
The plant grows wildly in Nhu Xuan, Quan Hoa or planted in Tho Xuan and Vinh Loc. Its young fruits are harvested on March-April, old fruit on July-August to treat belly-ache, hopping cough, dysentery and asthma.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72854

Citrus grandis Osbeck
Buoi

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; pp. 38-39

Abstract:
Beside the values of its fruits, its leave is usually used as medicine to treat a flu, cold, belly-ache, cough and headache. It flowers are used for making perfume.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72937

Mandarin
Quyt

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; pp. 194-195

Abstract:
The plant is planted as ornamental plant in some districts. Its fruits can be used to treat a sore throat, cough, bad digestion; its seeds can be used to treat a hydrocele (??). Its young fruit can be used to treat malaria and liver complain. They are harvested in August-December.

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NO. 73084

Citrus grandis
Buoi

Vo Van Chi
Nhung cay thuoc thong thuong [The Popular Medical Plants] Dongthap, Dongthap publishing house: 43-45 (1988)

Abstract:
Citrus grandis is big tree and high over 10m. This plant is planted everywhere. Its fruits is harvested on autumn - winter (Leaves: all year round). There are 89g water, 9g glucid, 0.6g protein, 0.1g lipid... in 100g its fruit. Its bark contains essential oil (ancol, pectin). Its fruit is used as medicines for depurating blood, indigestible, poisoning, fever, lung disease and its seed: head siabites.

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NO. 74146

Result of analyzing Liberobacter asiaticum causing Vang la greening disease in Vietnam
Ket qua giam dinh vi khuan Liberotater asiaticum gay benh vang la Greening o Vietnam bang phuong phap lai AND va phuong phap PCR tai INRA, Phap

M. Bovea et al.
?

Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] (1): 9-11 (1997)

Abstract:
Leaf samples collected on 55 citrus trees from 20 location of the North, central and South Vietnam in Jan to Feb 1995 were analyzed by PCR amplification, DNA hybridisation and immune-florescence at INRA (France). This detection has confirmed the presence of vang la greening disease in Vietnam. Further research and control are urgently needed for disease management.

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National Library of Vietnam




NO. 75952

On the "Greening" and other diseases cause the yellow leaves of citrus in Vietnam.
Benh vang la cam quit o nuoc ta hien nay.

Vu Khac Nhuong
Tap chi Khoa hoc Ky thuat Rau, Hoa, Qua.[Journal of Sciences and Technology of Vegetables Flowers and Fruits] 1: 21-23 (1997).

Abstract:
"Yellow leaf" symptom is very popular problem on Citrus, that is also one of big constraints for Citrus production in Vietnam and over the world as well. In Vietnam, this disease was recognized in the early of 60s decade and the quantity of the affected trees has been increased by the time. A lots of Citrus orchards had been destroyed by there diseases; after resuming the situation and results obtained up to now, the author proposes some main measure to be applied in large scale to rehabilitate citrus production in coming period. The method consists of selecting healthy individuals, removing affected ones combined with chemical control to kill the vector. And what is more using Elisa test and STG technology to produce disease free young plants.

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NO. 76066

A study on tarry black spoting on Citrus leaves.
Benh dom dau tren la cam quyt.

F. J. Bealing; Nguyen Minh Thao
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ve rau qua (1995-1997) [Scientific results of studying on vegetables and fruits 1995-1997]. Agricultural Publ. House. Hanoi, 1997. page: 61-70.

Abstract:
Examination of orange leaves affected by tarry black spotting showed that although superficially similar, there was clear anatomical distraction between localized epidermal necroses attributable to cooper toxicity and the spraying of Bordeaux mixture and leter hyperplasia and death of deep-seated tissues characteristic of attack by Mycospharella citri. Both problems might be counterd by spraying a eaker fungicide formulation in March, April and again in May-June.

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NO. 76067

International programme of Citrus established and implemented by CIRAD-IRFA.
Chuong trinh cay an qua co mui cua to chuc CIRAD-IRFA.

B. Anbert
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ve rau qua (1995-1997) [Scientific results of studying on vegetables and fruits 1995-1997]. Agricultural Publ. House. Hanoi, 1997. page: 61-66.

Abstract:
In the scope of international network on Citrus research and development programmes, the author introduced the objective, background and main institutions over the world. The objective of the programmes was particularly emphasized that involves the genetic improvement, bio-control relating environmental protection and produc quality. From the above mentioned introductions, the author proposed key problems to be studied and solved in coming period.

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NO. 76068

Citrus germplasm in Phu Quy fruit Research Centre.
Gioi thieu tap doan cay an qua co mui o trung tam nghien cuu cay an qua Phu Quy.

Tran Thi Uyen; a.o.
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ve rau qua (1995-1997) [Scientific results of studying on vegetables and fruits 1995-1997]. Agricultural Publ. House. Hanoi, 1997. page: 56-60.

Abstract:
55 Citrus accessions had been collected by fruit research Centre of Phu Quy during 1984- 1994 period, of which 35 accessions were indigenous and the rest was introduced from outside. Base on Citrus classification key proposed by swingled (1967), above mentioned accessions were classified into 8 following species: C. medica, C. grandis, C. paradisi, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, C. lemon, C. simensis, C. reticulata.

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NO. 76247

Citrus rehabilitation scheme in Vietnam.
Chuong trinh cai tao giong Citrus o Vietnam (Cam, Quyt).

Cao Hong Phu
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 3: 98-99 (1993).

Abstract:
This scheme was trarted in 1986 by Vietnam National Vegetables and fruit corporation and include 6 steps: 1. Selection of mother trees 2. Definite all kinds of virus diseases on mother trees in green house. 3. Create free disease plants through shoot-tip grafting invitro. 4. Index free disease plants in screen house. 5. study economical characters of free disease plants. 6. Supply free disease bud woods to growers.

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NO. 76436

The preliminary result on selection multiplication of orange budlings (1986-1990).
Ket qua buoc dau tuyen chn, nhan nhanh cay cam giong.

Nguyen Ngoc Kiem
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 11: 411-414 (1992).

Abstract:
The program based on selection in bearing orchards of oranges to indentify trees with good quality, vigorous growth and symstomless greening. In the first step (1986), 791 good trees were identified. Then among them, 168 excellent trees (2 rd step, 1987) and 7 mos excellent trees of 4 varieties (3rd step, 1988) were identified continuously.

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NO. 76437

Citrus gummosis disease and its control measures.
Benh ia chay gom hai cam va bien phap phong tru.

Do Dinh Duc
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 11: 414-416 (1992).

Abstract:
Phytophthora spp. cause the most serious soil borne disease of Citrus. There fungi cause losses of production in areas with high rainfall and temperature. Losses due to Phytophthora spp. occur in seed beds from damping off, in nurseries from foot rot, gummonis and root rot, in orchards from foot rot, gummosis, feeder rott rot and brown rot and packing houses from the development and spread of brown rots.

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NO. 76439

Some opinions on the development of the fruit growing in our country.
Mot so y kien ve phat trien nghe trong cay an qua (Nhan, Cam, Buoi) o Vietnam.

Le Tran Duc
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 11: 409-410 (1992).

Abstract:
In this article, the author discussed on the development of fruit in Vietnam. Depend on his opinion, Vietnam with a lot of basic condition the fruit could be developed and he offered some measures to promote the fruit development in Vietnam.

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NO. 76467

Research originative and developmental law of Citrus weevil (Hypomeces sqanosus Fabr).
Nghien cuu qui luat phat sinh phat trien cau cau hai cam, vung Phu Quy-Nghe An.

Nguyen Minh Thao; a.o
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 5: 174-176 (1992).

Abstract:
In Phu Quy there are 2 species of citrus weevibL Hypomeces squamosu Fabr, which caused the essential damage; platymycitrus reither, which causes regligible damage. Weevil exist on the field for whole year. It originated profusely on March, April, May, and June, develop on February, March and do well on April, May and June.

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NO. 76468

The diagnostic methods of citrus greening disease.
Phuong phap chuan doan benh greening tren cay an qua co mui.

Cao Hong Phu
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 5: 172-174 (1992).

Abstract:
The greening disease destroyed the Citrus plants not only in Vietnamt but alos in the Citrus cultivated areas on wht world and up to now thre aren't any possible mean to eliminate. The best way to prevent the disease is: to create free virus varieties - To spray insectivides to restrict the infection.

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NO. 76475

Insect pests and diseases of Citrus at Phu Quy region.
Sau benh hai cam quyt vung Phu Quy (Nghe An).

Ha Minh Trung; a.o.
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 4: 134-136 (1992).

Abstract:
In 1990, 19 insect pests m 15 diseases and 4 natural enemies have found in Phu Quy citrus growing region, especially Tamarixin has been indentified as parasite of Diaphorine citri (greening vector). The major insect pests of citrus are Stem borer, leaf miner, green leaf beatle and fruit sucking month.

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NO. 76530

Study on the utilization of Chitosan for storage of orange in Vietnam.
Nghien cuu su dung Chitosan de bao quan Cam o Vietnam.

Tran Quang Binh; a.o.
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 6: 220-221 (1995).

Abstract:
The utilization of Chitosan for storing orange (variety "chan" and var. "Bo ha") has been performed. It was showed that the optimum layer of Chitosan coating is 35 ¦m for obtaining good results in orange storage. With the use of Chitosan the duration of storing orange has been increased from 35 days to 45 days comparison the control; it is necessary to and supplementary factor P1 to Chitosan solution for increasing the effectiveness of Chitosan treatment.

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NO. 76549

Using micrografting technology for the production of virus-free citrus in the Mekong delta.
Su dung ky thuat vi ghep trong san xuat giong cam quit sach chiu benh o dong bang song Cuu Long.

Doang Thi ai Thuyen; a.o.
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 8: 285-286 (1995).

Abstract:
Virus and microplasma diseases represent a major limiting factor in commercial development of agriculture in several countries including Vietnam. Measure to overcome these beside traditional plant protection practice is mass propagation of diseases free stock of mother plant micrografting technology of Citrus has been established in the 70's, first in France and utilised in various Citrus programs. In this report, preliminary resutls on the used of micrografting techniques in laboratory condition is presented and its potential used in Citrus development in Vietnam is discussed.

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NO. 76561

Preliminary results of survey collection, selection and introduction of fruit varieties conducted by Long Dinh Fruit Research Centre.
Ket qua buoc dau cong tac dieu tra, suu tap, binh tuyen, du nhap giong cay an trai cua trung tam Cay an qua Long Dinh.

Nguyen Minh Chau; a.o.
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 327-330 (1995).

Abstract:
Up to now, Long Dinh Fruit Research Centre has collected 34 fruit kinds with 370 local varieties evaluated as having good

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NO. 76562

The growth characteristics of some introduced varieties of Citrus rootstocks.
Buoc dau danh gia sinh truong cua mot so giong goc ghep Cam, quit.

Gian Duc Chua; Nguyen Minh Chau
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 332-333 (1995).

Abstract:
To begin the study on Citrus rootstock varieties suitable in the Mekong delta, the observation on plant, growth characteristics of 5 introduced rootstock as, Poncirus trifoliata, Rough lemon, Benton, Troyer and Carrizo was conducted. Most of them had stronger root system than the control. Although, Benton has similar growth, it was lower than other checked varieties.

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NO. 76564

Greening disease on Citrus of the Mekong delta.
Benh vang la greening tren cay an qua co mui o DBSCL.

Le Thi Hong; a.o.
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 336-337 (1995).

Abstract:
Greenin disease on citrus has been found becoming serious in the Mekong delta. King orange and sweet mandarin of 4-7 years old were heavily infected. Yellow trap can be used to catch payllid Diaphorina citri (insent vector of greening disease). And two of thethree paresites on the nymphs of payllid were identified as Diaphorencytus aligarhensis shafce and Tamarixia radiata Webber.

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NO. 76565

Investigation of diseases from virus at the Mekong delta.
Ket qua dieu tra phat hien cac benh virus va tuong tu, virus tren cay co mui o DBSCL.

Le Thi Hong; Nguyen Van Hoa
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 9: 330-331 (1995).

Abstract:
Investigation on the presence of virus and virus like diseases on citrus has been conducted since February 1995. The preliminary results showed that, there are 6 diseases such as Greening diseases, Tristera, Psorsis, Covaregurn, Cirstacortia and a suspected virus like disease (unknown). Of which greening disease has been observed very frequently and speedy spread on most Citrus hosts in the Mekong delta.

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NO. 76613

Results of research on orange leaf yellow disease.
Ket qua nghien cuu benh vang la cam quyt.

Pham Qui Hiep
Tap chi Nong nghiep & Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 11: 425-427 (1994).

Abstract:
Yellowed leaves of oranges is quick infectious disease and the destruction of orange and mandarin orange. The cause of disease is a kind of virus. In this artivle, the author set forth measure to control the diseases.

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NO. 72202

The Psorosis complex on the Citrus
Nhom benh Psorosis hai cam quyt

Cao Hong Phu
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] (5): 25-27 (1992)

Abstract:
The name Psorosis complex is applied to a group of virus disease, they were suffered widely in their effect on Citrus plants. Seven and possibly eight diseases have been distinguished such as Psorosis A, Psorosis B, blind pocket concave gum, crinkle leaf, infectious variegation, cristacortis and perhaps impierature induce young. The main spread of psorosis complex is bud transmitted and no insect vector are know. The most efficient method to avoid diseases is used the disease free materials in Citrus propagation.

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NO. 78271

Citrus spp.
Cam

Le Tran Duc
Cay thuoc Viet Nam: Trong, hai, che bien va tri benh ban dau [Medicinal plants of Vietnam: planting, harvesting, processing and treating diseases] Agricultural Pub. House. Hanoi, 1999. p. 916-918

Abstract:
Citrus spp. are cultivated widely in Vietnam as fruit trees. The fruits are delicious and nutrious. The peel of fruit can be used to process an essentral oil, the leaf and bark of tree can be used as medicine treating an inflammation of the ears, beriberi following the childbirth; the peel of fruit can treat an indigestion.

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NO. 78341

Fructus citrus
Chi thuc-Chi xac

Le Tran Duc
Cay thuoc Viet Nam: Trong, hai, che bien va tri benh ban dau [Medicinal plants of Vietnam: planting, harvesting, processing and treating diseases] Agricultural Pub. House. Hanoi, 1999. p. 643-645

Abstract:
Citrus aurantium grows naturally or is planted by grafting branches. The fruit can be harvested after propagation 2 years. Its young fruits are applied as medicine treating a cough with spum, ache caused by liver complains, a constipation, a dysentery, dropsy, romiting, hydropsy. Citrus hystrix is cultivated in many regions. Its fruit are used as a medicine as C. aurantium fruits.

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NO. 78457

Pummelo cultivars grown in the villages of Bach Dang an Tan Trieu
Mot so giong buoi o xa Bach Dang va xa Tan Trieu (Citrus grandis, Rutaceae)

Nguyen Van Ke; Bui Thi Tuyet Mai; Tran Kinh Quoc; Tran Duc Hiep; Nguyen Binh Duy
Tap san khoa hoc ky thuat Nong Lam Nghiep [Journal of agricultural sciences and technology] 3: 106-109 (2000).

Abstract:
Investigation showed that there are more than 20 pummels cultivars grown in the villages of Bach Dang (Tan Uyen district, Binh Duong province) and Tan Trieu (Vinh Cu district, Dong Nai province). Duong La Cam, Duong Da Lang and Thanh Tra cultivars are grown popularly because of high yield and good quality. Briefly, there are two pummelo grows: fruit skin of the first group is smooth and the second rough. Weight of fruit varies from 900g to 1,200g, the total sugar content can reach 12g per 100g of edible portion. Vitamin C contents are 26,36 and 42 mg/100g for Duong La Cam, Thanh Tra and Duon Da Lang, respectively. Details of characteristics of all cultivars are shown in the text.

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NO. 78459

Efficacy of some fungicides on the stem canker disease of citrus at district 0 Hochiminh city, 1999
Hieu luc cua mot so loai thuoc hoa hoc tru benh thoi goc chay mu (Phytophthora sp) tren cay cam sanh tai quan 9 TP. HCM, 1999

Vo Thi Thu Oanh
Tap san khoa hoc ky thuat Nong Lam Nghiep [Journal of agricultural sciences and technology] 3: 113-115 (2000).

Abstract:
Stem canker disease is very serious on the citrus in the Long Binh ward, District 9. The causal agent is Phytophthora sp, some of the common fungicides were tested on citrus nobilis in 1999 to control this disease. Results showed that the use of Alietle 80WP is the most effective for control of the stem canker disease of citrus, then Ridomil MZ 72WP and curzate 50WP at 30 days after application.

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NO. 78476

Situation of citrus production in Bac Quang district & techinical solutions for its development orientation.
San xuat cam quyt o Bac quang & cac giai phap ky thuat de phat trien

Trinh Duy Tien...
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 9: 421-422 (2000).

Abstract:
In Bac Quang district (Ha Giang province) soil & climate conditions are suitable for citrus development. At present, there are 3000 ha under citrus with output value 35 billion VND/year. Difficulites limiting citrus development in the district are as follows: (+) Without nurscried for breeding plantlet production. (+) Without seluction of good cultivars (+) Without application of fertilizers or with in sufficient doses & the wrong method of applying fertilizer (+) scarvely growing density. Solutions for citrus development here are to overcome the above weaknesses.

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NO. 78527

The current situation and potential of developing orange growing area in Ham Yen distrist, Tuyen Quang province.
Hien trangj & tiem nang phat trien vung cam o huyen Ham Yen, Tuyen Quang

Nguyen Duy Lam
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 6: 243-244 (2000).

Abstract:
The ambience conditions such climate, weather and soil in Ham Yen district are very suitable for developing orange. Now all of Ham Yen district there are 1470.78 ha under orange with orange output about 270 MT per annum. After 4 years, if having better investment the are of orange would be nearly 2000 ha and output about 8000 MT per annum.

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NO. 78528

The current situation and some main recommendations in order to develop fruit trees in Bac Quang dist, Ha Giang province.
Hien trang va mot so kien nghi chu yeu nham phat trien cay an qua o huyen Bac Quang, Ha Giang.

Tran Dinh Tuan
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 6: 244-246 (2000).

Abstract:
Bac Quang, a low mountain district of Ha Giang mountainous province has facilities to develop fruit trees. However, the result has not been corresponding to the potential, so, the author has set forth solutions to develop fruit trees in the district in coming time.

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NO. 78555

Premilinary results of farming systems research for sustainable agriculture on slopping aniddle land in the North East Mountainous Areas.
Ket qua nghien cuu he thong cay trong hop ly cho san xuat nong nghiep lau ben tren dat doc o Trung du mien Nui Dong Bac.

Dang Thi Ngoan; Nguyen Van Tien; Nguyen Van Thi; Nguyen The Toan
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 185-190

Abstract:
1.Long term major crops such as lychee, longan have not given fruit in the first few years. However, their growth and development are good. Shorterm major crops such pineapple, organge, lemon mandarine, etc. Started producing fruit affer two years of planting. 2). Food crops and legumes interp lanted between rows of fruits trees gave good harvest. In additon to eash income, legemes also a considerable amount of stems and leaves green manure for fruit trees inter cropped.

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NO. 78560

The composition of citrus deseases and pests, appearing and development of the yellow-disease in Bac Quang district-Ha Giang province.
Thanh phan benh hai cam quyt, tinh hinh phat sinh phat trien benh "Vang la" o huyen Bac Quang-Ha Giang.

Pham Quy Hiep
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 147-150

Abstract:
In Bac Quang district, Ha Giang province the diseases and pests are more light than other citrus cultivation region. The yellow-disease can infect heavy in Bo Ha, Xa Doai, Son Con, Van Du varieties. The local mandarin chum is light infected.

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NO. 78561

Classification and protection citrus.
Tinh da dang cua cam quyt, phan loai va bao ve

Le Quang Hanh; Nguyen Nghia Thin
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 142-046

Abstract:
In Vietnam. There are 17 species of citrus genus. Introduciton on origin, morphology, distribution of these species in Vietnam - and research – of classification of citrus genus resently.

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NO. 78627

The current situation and potential of developing orange growing area in Ham Yen distrist, Tuyen Quang province.
Hien trangj & tiem nang phat trien vung cam o huyen Ham Yen, Tuyen Quang

Nguyen Duy Lam
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 6: 243-244 (2000).

Abstract:
The ambience conditions such climate, weather and soil in Ham Yen district are very suitable for developing orange. Now all of Ham Yen district there are 1470.78 ha under orange with orange output about 270 MT per annum. After 4 years, if having better investment the are of orange would be nearly 2000 ha and output about 8000 MT per annum.

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NO. 78628

The current situation and some main recommendations in order to develop fruit trees in Bac Quang dist, Ha Giang province.
Hien trang va mot so kien nghi chu yeu nham phat trien cay an qua o huyen Bac Quang, Ha Giang.

Tran Dinh Tuan
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 6: 244-246 (2000).

Abstract:
Bac Quang, a low mountain district of Ha Giang mountainous province has facilities to develop fruit trees. However, the result has not been corresponding to the potential, so, the author has set forth solutions to develop fruit trees in the district in coming time.

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NO. 78707

Diversity of genus citrus
Tinh da dang cua chi Citrus (cam, quit)

Nguyen Nghia Thin; Le Quang Hanh
Genetics society of Vietnam.

Tap chi: Di truyen hoc & ung dung – [Genetics and Application. N02] – 1995. – pag. 38-41.

Abstract:
In this paper, the authors introduce the outline on problem of classification of genus Citrus of the world and of Vietnam. On the basis of analysis of Citrus specimens, the preliminary results on taxonomy of the Vietnamese Citrus are reported.

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NO. 78720

Invesgation, selection for conservation of genetic resource of cultiver: Cam Bu belonging to citrus reticulata in Huong Son and Huong Khe-Ha Tinh
Dieu tra nghien cuu, tuyen chon de bao ton nguon Gen cay Cam tra or Huong Son va Huong Khe Ha Tinh.

Le Quang Hanh; Le Dinh Son
Genetics society of Vietnam.

Tap chi: Di truyen hoc & ung dung – [Genetics and Application. N04] – 1994. – pag. 17-20.

Abstract:
In the paper some results of research on biological characters ofcultivar: Cam Bu of citrus reticulata, and its suitable natural conditions were reported. However, the paper also introduced results on selection of good clones and on test on the field in PhuQuy, NgheAn

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NO. 78750

Effect of microelement Zn, B, Mo on growth, yield and quality of litrus fruits in Phu Qui area, Nghe An province
Buoc dau tim hieu anh huong cua Wn, B, Mo den sinh truong, nang xuat va pham chat cam sunkist trong tren dat do Bazan Phu Qui – Nghe An

Keo Vivon ut Tha Chac
Genetics society of Vietnam.

Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 1 – pag. 23-25 (1994).

Abstract:
Micrelements Zn, B, Mo increased photo synthesis intensity and rate of formed fruits of citrus. Our expriments demosistated that spraying Zn, B, Mo can increased citrus yield 8,33% to 27,32% with increasing the fruits size and higher edible part of the fruits. Total sugar ans vitamin C content of fruits increased but citric acid decreased

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NO. 78782

Mainly concentrated regions of citrus cultivation in Vietnam
Cac vung trong cam quyt chinh o Viet Nam.

Tran The Tuc; Vu Manh Hai; Do Dinh Ca
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 6 – pag. 219-220 (1996).

Abstract:
Present situation and development direction for citrus production in coming period in Vietnam have been designated in this paper. Authors focused to analysis meteocological condition in 3 main regions of citrus cultivation to find out the advantages and disadvantages as well, from which proper practical techologied should be applied in Large-scale.

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NO. 78785

Vavietal selection of Phuc Trach pumelo
Tuyen chon, nhan giong buoi Phuc Trach nang xuat cao, pham chat tot phuc vu xuat khau va noi tieu

Phan Thi Chu
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 6 – pag. 228-229 (1996).

Abstract:
In order to improve the yield and the quality of Phuc Trach pumelo (one of well-known pumelo cultivars tragitionally grown in Vietnam) an investigation were carried out with the aim of selecting promissing clones to be introducted to large-scale. After 3 years of evaluation, 3 individuals that have regularitly high yield and of good quality, economically grown in local conditions were chosen to be tested in different regions in North Vietnam.

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NO. 78813

Researches on the tissue culture for breeding of some orange and mandarin varieties in Vietnam.
Nghien cuu nuoi cay mo mot so giong cam quit Viet Nam.

Do Nang Vinh; Le Huy Ham; Nguyen Thuy Ha
Tap chi : Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 5-1996.– pag. 194-196

Abstract:
Plants and callus cells regenerated from top buds, young sarcocarp and seed embryo will be able to become the source of disease-free grafting nodes ang for hybridization of new varieties.

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NO. 78830

Some characteristics of development and maturation of fruit of "Red" namdarin and "Chem" one in Bac Quang area of Ha Giang province
Mot so dac diem phat trien va chin qua cua hai giong quit do va quit chun Citrus reticulata blanca o vung Bac Qung, Ha Giang.

Do Dinh Ca; Tran The Tuc
Tap chi : Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 2.1995.– pag. 72-73

Abstract:
In the ecological condition of Bac Quang area, Ha Giang province, "Red" mandarin and "chem" mandarin varieties have three rounds of but, the first round from the begining of February to late March, the second from late May, the beginning of June to late July, the third from 15-20 August to 20 September and 10 October. Flowering period begins from the beginning of February ends in late March...

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NO. 78834

Detection and identification of citrus greening in the Mekong Delta.
Ket qua giam dinh va ke hoach phong chong benh vang la cam quyt o dong bang song Cuu Long.

Ha Minh Trung; Ngo Vinh Vien; Do Thanh Lam
Tap chi : Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 3-1995.– pag. 95-97

Abstract:
Since beginning of 1994 the yellow syndrome of citrus has become a destructive without reaks on a large scale in many province as CanTho, Vinh Long, Tien Giang... The results of visual diagnosis detection by indexing method, transmission by Diaphorina citri and dot hybridazation (DH) with DNA extracted from infected citrus show the yellow syndrome of citrus in Mekong Delta is associated with Asian Greening pathogen. Their disease caused by bacterum like arganism (Libebactertum). The Asian Greening of citrus had detected in the North of Vietnam for many years carlier-on.

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NO. 78898

The orange (Cam Bu) in Huong Son and Huong Khe districts, Ha Tinh province.
Dac diem giong cam bu chin muon o Huong Son va Huong Khe - Ha Tinh

Le Quang Hanh; Tran The Tuc; Tran Thi Uyen
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 134-137

Abstract:
A study was conducted in Huong Son and Huong Khe districts Ha Tinh province (from 1989-1992). The main results of the asfllows: 1). Cam Bu is local name but has been planting more than 100 years in two districts; 2). There are many kinds of Cam Bu. It is different on fruit shape fruit weight maturing period and fruit yield/ha.

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NO. 78899

On performance characteristics of Xa Doai orange at Xa Doai region, Nghi Loc district, Nghe An province.
Mot so dac diem giong cam Xa Doai huyen Nghi Loc, tinh Nghe An.

Le Quang Hanh
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 138-141

Abstract:
The main results as follows: There are two kinds of Xa Doai orange: - one of them is a small fruit, Maturing period is on November and of good eating quality fruit shape is ellipsoil fruit weight is about 136,3 gr to 167,3 gr. Another is ablete fruit. Maturing period is on late December and of good eating quality.

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NO. 78900

The some results species of citrus in the midle area of Vietnam.
Mot so ket qua dieu tra quy gen cam quyt (citrus) vung khu IV

Le Quang Hanh
Agricultural Science technology Institute of Vietnam

Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc (Q.IV) – [Results of Scientific Research (Vol.IV)] – H: Agricultural pub. house, 1994. – pag. 151-154

Abstract:
In 1993, a servey on citrus were carried out at 6 delta rivers as: Hieu river, Lam river, Cam river (Nghe An province): Ma river (Thanh Hoa province), Ngan Pho, Ngan Sau river (Ha Tinh province), and collected 45 samples of citrus as: orange (8), mandarin (8), lemon (4), grafe fruit (23), and other (2). However the also introduced some species of citrus in the midle area of Vietnam.

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NO. 74226

Impacts of climate condition on fruit plants in Ha Giang.
Anh huong cua dieu kien khi hau doi voi mot so loai cay an qua o Ha Giang.

Pham Uyen Hung
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc {Results of Scientific researches] 7: 134-137(1997).

Abstract:
The analysis showed that Ha Giang is under troical monsoon climate and divides into 2 clear subareas so fruit plants is distributed in 2 areas as the climate: 1. low mountain area includes Bac quang, Vi Xuyen, Bacme where there are subtropical fruit plants such as mandarin, plum, litchi, orange, ect. 2. West North high mountain area includes Hoang Su Phi, Xi man, Quan Ba, Yen Minh, Dong Van where there temperate fruit as madarin, pear plum, apple ect.

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NO. 74231

Some comments on the production of fruit trees in Hatay province.
Mot so nhan xet tinh hinh san xuat cay an qua cua tinh Ha Tay.

Nguyen Xuan Cuong
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc {Results of Scientific Researches] 7: 157-160 (1997)

Abstract:
In Hatay, it is about 7,000 ha of fruit plants including 15 main kinds and the production of over 53,000 tons. The fruit tree have showed their good growth, yields and high economic value. However, due to the families's orchards are small, so the incomes from fruit crops have been still low. Fruit trees have been mainly growth with the farmer's experience and they have not yet been produced with the direction comodity production.

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NO. 74255

Mutiple shoot production from thin cell layers culture in Citrus.
Tao da choi bang nuoi cay lop mong te bao o Cam, Chanh (Citrus)

Hoang Kim Oanh; a.o.
Ky yeu cong nghe sinh hoc{Annual report of Institute of Biotechonology] 4: 47-53 (1996).

Abstract:
A method for direct multiple shoot regeneration from thin cell layers (TCLS) of Citrus have been estalished. The section (app. 0.5 mm) from young seedings of orange, mandarin and limon were cultured on the MS medium (Murashigl & Skoog, 1962) added with 3% saccharose, 1% agar and different combination of growth substances. The percentage of direct multiple shoot priduction obtained from TCLS cultured on the medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA + 3.0 mg/l BAP was 70.9% with an average of 7 shoots per section. The plants could be obtained by the regeneration of the TCL dirived callus. The regenerated plants were successfully propagated with multiplication rate 7 shoots per plant.

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NO. 74305

Study on the morden of suitable garden economy at Chau Thanh distric - Hau Giang province.
Nghien cuu mo hinh kinh te vuon thich hop tai huyen Chau Thanh, tinh Hau Giang.

Mai van Nam; a.o.
Tuyen tap cong trinh nghien cuu Khoa hoc phan Nong hoc [Selection of research works of Agricultural Science] page 373 (1993).

Abstract:
It is usefull Chau Thanhdistric leaders to establish a strategy for developing the distric, Hau Giang leadersto issue economic policies in order to improveand develop orchards. Moreover, the farmers who are gardeners, can refer the study to improve, and to invest much more in their orchards. The study is the good literature for the lecture and students to study in the future.

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NO. 74602

Results of survey on mandarin varieties in Bac Quang area, Hagiang province.
Ket qua dieu tra cac giong quyt vung Bac Quang, Ha Giang.

Do Dinh Ca; Tran The Tuc
Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [ Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 11: 413-415 (1991)

Abstract:
Results of survey showed that Bac Quang area has plentiful collection of the madarin orange varieties in which, there are 4 hopeful varieties as "Chun", "Chum", red, yellow. They have rather long harvest time from November to February of the next year. Their duration giving high yield is longer than common orange and king orange. Their marketable value is the same in comparison to madarin orange varieties cultivated in other regions as Bac Son (Lang Son province).

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NO. 74675

Genetic study of fruit trees in Vietnam.
Di truyen hoc ve cay an qua o Vietnam.

Pham Thanh Ho
Tap chi Di truyen va Ung dung [Journal of Geneties and Application] 1: 20-21 (1991)

Abstract:
Application of genetic is essential for agriculture and especially for fruit trees. Many fruit of export potential such as arange, banana are hererogeneous. While many tropical fruit trees with economic value like: mangoes and others are not paid any attention so that export potential is limited on the other hand, some fruit trees like grape, apple are widly cultivated by farmers but good varieties are not imported by the goverment.

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NO. 74693

Studying plants species C3 and C4 (Rice, Maize, Soybean, etc.) in Vietnam.
Nghien cuu cac loai thuc vat C3 va C4 (Lua, Ngo, Dau, Rau den...) o Vietnam.

Vu Van Vu; a.o.
Tap chi Di truyen va Ung dung [Journal of Geneties and Application] 4: 17-20 (1994)

Abstract:
In the present, the study of characteristics of leaf morpho-antomy and chlorophy-11 content, chlorophy 11 a/b ratios in C3 and C4 (Rice, Bean, Maize, Sorghum, etc.) plants has been made. The leaf morpho-anatomy of C3 and C4 plants species is different in two types of chloroplasts of C4- plants species: Chloroplasts without grains of starch in mezothy 11 cells and chloroplast with grains of starch in bundle sheath cells. Meanwhile in C3 plants there is only one type of chloroplasts in mezophy 11 cells.

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NO. 74719

Appearance Cycles and development feature of orange tree brach borers and control measures.
Nghien cuu quy luat phat sinh phat trien cua sau duc canh cam va bien phap phong tru.

Que Thanh Hien
Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] 1: 16-21 (1981)

Abstract:
The orange tree brach borer appears only ones in year from late April to late June. The development cycles of this borer is finished not only in green branch but in dry orangetree branches. Need use insecticide boremul 4%, 66612%, DDT1/200 to spray for control its eggs and young borers. First spray time should be on late April, the second from May 15 to May 20.

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NO. 74725

On the use of Citrus limonia Osbeck tree as stocks for some Citrus varieties.
Dung cay chanh giay la, goc ghep cho mot so cam quit.

Pham Thua
Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] 3: 150-156 (1981)

Abstract:
The results of testing shows that use Citrus limona Osbeck as stock for some Citrus species because the root system of C. limona develops fast and have good ability for relive; high proportion living of cross fertilized branch; using C. limona as stock for many Citrus spp. can help they get high fruit yield in many years and good quality.

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NO. 74730

The decline situation of orange at the State farm September 2 and direction of research ion overcoming it.
Hien tuong suy thoai o vuon cam nong truong 2-9 va huong nghien cuu khac phuc.

Hoang Van Duc
Tap chi Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Nong nghiep [Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology] 4: 213-223 (1981)

Abstract:
The servey on situation of orange field in state farm named September 2 is aimed to estimate decline situation and fid out a directions to renew; the results of servey show that main causes of decline situation are the yellow disease and many other diseases, that cause big damage for fruit yield; unreasonable harvest time, fertilizing, bad management and husbandry, not good nursery for propagation.

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NO. 74584

Study results on the possibilities of development of oranges in the PhuQuy area.
Ket qua nghien cuu kha nang phat trien cay cam o vung Phu Quy.

Vu Minh Hai
Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [ Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 4: 165-168 (1991)

Abstract:
The results of studies have shown that: in Phu Quy area, the orange cultivars have a good growth and development; among tham, the Vandu and Xa doai cultivars have a clear advantage. The Songcon varietity can be restored to develop its quality advantage, the Valencia variety can be a complement in the cropping structure to extend the harvest seasons.

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NO. 74586

The export of orange and orange products.
van de xuat khau cam va cac san pham tu cam o nuoc ta.

Quach Dinh
Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 4: 156-157 (1991)

Abstract:
In the article, the author introduces the technical advances of other countries in orange production and processing. From the concrete condition of Vietnam, the author recommends measures to develop orange growing and solution of problems in past harvest technology and processing technology as well as package for export orange and orange products.

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NO. 74590

Study on distribution characteristics of orange root system.
Nghien cuu dac diem phan bo bo re cam.

Tran The Tuc
Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [ Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 3: 112-115 (1991)

Abstract:
Root development of some orange cultivars on sourpummelo stock plant in various sorts of soil such as Basaltic, Dluvial, Schislous, Delucial on clay schist, new alluvial and sandy schistous soils were observated. On basaltic soil, its roots develop best and are distributed mainly in the 0-60 cm layer, instead of 0-40 cm layer onther soil sorts. Root development varies from cultivar to cultivar and reaches about 1.8-2.8 m ( average 2.5 m) time of radias on leaf canopy. There is a positive correlation between the development of root and leaf canopy.

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NO. 74752

Current production situation of fruit trees in Hagiang province.
Hien trang san xuat cay an qua cua tinh Ha Giang.

Agricultural University No.1
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc [The results of scientific research] 7: 147-148 (1997). Agricultural Publ. House. Hanoi.

Abstract:
Fruit tree cultivation has a long tradition in Ha Giang province, the province has an abundance and diversity of fruit plant species including subtropical species as plum, peat, apple and tropical species as orange, madarin, litchi and longan. So far, the yield and quality of many varieties are not still high. In order to increase the commercial value of there species, more investment is needed in the techniques on fruit tree horticulture sothat it can be developed into a strong part of economy of Hagiang province.

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NO. 76748

Planting technique of fruit trees
Ky thuat trong cay an trai

Viet Chuong
Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publish. House, 1997; 158 pp.

Abstract:
This book contain information on distribution, planting tachniques (such as choosing soil, propagation, watering and manuaring, harvesting) of 16 fruit trees that are popular in Vietnam.

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NO. 76749

Citrus grandis L.
Cay buoi

Viet Chuong
Ky thuat trong mot so cay an trai [Planting technique of fruit plants], Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publish. House, 1997; p. 9-17.

Abstract:
In Vietnam, C. grandis is a popular plant. It has been planted for long time. Several famous varieties of C. grandis in Vietnam are introduced. The author showed som techniques of planting the plant in Vietnam such as grafting, fertilizer, disease and pest controlling.

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NO. 76750

Citrus sp.
Cay cam

Viet chuong
Ky thuat trong mot so cay an trai [Planting technique of fruit plants], Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publish. House, 1997; p. 18-26.

Abstract:
Orange is specious fruit tree. Its fruit contains much much vitamin A, B1, B12 and C. The plant is planted widely in Vietnam with different varieties. This plant likes an alluvial fetile soils. it can be propagated by seed, grafting branch or cross fetiliaing. It need a good condition for watering, manuaring and husbandry. Shoul use supracid, Trebon to control diseases and pests of the plant. Its fruits should be harvested when riped enough.

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NO. 76763

Preventing and controlling some important diseases for Citrus spp.
Phong tru mot so benh hai quan trong tren cay co mui.

Hochiminh city, Agricultural Publ. House, 1996; 47 p.

Abstract:
Review on situation of plantation of Citrus spp. such as orange, limon, mandarin and grape fruits. The properties of greening and some other important diseases on Citrus spp have been showed. The system of multi-application and management of breeding materials that are not infected by diseases.

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NO. 76765

Techinique of propagation of Citrus spp.
Ky thuat nhan va trong cam chanh quyt.

Hoang Ngoc Thuan
Hochiminh city, Agricultural Publ. House, 1996; 67 p.

Abstract:
The study on origin, classification, botanical properties, morphology, ecological conditions, growth and development of orange, mandarin and limon plant has been introduced. The authors also showed some methods of choosing breed and technique of cultivations these fruit trees.

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NO. 76819

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.
Cam

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 171-172

Abstract:
C. sinensis is planted in many places of Northe and South Vietnam. Its fruit, stem barks and leaves are ised as medicine to treat an inflame of the bile, diarrhoea, belly ache, dropsy, inflame of the ears.

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NO. 76820

Citrus aurantium L.
Cam chua

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 172-173

Abstract:
C. aurantium is grown in many provinces of the Vietnam. This plant is propagated by seeds. The part used for medicine is fruit. Its chemical compose is hesperidin, neohesperidin, nobiletin auranetin aurantiamarin, nuringin, synephrine, limonin. It is used to treat a cough, headache, to digest; It is used as tonic medicine for nerver, an earth worm.

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NO. 76861

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.
Buoi

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 141-142

Abstract:
C. grandis grows in many places of Vietnam such as Doan Hung (Vinh Phu), Vinh (Nghe An), Huong Son (Ha Tinh), Thanh Tra (Hue), Nam Dinh, Dong Nai provinces. This plant is propagated by its seeds. The plant contain naringosid, 0.5% essential oil, glucid, Cl, Fe, Cu, Mn, protis, lipid, Ca, P, K, Mg, Na. It is used to treat dropsy, cough, asthma, pimples, belly ache, fever, headache, inflame of the breast and amygdal.

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NO. 76862

Citrus paradisi Macf.
Buoi chum

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 142

Abstract:
In Vietnam, C. paradisi is grown in many places of Da Lat (Lam Dong province). The plant contain chemical compose such as vitamin C, B1, pectin, naringin, linonen, sesquiterpen, aldehyd, geraniol, cadinen and citral. It is used to treat inflame, fever, wound.

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NO. 76867

Citrus aurantifolia (C.P.) Swingle.
Chanh

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 211

Abstract:
C. aurantifolia grows in many provinces of Vietnam. This plant is propagated by seed. Its leaves contains 0.19% essential oil and its chemical compose is 20.5% terpen, 13.2% alcohol, 26% aldehyd, ester, glucosa. Its fruit contain acid citric, citral, linalol, linalyl and acetat, etc. Its leaves and fruit can be used medicine for treating cough, vomiting with bile, scorbat, flu, malaria, asthma, hopping cough, bitten by snack and skin diseases.

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NO. 76868

Citrus limonia Osbeck.
Chanh kien.

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [The dictionary of Vietnamese medicinal plants], Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House, 1997; p. 211-212

Abstract:
C. limonia is grown in many provinces of Vietnam. This plant is propagated by seeds and branches. The leaves, fruits, seeds and barks are used for medicine to treat cough, asthma, sore eyes, headache, inflame of the breast, vomiting and bitten by snack.

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NO. 76940

Report on 10 year activities of testing orange station Xuan Mai (1966-1976).
Bao cao tong ket 10 nam cua tram thi nghiem cam Xuan Mai (1966-1976).

Lam Quang Pho
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ky thuat 1969-1979 [Results of scientific-technical research in 1969-1979], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. house, 1980; p. 169-222

Abstract:
The paper contains the results of research on breeding, physiology, ecology of orange, soils and manuring for orange and diseases, insect pests of this fruit tree, intesting orangeþs station Xuan Mai during 1966-1976.

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NO. 76943

The foot for cross-fertilizer of oranges.
Goc ghep cho cam.

Nguyen Xuan Hai
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ky thuat 1969-1979 [Results of scientific-technical research in 1969-1979], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. house, 1980; p. 252-272

Abstract:
For fast propagation of orange should be use the cross-fertilizing method. This paper presents results of study on foot trees used for cross fertilization. They are Citrus grandis, Cam voi quang Binh, Cam hai duong (They are natural hybred varieties between orange and Citrus grandis). They are found as good foot trees for cross-fertilizion of some orange varieties such as Xa doai, Van Du, Bo Ha.

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NO. 76944

Cong tac giong cam quit o trai thi nghiem Xuan Mai.
Breeding Citrus in Xuan Mai testing station.

Nguyen Cong Chu
Ket qua nghien cuu khoa hoc ky thuat 1969-1979 [Results of scientific-technical research in 1969-1979], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. house, 1980; p. 237-252

Abstract:
The paper contains results of survey on oranges in North Vietnam. The results showed that Van Du, Xa Doai, Song con varieties have a good quality achieving exportþs standards; the yield of Xa Doai is highest; the main diseases and pests damaging orange is greening. These three varieties are proposed to cultivated further in wide scale, should used cross-fertilizing measure to propagated orange.

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NO. 76990

Insect pests and diseases of Citrus at Phu Quy region.
Sau benh hai cam quyt vung Phu Quy Nghe Tinh.

Ha Minh TRung; Do Thanh Lam; Tran Quang Tan
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 4: 134-136 (1992).

Abstract:
In 1990, 19 insect pests, 15 diseases and 4 natural enemies have found in Phu Quy Citrus growing region, especially Tamarixin has been identified as parasite of Diaphorine citri (greening vector). The major insect pests of Citrus are stem borer, leaf miner green leaf beatle and fruit sucking month.

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NO. 70350

Citrus pest in Hagiang province
Thanh phan sau hai cam quit o tinh Ha Giang.

Tran Thi Binh
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 5: 17-21 (1997)

Abstract:
Through the investigation of Citrus pest in Hagiang province, 33 species of mite and insects of 20 families and 7 orders were collected. the list of the insect and pests and their status have been showed.

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