Momordica L.
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NO. 24823

Effect of the combined aqueous extract of Tinospora crispa, Momordica charantia, Alpinia galanga and Portulaca quadrifida on blood glucose level of normal rats during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)


Susan, LLH; Beng, JC; Hamdan, N
Department of Biology; Faculty of Science & Environmental Studies; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

FRIM Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research (CFFPR) 1999 Series: Medicinal plants, quality herbal products for healthy living; 22-23 June 1999, Kepong, Malaysia

Abstract:
In Malaysia, an extract derived from a combination of herbal plants (Tinospora crispa, Momordica charantia, Alpinia galanga and Portulaca quadrifida) has been claimed to be effective as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of this extract as an antidiabetic agent. Aqueous extraction followed by freeze drying had resulted in a solid form which was tested on normal rats in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). In a range of dosages comprising 2.5, 25, 250, and 2500 mg/kg, potential hypoglycaemic effect was apparent in the higher dosage of 500 mg/kg. Although 14% of the extract consisted of glucose, the dosages of 500 and 2500 mg/kg had caused lower average rates of increase (1.03 ± 0.25 and 0.69 ± 0.21 mg%/min, respectively) than saline (1.72 ± 0.49 mg%/min). Moreover, their peak glucose concentration was of no significant difference from saline and, AUC (areas under the blood glucose concentration curve) values from peak to 210 minutes were also lower (20780.36 ± 1983.14 and 22985.82 ± 1636.69 mg%/min, respectively) than saline (25611.16 ± 1248.94 mg%/min). The hypoglycaemic activity of the extract demonstrated in this study could be due to the enhancement of B-cell sensitivity to the insulin releasing effect by glucose, improvement of insulin action, and extrapancreatic effects on glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase activation or suppression of hepatic glucose production.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 50282

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables


Siemonsma, JS (ed); Kasem Piluek (ed)
PROSEA Publication Office; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1994; 412 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with the vegetables of South-East Asia. A vegetable is a product or commodity that may be defined as a usually succulent plant or portion of a plant which is consumed as a side-dish with the starchy staple. All vegetable crops share certain characteristics but very few completely fit any definition. More than 1000 species have been used in South-East Asia as supplementary food. In this volume about 100 important vegetables, cultivated as well as wild species, are treated in 86 papers, where as 125 species of minor importance are described briefly. Another 800 species yield vegetables as a by-product and they are listed only. In the process of modernization and intensification of the horticultural sector, attention and means are increasingly focused on a limited number of commercially interesting crops, among them the much improved 'western' vegetables, grown in the highland areas of South-East Asia. This volume intends to contribute to preventing that the knowledge on lesser-known indigenous species is lost. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of vegetables. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 102004

Traditional medicinal plants for fever in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces
Tanaman obat tradisional untuk sakit panas/demam di Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan dan Kalimantan Timur

Sa'roni; Pudjiastuti; Adjirni
Research and Development Centre for Pharmacy; Ministry of Health; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 1; p 177-182

Abstract:
In 1989 a survey had been conducted to study the utilization of traditional herbs by local people to overcome their health in South Sulawesi and East Kalimantan Provinces. One of the results showed that some of the traditional herbs were used for healing fever. Some of them had been examined using laboratory animal for antipyretic and hypothermic effects.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 50527

Momordica L.


Nguyen Huu Hien; Widodo, SH
Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1; de Padua, L.S., Bunyaprapatsara, N & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, PROSEA Foundation, 1999; p 353-359

Abstract:
A brief information on Momordica , reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 50528

Momordica charantia L.


Nguyen Huu Hien; Widodo, SH
Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1; de Padua, L.S., Bunyaprapatsara, N & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, PROSEA Foundation, 1999; p 357-358

Abstract:
A comprehensive knowledge on Momordica charantia (Synonyms: Momordica indica, Momordica elegans, Momordica chinensis), reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 50529

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.


Nguyen Huu Hien; Widodo, SH
Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1; de Padua, L.S., Bunyaprapatsara, N & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, PROSEA Foundation, 1999; p 358-359

Abstract:
A comprehensive knowledge on Momordica cochinchinensis (Synonyms: Muricia cochinchinensis, Momordica mixta, Momordica meloniflora), reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 111439

Urban and peri-urban vegetable production systems in Bandung municipality and Bandung district
Sistem produksi sayuran urban dan peri-urban di Kotamadya dan Kabupaten Bandung

Adiyoga, W; Suherman, R; Soetiarso, TA; Udiarto, KB; Sulastrini, I
Central Research Institute for Horticulture, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jurnal Hortikultura [Horticultural Journal] 9 (4): 331-352 (2000)

Abstract:
A study was conducted from December 1997 until February 1998 in Bandung municipality and the surrounding areas, involving randomly selected 53 farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize vegetable production systems in the areas. Results showed that cropping pattern varied among different ecosystems (low-lands: rice based cropping systems, medium-lands: vegetables-vegetables-secondary crops, vegetables-secondary crops-vegetables, vegetables-secondary crops-secondary crops; high lands: vegetables-vegetables-vegetables). Farmers observed that the dynamics of bio-physical production environment in the last five years had caused: (a) shifts in planting time, (b) changes in priority of commodity, and (c) an increase of production risks. In the last five years, some farmers also observed a decrease in soil fertility as reflected by a decreasing yield and increasing need of inputs. Limitation in land availability was indicated from the data showing that the land size cultivated by some farmers (>25%) was getting smaller in the last three years. Routine spraying and pesticide mixing were commonly practiced as preventive measures to minimize production risks. Pesticide use in highland areas was much more intensive than in lowland areas, and even tended to be excessive. This was supported by the results from residue analysis for some vegetable crops which were above tolerable threshold. Three problems considered as the main production constraints as perceived by farmers, based on their ranks of importance were funds/capital availability, price fluctuation and pest and disease incidence. Meanwhile, technical information and soil fertility were perceived as low priority constraints and specifically, that control of pests and disease was the most needed technology for improving vegetable production systems.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library
Email: dir-riv@indo.net.id




NO. 91588

Antigenotoxic effects of drug preparations acapulco and ampalaya


Balboa, JG; Lim-Sylianco, CY
Philippine Journal of Science 121 (4): 399-401 (1992)

Abstract:
Powder leaves and lotion from acapulco (Senna alata) and powder and defatted extract from leaves of ampalaya (Momordica charantia) reduced the genotoxic activity of dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline. This was shown by the reduction of chromosome breaking effects of these genotoxins as induced by the different preparations from acapulco and ampalaya.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office; PCARRD; Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425; Los Baños; Laguna 4030; The Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 536 0014 to 536 0020; fax: (63) (49) 536 0016, 536 0132
Email: prosea@ultra.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 101960

Ethnobotany of the Sundanese side-dish plants: a case study on Bogor Botanic Gardens personnel
Etnobotani tetumbuhan lalaban suku Sunda: studi kasus karyawan Kebun Raya Bogor

Hanan, A
Technical Executing Unit of the Institute for the Development of Botanical Gardens, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 2; p 393-403

Abstract:
"Lalaban" are raw vegetables consumed by the Sundanese in West Java. Plant parts, either seed, young fruit, flower, or young leaves are freshly eaten with rice. The knowledge of plants used for lalaban has been known for a long time by this tribe. Species of plants and plant parts used for lalaban are discussed in this paper.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 25367

Effects of local medicinal plants on blood glucose level


Khoo, M; lsa, N; Hoe, S; Goh, SK; Chee, BJ; Taib, K; Mohamad, K; Juing, M; Wan Omar, WB; Abd Halim, N; Hashim, H; Sulaiman, MS; Hj Abas, Z; Noor, H; Othman, Z
Biology Department, Faculty of Science & Environmental Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

International Conference on Traditional/Complementary Medicine, Legend Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, 13-15 November 2000

Abstract:
Herbal medicine is one of the oldest methods used to combat diseases. This approach is usually handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth. Even with modern and advance medical technology we have today, people have not forgotten this traditional treatment. In fact, herbal medicine is making a comeback and slowly gaining popularity. This paper will review some of the research undertaken to study the efficacy of Malaysian medicinal plants claimed to be able to lower blood glucose level in diabetic patients. The possible hypoglycaemic activity is based on fasting plasma glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed on either alloxan induced diabetes, streptozotocin-induced diabetes or normal rats. Results showed that Morinda citrifolia, Parkia speciosa, Tinospora crispa, Andrographis paniculata, Plantago major, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma boninense have effects in lowering blood glucose level. Herbal combination of Tinospora crispa, Momordica charantia, Alpinia galanga and Portulaca quadrifida and root combination of Pithecellobium jiringa, Pithecellobium bubalinum and Parkia speciosa also showed positive sign as hypoglycaemic agents.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 101949

Role of plants in the Deduolo society, Popayato, North Sulawesi
Peranan tumbuhan dalam masyarakat Deduolo, Popayato, Sulawesi Utara

Roemantyo
Technical Executing Unit of Institute for the Development of Botanical Gardens-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Book 2; p 311-312

Abstract:
Unique plant species of Sulawesi have interested researchers to make detail integrated observations in this area. The explorative research was conducted for about 3 weeks (September to October 1994) in the primary forests near Deduolu village, Popayato subdistrict, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi. The research aims to identify the plant resources potentials in the areas. The results indicated that people utilize plant resources under sustainable basis since the ancient life in the areas. More than 100 species of plants were used, and it was recorded that about 31 species were tightly related to the tradition. Ethnobotanical analysis indicated that in general the plants of that area were classified base on their roles in the daily life, such as plant for medicines, house making, household equipments, food supplements and other daily uses such as fuel for lighting, firewoods, glue, canoe filler, also for fishing and hunting equipments. The social behaviour changes of the ethnic group who lives in that area in relation to the plant resources managements, is discussed.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 92723

Occurrence and identity of plant parasitic nematodes on the foreshores around Laguna de Bay used for crop production


Madamba, CP; Sevilla, NC
UP Los Baños Journal 1 (1): 105-116 (1990)

Abstract:
The following plant parasitic nematodes were identified in a three-year survey of foreshore areas used for crop production around Laguna de Bay: root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Olivera, 1940), stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus sp., spiral nematode Helicotylenchus sp., lesion nematode Pratylenchus sp., lance nematode Hoplolaimus sp., sheath nematode Hemicycliophora sp. and ring nematode Hemicriconemoides sp. Root-knot nematode species and races were identified.

Availability :
Reading Room; Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB); University of the Philippines Los Baños; College; Laguna; (63) (49) 5362 298; fax: (63) (49) 5363 438
Email: vmvc@ipb.uplb.edu.ph




NO. 559

Variation within Momordica charantia L., the bitter gourd (Cucurbitaceae)


Williams, JT; Ng, NO
Department of Botany, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Annales Bogorienses 6 (2): 111-123 (1976)

Abstract:
The taxonomic variation in the bitter gourd has been examined in a range of cultivars from the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. Computer studies have shown that the cultivars fall within two varieties, provisionally named var. maxima and var. minima. The relationships between Momordica charantia and Momordica balsamina have been studied and the possibility of gene flow from the latter into Momordica charantia has been pointed out.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 103473

Preference and survival rate of Epilachna sp. on leaves of various kinds of vegetables and legumes
Preferensi dan kelulushidupan Epilachna sp. pada daun berbagai jenis tanaman sayur dan polongan

Pratiknyo, H; Widhiono, I
Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia

Research Report; Purwokerto, Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, 1993; 46 p

Abstract:
A research was carried out from 15 March to 17 May 1992 at Teluk village, South Purwokerto subdistrict and Zoologiy laboratory of Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University. The design used was a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) for food preference of larvae and adult of Epilachna sp. and a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for its survival value; with 4 replications. The results showed that if among the treatments (kinds of leaves) there are very significant differences, then among stadium or instar of both larvae and adult there are very significant differences too. The conclusion of the research was the prediction host of Epilachna sp. hatched in Banyumas was Momordica charantia, the influence of leaves on survival rate of Epilachna sp. differs significantly and the older individuals injure wider surface of leaves.

Availability :
General Soedirman University, Central Library




NO. 66682

Detection and identification of cucurbit viruses in Yogyakarta
Deteksi dan identifikasi virus pada budidaya labu-labuan di Yogyakarta

Somowiyarjo, S
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Ilmu Pertanian [Agricultural Science] 5 (3): 657-664 (1993)

Abstract:
While the demand for high quality of cucurbit products increases, the commercial production of the crop has been increasingly faced with unknown viruses causing mosaic diseases. To identify the viruses, 83 samples of cucurbit plants showing foliar mosaic or related symptoms were collected from fields in Yogyakarta from September 1991 to May 1992. The samples were then reacted with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), water melon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2), papaya ringspot virus strain watermelon (PRSV-W) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in indirect dot immunobinding assay (I-DIA). CMV was detected in 31 samples of Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Citrullus lunatus, Luffa cylindrica and Momordica charantia. Of these 31 samples, 4 samples were infected doubly by WMV-2; WMV-2 was detected in 29 samples of Cucurbita maxima and Citrullus lunatus, while PRSV-W was detected in three samples of Cucurbita maxima and Citrullus lunatus. Ten samples of Cucurbita maxima and Luffa cylindrica were infected by ZYMV only. The results indicated that in addition to CMV, at least three potyviruses, namely WMV-2, PRSV-W and ZYMV, are potentially important in this area. This is the first report on the occurrence of cucurbitaceous potyviruses in Yogyakarta. While the characteristics of the viruses must be further studied, sanitary programme should be improved to minimize yield losses caused by the viruses.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 106557

Effect of the application of fruit extract of Momordica charantia (L.) on morphological defect of young mice body
Pengaruh pemberian perasan buah Momordica charantia (L.) terhadap kelainan morfologis pada tubuh anak mencit

Loegito, M
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Airlangga University; Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Berkala Penelitian Hayati [Biological Research Periodical] 2 (1): 49-53 (1996)

Abstract:
An experiment on the effect of the fruit extract of Momordica charantia was conducted in the laboratory of the FMIPA, Airlangga University in Surabaya. The fruit extract was divided into 4 concentrations: 0, 25, 50 and 75% and treated on 4 groups of female mice for 5 days continuously. Each group (T0, T1, T2 and T3) consisted of five female mice 2-month old and strain BALB-C. Each group was treated orally with 0.50 ml fruit extract except the control group (T0) which was treated with aquadest only. After five days treatment the female mice were copulated. Young mice will be born in 1 month after coupulation. The morphological effect or the bodies of young mice can be observed with undeveloping legs, auricles and tail. Te control group (T0) have borne 63 young mice with normal bodies; the second group (T1) treated with 25% fruit extract have borne 18 young mice on defect bodies and 20 young mice normal; the third group (T2) treated with 50% fruit extract, have borne 24 young mice with defect bodies and 12 young mice normal; the fourth group (T3) treated with 75% fruit extract, have borne 18 young mice with defect bodies and 2 young mice normal. The intergroup comparation of the quantity of young mice with defect bodies using Analysis of Variance method (ANAVA) showed highly significant difference at level of significance 99% (p=0.01).

Availability :
Microbiology Division Library, Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences




NO. 38153

The effect of spacing and artificial pollination on seed yield and other characters of ampalaya (Momordica charantia L.)


Catedral, IG; Mamicpic, NG
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 1 (4): 189-190 (1976)

Abstract:
Total fruit seed yields were markedly increased with close spacing. Nearly 50% increase in fruit and seed yields was obtained when spacing was reduced from 1 m x 1 m to 1 m x 0.25 m. No remarkable difference in fruit size was noted. Seed size, weight per seed and the proportion of large seeds in a seed lot were higher at wider spacing. Hand pollination increased the number of seeds per fruit 17% in self- pollinated fruits and 39% in cross-pollinated fruits compared to naturally pollinated fruits. Consequently, seed yield increased by 7 and 41% in self- and cross-pollinated fruits, respectively. Cross-pollination increased dry weight per seed and the proportion of large seeds in a lot while self- pollination did the reverse as compared to natural pollination.

Availability :
The Secretariat; Crop Science Society of the Philippines (CSSP); Institute of Plant Breeding; UP at Los Baños; College, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 108692

Reproduction biology of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)
Biologi reproduksi pada paria (Momordica charantia L.)

Wahyuningsih, S
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lampung University; Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi XV [Proceedings of the 15th National Seminar on Biology], Bandar Lampung, 24-26 July 1997; Karyanto, A et al (eds); Book 2; Bandar Lampung, Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia (PBI)/Unila, 1997; p 647-653

Abstract:
An study on the reproduction biology of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) was carried out to observe the development of androecium and gynoecium, the process of pollination, the growth of pollen tube and fertilization. The development of flower was observed from bud stage to anthesis. Anatomical sections were processed by paraffin method and stained with Hemalum Mayer. histochemical method was applied to detect receptivity of stigma. The development of pollen tube was observed with 0.1% aniline blue in 0.1 N K3PO4. To observe pollen viability, the pollen was cultivated in agar medium and detected with fluorescin diacetate. The results showed that the stamen grew earlier than pistil where formation of a stamen was not able to observe individually. The emergence of flowers was not regular, the result of 3.5-month periods on the 5 plants tested showed the ratio of 14:1 for staminate to pistillate. Microsporogenesis produced tetrahedral tetrads and microgametogenesis resulted in observed two sperm nuclei. The tricolpate pollen possessed two nuclei. Highest pollen viability was during anthesis which was only for one day. The ovule was anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate. Megasporogenesis produced a linear tetrad megaspore and megagametogenesis resulted in a monosporous embryo sac, which was the polygonum type. The 3 stigma were wet, papillate, with a hollow style. The most receptive stigma occured during anthesis which was only for one day. The stigma exudate contained carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The growth of pollen tube was not inhibited neither in stigma nor style, and fertilization occurred 24 hours after pollination. Bees of Apis sp. and Colletes sp. were supposed to be the pollinator agents.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 20334

Nutrient deficiency symptoms of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), and bittergourd (Momordica charantia)
Tanda-tanda kekurangan zat pemakanan makro pada timun (Cucumis sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), dan peria (Momordica charantia)

Vimala, P; Ravoof, AA
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Pertanian [Agricultural Technology] 5 (1): 22-31 (1984)

Abstract:
Macronutrient deficiency symptoms were induced on cucumber, pumpkin and bittergourd under sandculture. Descriptions and colour plates of the deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S presented could be used as a guide in field identification of these deficiency symptoms.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 36741

Growth and yield of amorgoso as affected by earthworm cast


Rivera, PU
BSc thesis; Muñoz; Nueva Ecija; College of Agriculture (Soil Science); Central Luzon State University; 1981; 22p

Abstract:
A pot experiment was conducted to determine the growth and yield of amorgoso (Momordica charantia) as affected by earthworm cast. The treatments used were: Treatment 1 (100% soil), Treatment 2 (75% soil + 25% earthworm cast), Treatment 3 (50% soil + 50% earthworm cast), Treatment 4 (25% soil + 75% earthworm cast) and Treatment 5 (100% earthworm cast). Results revealed that plants planted in the soil medium containing 75% earthworm cast produced higher bi-weekly growth increment, longer, more number and heavier weight of fruits than other treatments. This shows that amorgoso plant was very responsive to earthworm cast application, thus highest yield was obtained. However, application of Treatment 1, plants without any earthworm cast application, produced the lowest yield because of deficient amount of plant nutrients.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services (SLS); Research, Extension and Training (RET); Central Luzon State University (CLSU); Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, 3120 Philippines; phone: (63) (44) 4560 609, fax: (63) (44) 4560 609




NO. 38829

Flowering patterns and vine pruning effects in bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.) varieties 'Sta. Rita' and ' Makiling


Rasco, AO; Castillo, Ps
The Philippine Agriculturist 73 (3&4): 311-322 (1990)

Abstract:
The flowering trend in 'Sta. Rita' and 'Makiling' cultivated varieties of Momordica charantia was obtained by daily count of male and female flowers. The peak of female flowering preceeded that of the male in both varieties. Data were used to forecast expected yield at every harvest and could also be used in making field management decisions. Ratio of male to female flowers varied with time but the average was 50 to 1. The lowest ratio was plotted at early and late maturing periods. Eighty-eight % of the female flowers developed on the first 40 nodes, with majority at nodes 21 to 30. In 'Sta. Rita' female flowers that develop after node 40 were located on the main branch whereas in 'Makiling', no more females were found on the secondary branches after node 40 and on primary branches after node 50, indicating that these portions are non- bearing. Pruning of lower lateral branches in both varieties was shown to enhance flowering and eventually increased yield in bittergourd.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 91318

Flowering patterns and vine pruning effects in bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.) varieties 'Sta. Rita' and ' Makiling'


Rasco, AO; Castillo, PS
The Philippine Agriculturist 73 (3&4): 311-322 (1990)

Abstract:
The flowering trend in 'Sta. Rita' and 'Makiling' varieties of bittergourd was obtained by daily count of male and female flowers. The peak of female flowering preceeded that of the male in both varieties. Data were used to forecast expected yield at every harvest and could also be used in making field management decisions. Ratio of male to female flowers varied with time but the average was 50 to 1. The lowest ratio was plotted at early and late maturing periods. Eighty-eight percent of the female flowers developed on the first 40 nodes, with majority at nodes 21 to 30. In 'Sta. Rita' female flowers that develop after node 40 were located on the main branch whereas in 'Makiling', no more females were found on the secondary branches after node 40 and on primary branches after node 50, indicating that these portions are non-bearing. Pruning of lower lateral branches in both varieties was shown to enhance flowering and eventually increased yield in bittergourd.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 91573

Antimutagenic effects of expressions from twelve medicinal plants


Lim-Syliangco, CY; Concha, JA; Jocano, AP; Lim, CM
The Philippine Journal of Science 115 (1): 23-30 (1986)

Abstract:
Mitomycin C, tetracyclin hydrochloride and dimethylnitrosamine induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of experimental mice. This indicates that these three systems are mutagenic and clastogenic. The formation of micronucleated polycromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C was greatly reduced by expressions prepared from fruits of Momordica charantia, Persea americana, Syzygium cumini, Pithecellobium dulce, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Cucurbita maxima, Spondias purpurea, Citrus decumana, and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made of expression from roots and seeds of Raphanus sativus, from flowers and leaves of Citrus maxima, from leaves of Momordica charantia, and from seeds of Cucumis melo. The same systems also reduced micronuclei formation as induced by tetracycline hydrochloride . The induction of micronuclei formation by dimethylnitrosamine was significantly reduced by expressions from fruits of Momordica charantia, Averrhoa bilimbi, Cucumis melo, Carica papaya, Citrus maxima and Lycopersicon esculentum. The same observations were made with expressions from leaves of Momordica charantia, roots of Raphanus sativus and seeds of Cucumis melo. When heated of micronuclei from plants still reduced micronuclei formation as induced by mitomycin C and tetracycline. The extent of reduction, however, was significantly decreased when expressions of the following were boiled: Momordica charantia fruit and leaves, Citrus maxima flowers and fruitsand Lycopersicon esculentum fruits.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office; PCARRD; Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425; Los Baños; Laguna 4030; The Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 536 0014 to 536 0020; fax: (63) (49) 536 0016, 536 0132




NO. 91574

Chemical studies of crude vegetable drugs I. Momordica charantia L.


Villanueva, BA; Saludares, EP
The Philippine Journal of Science 114 (3-4): 139-150 (1985)

Abstract:
Adsorption chromatography on silica gel column was used to prepare three sterol isolates, melting at 150-155 °C, 138-142 °C and 128-131 °C from the petroleum ether extractive and two isolates melting at 131-135 °C and 178- 185 °C giving characteristic colour reactions of sterols/terpenes from the ethanol extractive of a mixture of the young leaves and tender shoots of Momordica charantia. Pharmacopoeial constants of the crude vegetables drugs were obtained.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office; PCARRD; Paseo de Valmayor, P.O. Box 425; Los Baños; Laguna 4030; The Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 536 0014 to 536 0020; fax: (63) (49) 536 0016, 536 0132




NO. 71481

Momordica
Gac

Institute of Materia Medica
Institute of Materia Medica; Hanoi, Vietnam

Ky thuat trong mot so cay thuoc [Planting techniques of medicinal plants]; Vol. 2; Hanoi, Medicinal Publishing House, 1976; p 94-97

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis can be planted easily and it grows vigorously. It is planted in spring at temperatures 20-25 °C, sowed 3-5 seeds/per hole. It can be planted by vegetatively by stem cuttings. Its ripe of fruit contains much vitamin A.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71812

Momordica
Cay gac

Le Van Can; Jaromir Janecek
Ky thuat trong chuoi, dua, gac, du du [Planting techniques of banana, pineapple, momordica, papaw]; Hanoi, Rural Publishing House, 1961; p 37-45

Abstract:
This section covers botanical characteristics, planting methods, uses and values of Momordica. The author also discribes the composition of Momordica fruit.

Availability :
National library of Vietnam




NO. 92657

Effect of some medicinal plants on skin tumor promotion


Balboa, JG; Lim-Sylianco, CY
The Philippine Journal of Science 124 (2): 203-207 (1995)

Abstract:
The multistage model of carcinogenesis is represented as follows: Initiation--->Promotion--->Conversion --->Progression. The skin promotion test was used to study the effect of expresses juices from some medicinal plants on the promotion stage of carcinogenesis. A combination of dimethylbenzanthracene as the initiator and croton oil as the promoter led to a high incidence of skin tumours in experimental mice after ten weeks. Expressed juices from leaves of lagundi, ampalaya fruit, tanglad roots and malunggay leaves reduced appreciably the incidence of skin tumours. However, expressed juice from tanglad leaves did not reduce the incidence of skin tumors initiated by dimethylbenzanthracene and promoted by croton oil. These observations indicate that expressed juices from lagundi leaves, ampalaya fruit, tanglad roots and malunggay leaves contain inhibitors of the promotion stage of carcinogenesis, induced by croton oil. On the other hand, expressed juice from tanglad leaves does not contain an inhibitor.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines Los Baños; College, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 326, 5362 235; fax: (63) (49) 3673
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 71527

Momordica seeds
Hat gac

Do Tat Loi
Association for Scientific and Technical Diffusion of Vietnam

Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plants and medicaments in Vietnam]; Vol. 6; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1965; p 7-13

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is a medicinal plant; its fruits, roots, stolons, and oil are used as medicaments and edible material. The botanical description, geographic distribution, harvesting, handling after harvest, medication, and use are presented.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 72488

Momordica cochinchinensis
Gac

Do Huy Bich; Nguyen Tap; Tran Toan
Institute of material medica

Tai nguyen cay thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plant resourses of Vietnam]; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1993; p 433-440

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is planted everywhere in Vietnam. It is propagated by seed or branch cutting, in February-March. Parts of the plant used for medicine are dry seed, oil, and roots. There is vitamin A in the oil, that is used for children and women, and for treating constipation. The seeds are used to treat scabies, haemorrhoids, scrofula, king's evil and malaria, the roots to treat rheumatism and beri-beri.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 92906

Comparative antidiabetic activities of some medicinal plants


Villasenor, IM; Cabrera, MA; Meneses, RB; Rivera, VRR; Villasenor, RM
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (4): 261-266 (1998)

Abstract:
The methanolic and aqueous extracts from popular, abundant and relatively cheap sources such as banana flowers, pipino fruits, and leaves of ampalaya, kangkong, kamote, makopa, and tanglad were tested for their comparative antidiabetic activities using albino mice as test animals. The blood glucose levels were determined using haemogluco test strips. The results of the bioassay of the aqueous extracts showed that the most potent antidiabetic plant is banana flowers while the comparative antidiabetic potencies of the other plants are: tanglad leaves > pipino fruits > kangkong leaves > makopa leaves > ampalaya leaves > kamote leaves. An infusion from mango leaves did not exhibit antidiabetic activity. The organic extract of makopa leaves is the most antidiabetic followed by kangkong and mango leaves. The organic extracts of banana flowers and kamote, ampalaya, and tanglad leaves exhibited low antidiabetic potentials.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016




NO. 71028

Some results of a study on the effectiveness of Momordica charantia and Atractylodes macrocephala in alloxan diabetic rabbit
Mot so ket qua nghien cuu tac dung cua Muop dang va Bach truat tren dai thao duong thuc nghiem o tho

Doan Thi Nhu; Le Minh Phuong
Institute of Materia Medica; Hanoi, Vietnam

Thong bao Duoc lieu [Bulletin of Materia Medica] 25 (1&2): 14-17 (1993)

Abstract:
Alloxan diabetic rabbits were treated with various doses of dried Momordica charantia fruits and Atractylodes macrocephala rhizomes and their blood glucose levels were determined by the O. toluidine method after 5 hours interval. From the results, it could be concluded that Momordica charantia fruits and Atractylodes macrocephala rhizomes possessed a significant hypoglycaemic effect in alloxan diabetic rabbits.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 71346

Gleditsia australis, Momordica charantia
Bo ket. Muop dang

Do Tat Loi
Association for Scientific and Technical Diffusion of Vietnam; Hanoi, Vietnam

Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plants and medicaments in Vietnam]; Vol. 6; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1965; p 45-52

Abstract:
Fruits of Gleditsia australis and Momordica charantia are used as medicine to treat some diseases, especially coughing. The fuits of Momordica charantia is also used as vegetable.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 70551

Preliminary experimental results on the 'identical twins' by method of grain cutting
Ket qua thuc nghiem buoc dau trong viec gay cac cay 'sinh doi thuc' bang phuong phap cat hat

Nguyen Phuc Giac Hai
Department of Biology, National Commitee for Science and Technology of Vietnam

Tap chi Sinh vat Dia hoc [Journal of Geo-Biology] 3 (4): 53-56 (1964)

Abstract:
The grains of Momordica and peanut can be cut into two or four parts (it is necessary for sproutting, there is a part of embryo in one of these part of cutting). The part can sprout and develop into an ordinary seedling.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 93324

Distribution, infection and symptomatology of virus-like diseases of cucurbits in the Visayas


Palomar, MK; Gapasin, RM; Vega-Colis, HSI
Annals of Tropical Research 17 (1-4): 1-10 (1995)

Abstract:
Surveys in different localities of Bohol, Cebu, Leyte and Samar revealed that 13 virus-like diseases infected cucurbits, namely: ampalaya and patola abnormality (APA), ampalaya leaf curl (ALC), ampalaya little leaf (ALL), amplaya mosaic (AM), chrayote little leaf (CLL), cucumber mosaic (CM), patola little leaf (PLL), squash mosaic (SM), squash leaf curl (SCL), squash yellow mosaic (SYM), upo mosaic (UM), watermelon (WM), and watermelon leaf curl(WMC). The infection of these diseases ranged from <1-100%, with no discrete pattern of infection observed. Of these 13 virus-like diseases, ALL, SM and UM were commonly observed and showed a significantly higher percentage infection in the four provinces; however, CM showed the highest average infection of 80% in Bohol. Likewise, Leyte was observed to have the most varied kinds of virus-like diseases in cucurbits as compared to Bohol, Cebu, and Samar, in descending order. Symptoms of the disease varied from yellow and green mosaic, yellow, chlorotic flecks, vein clearing, mottling to malformation of leaves.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines Los Baños; College, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 326, 5362 235; fax: (63) (49) 3673
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 70771

About the presence of vitamin E in gacavit, a preparation produced from Momordica oil
Ve su co mat cua vitamin E trong gacavit, mot che pham tu dau gac

Pham Gia Hue; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Van Mao; Dinh Ngoc Lam
Military Hospital 108, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (1): 11-12 (1993)

Abstract:
'Gacavit' is a new preparation produced from Momordica oil by Dinh Ngoc Lam and Ha Van Mao in Military Hospital 108. Gacavit is liquid paste with special aromatic sweet odour and fat taste. In experiment and clinical test, gacavit proved effectively better than vitamin A and beta caroten in the treatment of patients suffering from dioxin intoxication. By the TLC method, the authors have proved the presence of vitamin E in the Momordica oil. In the future, HPLC qualitative and quantitative determinations of vitamin E will be studied.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology, Library




NO. 70934

The results of a study on the effect of Momordica charantia and Atractilodes macrocephala on experimental cure of diabetes
Mot so ket qua nghien cuu tac dung cua Muop dang va Bach truat tren dai thao duong thuc nghiem

Doan Thi Nhu; Le Minh Phuong
Institute of Materia Medica; Hanoi, Vietnam

Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] 217 (2): 12-14 (1993)

Abstract:
Fruits of Momordica charantia and rhizomes of Atractilodes macrocephala could decrease sugar in the blood of rabbits. It is due to the decrease of producible fusion of insuline. The effect of Momordica charantia on rabbits is stronger than rhizomes of Atractilodes macrocephala.

Availability :
Drug Information Center; Hanoi; Vietnam




NO. 73116

Momordica cochinchinensis
gac

Vo Van Chi
Nhung cay thuoc thong thuong [Popular medicinal plants]; Dongthap, Dongthap Publishing House, 1988; p 131-132

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is planted a lot in Vietnam. It is suitable for humid land. It is propagated by seed and planted in February - March, and harvested in September - December. Its seed coat contains oil with vitamin A in its composition. The oil can be used to treat eye-dry disease, high blood pressure, pimple and back pain. The root is used to treat rheumatism, and bone gnawing pain.

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73273

Momordica cochinchinensis
Gac

Bich Ngoc Lam; Vu Van Chuyen; Nguyen Tien Bich; Ngo Van Thong
Mot so cay thuoc va duoc lieu o Viet Nam, Lao, Campuchia [Some medicinal plants and materia medica in Vietnam, Laos, Campudia]; Vol. 1; Hanoi, Agricultural Publishing House, 1987; p 64-73

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is commonly planted in Vietnam, mostly in the north. It likes light and sandy soil. It is propagated by seed or branch cutting and planted in February-March. The chemical composition of its oil, and the pharmacological effect of the plat are presented.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73284

Momordica cochinchinensis
gac

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; p 115-116

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is commonly planted and grows naturally in Vietnam. Its root and seed are used as medicines to treat pimple, dropsy and swellen breast. The root is harvested all year round, the seed in November-December.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73298

Momordica charantia
Muop dang

The Hospital of National Medicine Thanh Hoa
Hospital of national medicine Thanh Hoa

Nhung cay con va khoang vat lam thuoc [Plants, animals and minerals to be used as medicine]; Thanh Hoa, Thanh Hoa Publishing House, 1987; p 173-174

Abstract:
Momordica charantia is commonly planted popularly in Thanh Hoa. The leaves, seed and fruit are harvested in May-July to be used as medicine to treat cough, a fever and itches caused by heat.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 94231

Intercropping ampalaya with tomato, mungbean and soybean


Edullantes, CG
The Fruit Bowl 6 (1): 19-30 (1988)

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the possibility of intercropping ampalaya with either tomato, mungbean or soybean. The study was conducted in the school campus of the University of Southeastern Philippines, Mampising, Mabini, Davao from May to December 1987. Results of study showed that the number of non-marketable fruits of ampalaya in all treatments were not significantly different. The yield of ampalaya was not affected by the intercrops. Moreover, the combined money value of ampalaya and the intercrop (tomato) was highly significant. Lastly, reduction of soil pH was common to all treatments.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop(OSIS); Bicol Consortium for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development(BCARRD); Pili, Camarines Sur; Philippines




NO. 95423

Comparative antidiabetic activities of some medicinal plants


Villasenor, IM; Cabrera, MA; Meneses, KB; Rivera, VRR; Villasenor, RM
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (4): 261-266 (1998)

Abstract:
The methanolic and aqueous extracts from popular, abundant and relatively cheap sources such as banana flowers, pipino fruits, and leaves of ampalaya, kangkong, kamote, makopa and tanglad were tested for their comparative antidiabetic activities using albino mice as test animals. The blood glucose levels were determined using haemoglucotest strips. The results of the bioassay of the aqueous extracts showed that the most potent antidiabetic plant was banana flowers while the comparative antidiabetic potencies of the other plants are: tanglad leaves> pipino fruits> kangkong leaves> makopa leaves> ampalaya leaves> kamote leaves. An infusion from mango leaves did not exhibit antidiabetic activity. The organic extract of makopa leaves was the most antidiabetic followed by kangkong and mango leaves. The organic extracts of banana flowers and kamote, ampalaya, and tanglad leaves exhibited low antidiabetic potential.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 76011

Momordica cochinchinensis
Gac

Phan Cao Toai; ao
Ky thuat trong cay thuoc [Technique of planting medicinal plants]; Hanoi, Medicinal Publishing House, 1976; p 94-97

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is propagated in spring (from February-March). The fruit can be harvested from September to January the next year. It can be propagated by seed or stem cuttings. Momordica cochinchinensis oil can treat lack of vitamin A, burns, pimple and wound.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14485

Momordica cochinchinensis
Fak-khao

Hansak, E
Kasikon [Farmers Journal] 66 (6): 564-565 (1993)

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is well distributed throughout South-East Asia. In Thailand cultivations have been made mostly for home consumption. Medicinal properties of momordine, a chemical constituent in the fruit, is discussed.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 53606

Screening of antidiabetic activity of several ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants


Armenia; Oktavia, L; Rusdi
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Andalas; Padang, Indonesia

Proceedings International Symposium on Biomedicines, Bogor, 18-19 September 2003; Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, 2004; p 76-84

Abstract:
The screening of blood sugar lowering effect of several ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants (Momordica charantia, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Syzygium polyanthum) have been carried out on the alloxan induced (200 mg/kg BW) diabetic mice. The extracts were administered to six different groups of diabetic mice (5 mice/ group) once a day for four consecutive days starting 3 days after alloxan injection. One group of 5 normal mice and another group of 5 diabetic mice were used as controls. The water intake, urine output and the body weight of the mice were measured every other day from day 4 to day 7 after alloxan injection, while the tail blood glucose was measured on day 3 and day 7 after the injection. At the end of the experiment (day 7), the mice were killed and the liver, kidneys and heart were taken out and their relative weight to the body weight were measured. All data were analysed using two-way ANOVA followed by multi-range T test, except for the change of blood sugar that was analysed using one-way ANOVA followed by T test. Results showed that the blood glucose, water intake and urine output of diabetic mice were higher as compared to those of normal mice while their body weight were lower (p<0.05). The ratio of liver and kidney to the body weight was not significantly different among all groups of animal (p>0.1), while the ratio of the heart to the body weight of the diabetic mice was higher as compared to those of the normal mice (p<0.05). All plant extracts significantly decreased the blood sugar, water intake and urine output of diabetic mice (p<0.05) and increased their body weight (p<0.05). Furthermore, these extracts decreased the heart ratio (p<0.05), increased the kidney ratio, but did not affect the relative weight of liver (p>0.1) of diabetic mice. Results also indicated that Momordica charantia and Syzygium polyanthum are the best antidiabetic plants as compared to Pandanus amaryllifolius. In conclusion, the three plants have antidiabetic activity. Beside lowering blood sugar, these plants also ameliorate the heart ratio, but the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia and Syzygium polyanthum increase the kidney ratio of diabetic mice (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 90135

Survey of nematodes associated with selected vegetables grown in Region XI


Infante, MN; Castro, FB
SMARRDEC Abstracts of Researches (1989-1993); Bago-Oshiro, Davao City, Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources and Development Consortium, 1993; p 6

Abstract:
Eight different vegetable crops, namely ampalaya, cabbage, carrot, eggplant, bell pepper, tomato, onion, and string bean were sampled for plant parasitic nematodes in 1988. The areas covered were 19 municipalities in Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, South Cotabato and Surigao del Sur, and 2 cities within Davao City and General Santos City. Nematodes were obtained by collecting, processing and examining the soils and roots from different vegetable samples. associated nematode species on the different vegetable samples were Helicotylenchus sp, Rotylenchus sp, Tylenchorynchus sp, Tylenchus, Hoplolaimus sp, Meloidogyne sp and Pratylenchus sp. In areas positive to plant parasitic nematodes, phytosanitary procedures and cultural practices were only recommended to avoid any chemical residues on the products.

Availability :
Southern Mindanao Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium
Email: smarrdec@interasia.com.ph




NO. 90142

Survey of nematodes associated with selected vegetables grown in Region XI


Infante, MN; Castro, FB
Regional Crop Protection Center, Departement of Agriculture, Davao City, Philippines

Philippine Phytopathology 26: 55 (1990)

Abstract:
A survey of vegetable-growing areas for plant parasitic nematodes was conducted in two cities and nineteen municipalities in Region XI and involved 107 farmer cooperators. Vegetables sampled included eggplant, tomato, cabbage, ampalaya, stringbean and other legumes, onion and pepper. Nematodes identified to be associated with the samples were Helicotylenchus sp, Hoplolaimus sp, Pratylenchus sp, Rotylenchus sp, Tylenchorynchus sp, Tylenchus sp and Meloidogyne sp. Root-knot nematode (RKN) infestation was observed to be moderately severe to severe in areas traditionally or successively grown to ampalaya as in San Isidro and Mati, Davao Oriental. It was only in Kalapagan, Lupon, Davao Oriental wheren RKN was positively associated with tomato and ampalaya. RKN was also observed in Tagum and Panabo, Davao del Norte, Koronadal and General Santos City that practically the three sampling sites for ampalaya were found to be positive for RKN. The severity of RKN infestation in some ampalaya and tomato sampling sites was such that control measures would have to be applied. The level of nematodes associated with other vegetables, although not alarming, had to be monitored, nevertheless, to avoid high infestation levels.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 67553

Several useful plants to improve and stimulate the production of ASI (mother's milk) in Java
Beberapa tumbuhan penunjang program ASI (Air Susu Ibu) di Jawa

Januwati, M
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 415-419

Abstract:
There are some useful plants to improve the health conditions of mothers and to stimulate thr production of "ASI" (mother's milk) in Java. Some plants are used as jamu and for health diet. These plants stimulate the production of good quality milk for babies. The plants parts of used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, stems and rhizomes.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 13924

Distribution of cucurbit viruses and reactions of some cucurbit species to certain viruses
Kan phrae krachai khong virus phut trakun taeng lae patikariya khong phut trakun taeng to virus bang chanit

Noda, C; Kittiprakon, K; Inchan, P; Wannaphi, L; Dima, N
Plant Virology Section, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstracts of the 31st Kasetsart University Annual Conference; Bangkok, Kasetsart University, 1993; p 57

Abstract:
Six hundred and thirty-five virus leaf samples of cucurbits were collected from 10 provinces in central, northern, north-eastern and southern regions of Thailand from October 1990 to 1991. In samples from all regions cucumber mosaic (CMV), papaya ring spot (PRSV), water melon mosaic-2, squash mosaic, zucchini yellow mosaic and cucumber green mottle mosaic viruses were detected by direct antigen coating indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. From pumpkin, loofah, wax gourd and bitter gourd, PRSV was detected at the rates of 62, 40, 24 and 17%, respectively. Besides, both CMV and PRSV were detected from cucumber at the rates of 40 and 34%, respectively. Forty-seven cultivars and lines of cucurbits from Thailand and Japan were tested for their reactions to PRSV, CMV and ZYMV in Kanchanaburi Province. The results indicated that three cucumber cultivars and lines, one calabash cultivar and two melon cultivars were immune (0% infection) or resistant (0.1-1.0% infection) to the three viruses.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 13101

Some data on vegetables
Khomun bangprakan kieokap phak

Anonymous
Than Kasettakam [Agricultural Base Magazine] 4(43): 18-24(1986)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 33108

Screening for some local plants for antifertility activity in female mice


Herrera, CL; Yasay, GD; Cuasay, PM; Ramos, EV; Aguila, VF; Chavez, EP
The Philippine Journal of Science 116(2): 135-144(1987)

Availability :
Library; Scientific and Technology Information Institute; Department of Science and Technology; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 34088

A survey of the antibacterial properties of some local plants


De Garcia, E
Centro Escolar University; Manila; Philippines

Graduate and Faculty Studies 5: 142-157(1954)

Availability :
National Library; Manila; Philippines




NO. 69074

Plants beneficial for accelerating mothers' milk
Tumbuhan yang berkhasiat melancarkan air susu ibu

Rostiana, Otih; Mulyati, Rosita Sri; Yuliani, Sri; Januwati, M.
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants; Bogor; Indonesia

Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian; Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia [Agricultural Research and Development News] 14(1): 5-8(1992)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 69059

Family medicinal crops
Tanaman obat keluarga (Toga)

Anonymous
Liptan (Lembaran Informasi Pertanian/Agricultural Information Leaflet); Balai Informasi Pertanian Kalimantan Timur No.168/APBN/1993

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 37249

Integrated research on indigenous medicinal plants for fertility regulation


Gutierrez, LB
PROJECT Database; Philippine Council for Health and Resources Development; DOST Main Bldg; Bicutan; Metro Manila; Philippines

Abstract:
Two dosage forms, vaginal gel and oral capsule/tablet were studied. Priority plants under study were Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Red Gumamela, flower) and Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Kamias, fruit). Medicinal plants of consideration were Momordica charantia L. (Ampalaya, fruit); Tinospora rumphii (L.) Miers ex Hooks f. and Thoms. (Makabuhay, vine); Moringa oleifora Lam. (Malungay, leaf);and Zea mays L. (Mais, cornsilk). Results for the Gumamela vaginal jelly were found to be satisfactory; however, validation tests must still be performed as nothing conclusive has been established. Desirable formulations for both Gumamela and Kamias capsule have not yet been accomplished due to compatability and stability problems with the freeze- dried extracts which are hygroscopic.

Availability :
LAB.NAME: College of Pharmacy; LAB.LOC.: Padre Faura, Ermita, Manila




NO. 20893

Quality control in the production of vegetable seeds
Kawalan mutu dalam pengeluaran biji benih sayur-sayuran

Halimathul Saadiah, A.S
Central Laboratory Research Division; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor

Teknologi Sayur-sayuran [Vegetable Technology] 4: 13-18 (1988)

Availability :
Ministry of Agriculture; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia




NO. 92041

Problems and opportunities in tropical food processing


Gomez, M.C.S
Greenfields 23 (5): 36-37 (1995)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library; Los Ba¤os; Laguna; Philippines




NO. 92515

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity potential of decoctions and infusions from Philippine medicinal plants


Anonymous
Bulletin of Philippine Biochemistry Society. v.3 (1&2): p 54-65, (1980). MFN 000461

Abstract:
The Philippine National Formulary lists Philippine plants whose decoctions and infusions are used for medicinal purposes. Mutagenicity potential of these decoctions and infusions were studied without metabolic activation and after metabolic activation. Without metabolic activation, decoction from the leaves of (P. major L.) and decoctions from the decoctions from the leaves and barks of (Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merrill) induced frameshift mutagenesis in (Salmonella typhimurium). After metabolism in the experimental mice, these induced both base-pair and frameshift mutagenesis. Decoctions from bark of (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxburgh) Benth.) induced base-pair mutagenesis without activation. Upon metabolic activation in the mice, this tendency was lost. Instead, it induced frameshift mutations. Decoctions from stems of (A. fava (L.) Merrill) induced both base-pair and frameshift mutations without metabolic activation. However, this mutagenic property was lost upon metabolism in the experimental mice.The following are non-mutagenic before and after metabolism: 1. Decoctions from leaves of (Citrus documana L.) (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume), (Moringa oleifera Lamk), (Pandanus odoratissimus L.), (Persea americana Mill.),(Psidium guajava L.), (Sterculia foetida L.) and (Tamarindus indica L.); 2. Decoctions from plants of (Apium graveolens L.) (Mimosa pudica Linn.), (Rosmarinus officinales L.), and (Solanum nigrum L.); 3. Decoctions from bark of (Mangifera indica L.) and (Michelina chamapaca L.); 4. Decoctions from kernel of (Arecha catechu L.), from bran of (Oryza sativa L.) and from hair and cob of (Zea mays L.); 5. Infusions from leaves of (Momordica balsamina Blanco), from bark and leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.), from fruit of (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and from leaves of (Mangifera indica L.); 6. Clastogenicity or chromosome breaking potential was exhibited by decoctions from leaves and bark of (Pittosporum pantaclrum (Blanco) Merr.), decoctions from leaves of (Plantago major L.), decoctions from leaves of (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume) and decoctions from cobs of (Zea mays L.). Infusions from leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.) also showed chromosome breaking effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 9626

Methods of fruit preservation
Cara pengawetan buah-buahan

Anonymous
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lembang [Lembang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (01): 28-29 (1981/1982)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 140

Report of the Training Course in Techniques in Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources I


National Biological Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Bogor; FAO/SEAMEO-BIOTROP/National Biological Institute; 1975; 118p

Availability :
SEAMEO-BIOTROP Library




NO. 92310

Herbal medicine make a comeback


Romulo,BD
Reader's Digest 49-54 (1989); HERDIN Database; PC911734; MFN 007437

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; DOST Complex; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila, R-324




NO. 93152

Comparative anti-diabetic activities of some medicinal plants


Villasenor, IM; Cabrera, MA; Merneses, KB; Rivera, VRR; Villasenora, RC
Philippine Journal of Science 127 (4): 261-266 (1998)

Abstract:
The methanolic and aqueous extracts from popular, abundant and relative shape sources such as banana flower, pipino fruits, and leaves of ampalaya, kangkong, kamote, makopa, and tanglad were tested for their comparative anti-diabetic activities using albino mice as test animals. The blood glucose levels were determined using haemogluco-test strips. The result of the bioassay of the aqueous showed that the most potent anti-diabetic plant is flower while the comparative anti-diabetic potencies of the other plants are: tangland leaves> pipino fruits> kangkong leaves> makopa leaves> ampalaya leaves> kamote leaves. An infusion from mango leaves did not exhibit anti-diabetic activity. The organic extract of makopa leaves is the most anti-diabetic followed by kangkong and mango leaves. The organic extract of banana flowers and kamote, ampalaya and tangland leaves exhibited low antidiabetic potentials.

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines; Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 37278

Analysis of the operation of selected vegetable retailers in San Jose City, Talavera and Muñoz, Nueva Ecija


Lantican, LA
Central Luzon State University (CLSU), Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, 3120 Philippines

BSc thesis; Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Central Luzon State University, 1984; 44 p

Abstract:
The study covered 105 vegetable retailers in selected public markets of Nueva Ecija. Four vegetables were considered, namely: 'ampalaya', tomato, stringbeans and eggplant. The retailers were 43 years old on the average. Only 10 out of 105 retailers had no education and they had been operating on their business on the average. The retailers in San Jose city and Talavera markets based their selling price from their co-retailers while the Muñoz retailers made use of their own price based on make-up purchase price. The price for 'ampalaya', stringbeans and eggplant had increased from September till December due to lack of supply of these vegetable in the market, while in tomato the price had increased from September till November due to excess supply and this was true for the three margin depends on the gap between buying and selling price of these vegetables included in the study. The gross sales per month of a retailer in San Jose city and Talavera was only 68 and 64 %, respectively, over the sales of Muñoz retailers. The total cost incurred for a month operation was much higher in Muñoz, P3801.47 against P2533.07 and P2409.24 for San Jose city and Talavera, respectively. Cash cost accounted for 94 % of the total costs on the average. The net returns per month realized by a San Jose retailer was slightly higher, P223.30; followed by Muñoz retailers, P213.58; and the least was P155.45 for a Talavera retailer. The problems common to respondents were high perishability, lack of capital, high cost of transportation, narrow margin, price fluctuation, and equipment and materials. To remedy the problems, the implementation of posting of prices for selected vegetables, establishment of a well organized retailers association and adoption of post-harvest technology were suggested.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University
Email: hlangeles@mozcom.com




NO. 90136

Extent of pesticide use in vegetable production in Nueva Ecija: Empirical evidence and policy implications


Orden, MEM; Patricio, MG; Canoy, VV
Central Luzon State University (CLSU), Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, 3120 Philippines

CLSU R & D Highlights 196-213; 1994

Abstract:
Nueva Ecija is a major producer of vegetables such as ampalaya, eggplant, tomato and cabbage. In the production process, however, different kinds of insect pests attack them at various stages of plant development. To combat the damaging insects, growers relied heavily on the use of chemicals because they are readily available, effective, easy to use and with high kill efficiency. These coupled with the fact that there are no non-chemical control options that they can choose from drive farmers to depend heavily on pesticide. The heavy dependence on the use of pesticides has resulted in misuse/abuse of pesticides, high share of the cost of pesticides to total cost of material inputs, and danger to man's health and environment. If these finding would persist in vegetable production, future fears about growers suffering financially, toxicity to man, and environmental degradation would not be far from reality. These are the important issues to be taken into consideration in assessing the effectiveness of the country's current policies on pesticides. They can also be viewed as useful inputs for programmeplanners in developing plans to sustain vegetable production in particular and the agricultural industry in general.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University
Email: hlangeles@mozcom.com




NO. 92028

How to store seeds properly


Palis, LB
Greenfields 23 (12): 31-32 (1995)

Abstract:
Instead of buying seeds for vegetable for planting farmers can store seeds from fruits to be used for planting. Wash the seeds then soak them in water. Good seeds sink while empty seeds float.[Note]

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37006

Variety development of ampalaya, upo and patola


Rasco Jr, ET; Reyes, MEC; Roxas, VP; Bernardo, EN
Indigenous Rainfed Vegetable Development Project; IMPRINT; College, Laguna: UPLB, 1988.var.p.- (IPB-CA-RRDP-PCARRD Funded; Study I.).

Abstract:
One hundred forty-three (143) accession of ampalaya were evaluated and selected by pedigree method and subsequent yield trials. Four most advanced potential lines (9-61-3+1+1-1, M-2 (B2) +1+1-1, and SR-1+1+1-1) can be used directly in the production of either F-hybrids or syntheric varieties. Among the crosses produced and tested, XAH-87006 was selected over the commercial counterpart (Jade star A) and the open-pollinated (OP) variety (Sta. Rita). This variety exhibited the highest level of heterosis especially in terms of yield and number of fruits per plants. Four advanced lines of smooth patola (CS-1-2+1, Tal-1-2-1, Tal-1-1+2 and Tal-1-1-1) were identified as potential parents for the exploitation of a possible hybrid vigour in this crop. Two experimental F1- hybrids derived from these lines were identified as superior over Cavite Smooth which was the standard OP cultivar. For the ridged patola, a selection from the commercial OP variety (Magiting) was considered highly promising. This variety has good size, with uniform diameter, green and moderately susceptible to fruitly, red spider mite and downy mildew. Several cultivars of upo were identified for the varied preferences of consumers. Those selected were: 10-25-5-1+2 (long fruited); 10-40+1 and 10-42-1-1 (medium

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 37204

Extraction of fixed oils from ampalaya seeds used for the treatment of skin disease


Deputo, ED; Cavan, ALA
BSc thesis (Pharmacy); Manila Central University; 1989

Abstract:
Based on the finding of the study, the following conclusion are hereby made. 1) Fixed oil is present in the seed of ampalaya upon extracted. 2) That the ampalaya is suitable to use as a source of fixed oil needed. 3) Due to the inhibition show by the ampalaya extract against the bacteria it is effective in curing some skin disease which the bacteria acting on it are those who are sensitive with ampalaya. By the success show of the ampalaya extract which is the fixed oils that is present on its seeds, the statement of the problems, as well as the objectives of this work got the positive results and answers. The effectivity of ampalaya against skin disease that may use in the form of creams and ointment. The vanishing cream is used to soothed the skin and beautifying it, and the ointment which contains the active engredient of ampalaya will use as tropical antimicrobial agent. That will act against bacteria that is present in some skin diseases.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37222

Antigenotoxic effects of drug preparations akapulko and ampalaya


Balboa, JG; Lim-Sylianco, C
The Philippine Journal of Science; 121 (4): 399-411 (1992)

Abstract:
Powder, leaves, and lotion from akapulko (Cassia alata Linn) and powder and defatted extract from leaves of ampalaya (Momordica charantia Linn) reducted the genotoxic activity of dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline. This was shown by the reduction of chromosome breaking effects of these genotoxins as induced by the different drug preparations from akapulko and ampalaya.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37375

Performance of amorgoso seedlings grown in different leaf containers


Dumbrigue, CG
Central Luzon State University (CLSU), Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, 3120 Philippines

BSc thesis; Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Central Luzon State University, 1983; 20p

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the performance of amorgoso seedlings grown in different leaf containers. The different leaf containers at various maturity used were: Talisay, banana and task leaves in their green, dark green greenish brown and brown stages. Results show that the number days from sowing to emergence and number of days to destruction of leaf containers were significantly affected by maturity of the leaves and its interaction with source. However, durability of containers and rate of growth at weekly interval were not influenced by both treatments as well as the interaction.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University




NO. 37599

Correlation of cumulative yield per picking period and total yield -- its application in selection for yield in bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.)


Rasco Jr, ET; Reyes, MC
Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines

The Philippine Journal of Science 14 (1): 18 (1989)

Abstract:
Based on an advanced multiple harvest trial in 1988, a correlation analysis between cumulative yield per picking of individual lines or experimental varieties and the corresponding total yield was done to determine the number of pickings needed to reliably select for bittergourd populations with high multiple harvest yield capacity at lessr effort for the plant breeder. Results of the analysis showed that selection for yield in bittergourd may be done based on the cumulative yield after 11-12 pickings as compared to 17-20 pickings normally done in a multiple harvest trial. Highly significant correlation values ranging from 0.81 to 0.86 were obtained in this picking periods. Further trials are needed to confirm these findings.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 37603

Intercropping ampalaya with either tomato, mungbean and soybean


Edullantes, CG
Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines

The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 14 (1): 6; 1989

Abstract:
A study on the intercropping of ampalaya with either tomato, mungbean and soybean was conducted to determine the possibility of intercropping these crops and its effect to soil fertility. Results showed that the number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, number of non-marketable fruit, and yield of ampalaya were not affected significantly by the kind of intercrop. Combined money value of the main crop and the intercrop was highly significant. Two common insect pest were observed, these were squash bug and greed aphids. Squash bug infest both ampalaya and mungbean while green aphids infest both ampalaya and soybean. Dramatic effect on soil fertility was also noted.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 38977

The effects of fumigants, and other management practices on the productiveness of the trellis-type ampalaya


Mijares, CA
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983); ILARC; MMSU; Batac; Ilocos Norte; 1978; p82

Abstract:
The study aimed to know the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers either applied alone or in combination with nematicides, soil fumigants and other soil conditioners on the prolificity of the trellis-type ampalaya variety Elongata. The mean number of leaves on each vine of the trellis-type of ampalaya was affected by the treatments. Application of 60-30-30 + bat manure of 700 g produced the highest number of leaves, the longest fruits, the heaviest fruits and the highest yield.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 38978

Evaluation of the growth and yield of ampalaya given various fertilization schedule under ridge culture with and without plastic cover


Quicao, AC
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compedium (1971-1983); ILARC; MMSU; Batac; Ilocos Norte; 1980; p86

Abstract:
Using the native variety, the study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield of ampalaya given various schedule in a ridge culture with and without plastic cover. Also, to determine whether the physical property of transparency of plastic cover would have any influence on the irrigation needs and fruiting performance of the crop and the required frequency of fertilization. Results of the study showed that plastic cover and fertilizer application showed insignificant differences on the growth and yield of ampalaya. While, uncovered ridge culture significantly produced higher germination and weight of marketable friuts. Of the rates and schedules of fertilization, of 300 kg of 15-15-15 per hectare; a bi-weekly supplementation with 100 kg of ammonium phosphate per ha significantly excelled other fertilization rates (1) 150 kg 15-15-15/ ha (b) 150 kg 15-15-15/fertilization rates (1) 150 kg 15-15-15/ha (b) 150 kg 15-15-15/ha + 16-20-0 applied every 15 days from first blooming (c) 300 kg 15-15-15/ha applied every 15 days from first blooming.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 91002

Isolation and structure elucidation of stigmasta -5,25(27)-Dien-3-_-O1 from Momordica charantia


Guevarra, AP
The Philippine Journal of Science 118 (4): 357 (1989)

Abstract:
Stigmasta-5,25(27)-dien-3-_-O1 (A) was isolated and purified from the petroleum ether extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia, locally known as ampalaya. The sterol was characterized using high field proton and carbon-13 NMR including COSY-2D proton NMR and DEPT Carbon-13 NMR, low resolution electron impact mass spectroscopy, and Fourier infrared spectroscopy.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 90259

Assay on the antifungal properties of different leaf extracts against pathogens of cereals


Gochangco, AM; Mamaril, VR
Bureau of Plant Industry, San Andres, Malate, Metro Manila

Philippine Phytopathology 26 (1 & 2): 65; 1990

Abstract:
Extracts of leaves of kutsai, atis, chichirica, pandakaki, uray, kamantigue, alugbati, acapulco, papaya, damong maria, sambong, kamoteng baging (green) tanglad, katakataka, herbabuena, mayana, suwag kabayo, kadyos, sampalok, okra, ampalaya, kamias, kulasiman, siling labuyo, saluyot, alagaw, lagundi, lantana and luya were tested against Helminthospirum oryzae, H. maydis, H. sorghicola, Curvularia oryzae, C. lunata and Fusarium moniliforme and compared with Delsene Mx, a commercial fungicide. Leaf extracts were mixed with potato dextrose agar on which the test fungus was grown. Fungal colony growth was measured after 2, 4 and 7 days of incubation. Extracts of leaves of kamias, kutsai, kamantigue, camote, ampalaya, okra, kulasiman, saluyot, mayana, damong maria, papaya, calamansi and sampalok inhibited colony growth of C. lunata with kamias being the most effective. Colony growth of C. oryzae was inhibited by leaf extract of uray, sambong, kamote and ampalaya. Only the extract of kamantigue was inhibitory to F. moniliforme while only those of calamansi and siling labuyo inhibited colony growth of H. maydis. H. sorghicola colony growth was controlled by majority of the tested leaf extracts except those of acapulco, kamote, tanglad, okra, ampalaya, kulasiman and saluyot.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 92018

Pruning and fertilizing cucurbits


Zamora Jr, F
Greenfields 23 (5): 46 (1995)

Abstract:
To stimulate early primary lateral branching, pruning is recomended. Pruning primary lateral enhance formation of secondary lateral and fruiting on lower modes. The more leaves there are above the bigger the fruits will become.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 92034

Pregerminating seeds for sowing


Zamora Jr, F
Greenfields 23 (8): 45-46 (1995)

Abstract:
Pregermination protects the seedlings when the seed coat opens. This is done by soaking the seeds, wrapping with damp cloth and sowing.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 92540

Chemical studies of crude vegetable drugs, 1: Momordica charantia L.


Garcia, LL
The Philippine Journal of Science 114 (3-4): 139-150, Jul-Dec (1985)|HERDIN Database. P890389.MFN 001144

Abstract:
Adsorption chromatography on silica gel column was used to prepare three sterol isolates,melting at 150-155°C, 138-142°C and 128-131°C from the petroleum ether extractive and two isolates melting at 131-135 °C and 178-185 °C giving characteristic colour reactions of sterols/terpenes from the ethanol extractive of a mixture of the young leaves and tender shoots of Momordica charantia L. Pharmacopeial constants of the crude vegetable drugs were obtained.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94331

Philippine medicinal plants found effective


Guerrero, AM
HERDIN Database 001691-HE901424; Filipino family Physician 20 (1): 39-41 (1982)

Abstract:
Lagundi (Vitex negundo) for cough and fever available in tablets. Yerba buena (Mentha cordifolia) -for pain and fever in tablets. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) -a diuretic (to remove salt and water that accompanies heart diseases and high blood pressure); in tablet and liquid solution. Tsaang gubat (Ehretia microphylla) for diarrhoea, in tablet and liquid solution. Niyog-niyogan (Quisqualis indica) -for deworming, in chewable tablets. Laniting gubat(Kibatalia balncoi)-antifungal. Luya (Zingiber officinale) -as antiseptic and carminative (to remove abdominal pain). Sampa-sampalukan (Phyllanthus ninuri) -antibacterial. Ampalaya(Momordica charantia) -anti-diabetes and anti-hypertension. Makahiya (Mimosa pudica) -anti-spasmodic. Ulasiman sa bato (Peperomia pellucida) -anti-rheumatism. Balanoy ( Ocimum basilicum) -for toothache, ringworms, and for cough.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94463

Comparative efficacy and safety study of Momordica charantia L.(ampalaya) leaf tablet and glibenclamide among patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (phase I and early phase II clinical drug trial)


Maramba, NC; de Leon, D; dela Costa-Ymson, G; Dayut, ET
Inventory of Health Researches 1994-1996; p 128

Abstract:
A double blind comparative study of the efficacy and safety of ampalaya leaf tablet and glibencalmide among NIDDm patients recruited in the outpatient department of PGH was conducted. A total twenty-one patients who met the inclusion criteria was randomly assigned to either the ampalaya or glibenclamide group after wash-out period of two weeks. Five subjects were treated with low dose (45 mg/kg/day), another eight subjects with high dose(60 mg/kg/day), and the third group of eight subjects were treated with glibenclamide and high dose ampalaya are not comparable at 1% level of significancce. The same is true between the high dose and low dose ampalaya. However, the low dose group does not significantly differ from the glibenclamide group. These conflicting results can be due to the unequal number of subjects and the higher baseline FBS values at the high dose group than those of the low dose. However, due to the small number of subjects who completed the study and due to the low potency of the raw ampalaya used in the tablet formulation, the results are not conclusive. All the patients did not develop adverse reactions.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94574

Technoguide for amargoso production


Gajete, T; Pesebre, R; Gajete, L
Technoguides for Agricutural Production and Livelihood Projects (Third Edition): 1-5 (1993)

Abstract:
This guide presented some technologies in the production an annual plant native to the Philippines and is botanically known as Momordica charantia L. It presents the recommended variety of ampalaya, growing season, land preparation, weeding and cultivation, fertilizer application, insect pests and disease control, harvesting, and the cost and return analysis for one- hectare production.

Availability :
Crops Research Division Mini-library, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 94673

Bitter gourd production guide


Maghirang, RG; Rodulfo, GS; Acedera, JL
Bitter Gourd Production Guide Information Bulletin: 158 (2000)

Abstract:
The production guide discusses relevant information on the production statistics and production management of bitter gourd. Included in the production management are information on bitter gourd varieties, climatic and soil requirements, land preparation, planting, fertilization, trellising, vine training and pruning, pest and disease management, harvesting and post harvest.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 93938

Effect of GA3 on the sex expression of bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.) cv. marikit


Bawang, FT; Palispis, NC
BSU (Benguet State University) Graduate School Research Journal 5: 65-69 (1994-1995)

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the effect of GA3, on the sex expression of bittergourd using various level such as: 0, 20, 40 and 80 ppm. Results showed that GA, with any of the dosage did not increase the number of female flowers, number of branches, leaf width and internode length, nor shorten the number of days to flowering. GA, at 220 ppm, however, tremendously increased plant height.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 93954

Preliminary investigation on the antimugatenic property of ampalaya (Momordica charantia) on mice treated with mitomycin-C


Salinda, NB; Tanchanco, R; Salvano, N; Sakdalan, J
Inventory of Health Researches 1993-1994; p 128

Abstract:
An initial pharmacological screening of ampalaya (Momordica charantia) leaf extract was performed and the median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated at 40.74 g/kg BW using the Miller and Tainter method. Antimutagenicity testing using the micronucleus test was done using 2.5, 5, 10 k/kg BW concentration of the test drug. Results also show that at a dose of 5 g/kg BW was able to reduce the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) back to normal. Dosages of 2.5 and 10 g/kg BW were found to increase the formation of micronucleated PCEs significantly.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94055

The availability of calcium from petsay, malunggay, saluyot, ampalaya, kalabasa, gabi and mustasa


Alcaraz, AP
Abstract Bibliography of FNRI Research : 24-25 (1947-1997); Nutrition News 13 (2): 4-18 (1960)

Abstract:
Calcium availability was determined in 7 local leafy vegetables by two methods, namely, balance studies and calcium deposition using albino rats as test animals. - Based on the value for skimmed milk the following result were obtained: By balance studies the percentage calcium availability was "mustasa", 96%, "petsay" and "ampalaya", 89%, "kalabasa", 88%, "malunggay", 82% "gabi", 73% and "saluyot" 69%. - Results of the two method did not parallel each other even though the protein content of the experimental diets were maintained at the same level. The author believes that a closer agreement of results may be obtained by running the two methods for the same length of time. Sex had no influence on calcium utilization by rats.

Availability :
Food and Nutrition Research Institute; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94054

Preliminary study on the utilization of calcium in some Philippine vegetables


Caasi, PI; Intengan, CLI
Abstract Bibliography of FNRI Researches : 22 (1947-1997); Nutrition News 13 (4): 4-11 (1959)

Abstract:
The percentage calcium utilization of "malunggay" (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) "saluyot" (Chorchorus olitorius L.), "petsay" (Brassica chinensis L.) and "Ampalaya" )Memordica charantia L.) was investigated, with the rat as experimental animal. Two procedures involving determination of the calcium utilization (a) by balance study, and (b) by seposition method, was used . Both methods showed "malunggay", "petsay" and "ampalaya" to have high calcium percentage utilization while "saluyot" showed relatively lower utilization. - The results given by the two methods were not identical, although the balance studies gave reasonable results. The possible sources of error for the deposition method has been discussed. - The authors suggested that further studies be done on these vegetables using the same two methods, with the protein content of the diets maintained at the same level.

Availability :
Food and Nutrition Research Institute; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94259

The hypoglycemic effect of Momordica cochinchinensis (patolang-uak) in alloxan induced diabetic rats


Regalado, BM; Palpal-Latoc, AV; Pamintuan, M; Panaligan, M
Inventory of Health Researches 1992-1993; p 115

Abstract:
The hypoglycemic effect of patolang-uak leaves extract was studied using albino rats. The normal fasting blood glucose and hyperglycemic levels of the study population was established. Diabetic state was induced by subcutaneous administration of Alloxan monohydrate given at 125mg/kg body weight. Blood glucose levels were determined using glucose oxidase method. The LD50 of patolang-uak in rats was determined at 11 mg/kg. The effects on the blood glucose level of diabetic rats after administration of normal saline solution as negative control, insulin as positive control, and full (11mg/kg),half (5.5mg/kg) and one-fifth(2.2mg/kg)concentration of the LD50 in rats were noted. Based from these results, the hypoglycemic effect of patolang-uak at 2.2 mg/kg is comparable to that of insulin. This is seen by a decrease in blood glucose levels for 3 consecutive hours in both groups.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94262

Pharmacognistical studies of selected Philippine medicinal plants


Zamora, CV
Inventory of Health Researches 1992-1993; p 117

Abstract:
The study aims to provide macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, illustrations and photomicrographs of the following plants and their respective parts:1)Vitex negundo L.(lagundi) leaves 2)Blumea balsamifera (sambong), 3)Cassia alata(akapulko) leaves, 4)Mentha cordifolia(yerba buena) leaves, 5)Carmona retusa(tsaang gubat) leaves, 6)Allium sativum(bawang) bulb, 7)Leucaena leucocephala(ipil-ipil) seed, 8)Psidium guajava(guava) leaves, 9)Momordica charantia(ampalaya) leaves, 10)Artemisia vulgaris(damong maria) herb, 11) Ocimum santum(sulasi) leaves, 12)Cymbopogon citratus(tanglad) leaves, 13)Peperomia pellucida(ulasimang bato) leaves and stems, 14)Garcinia mangostana(mangosteen) mesocarp, and 15)Quisqualis indica(niyog-niyogan) seeds.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 94294

The use of "Kalingag" as attractant to fruitfly in ampalaya production in Quezon and Cavite


Averion, L; Salisi, L
DA Research Highlights : 53 (1995-1996)

Abstract:
A three-year study on the effect of "Kalingag" as insect attractant in ampalaya crops was implemented in the Quezon Agricultural Experiment Station in Tiaong,Quezon. Ground kalingag bark effectively attracted and controlled male fruitflies. Results of the study showed that the technology can effectively reduce the male population of the fruitfly and eventually increase fruit yield. Planting of kalingag tree is being recommended to ensure supply of the bark. Younger and thin barks are not attracted to male fruitflies.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 96435

Some recommended varieties of vegetables


Faylon, PS; Lopez, EL; Joven, JEA
R & D Milestones: Crops 3: 172-174 (2002)

Abstract:
Bittergourd, bottle gourd, eggplant, 'okra', squash, and pole sitao (yardlong bean) are commonly grown in the country. They are easy to grow and have the potential of providing income to farmers. In planting these vegetables, farmers use either their old varieties that are generally low yielding or the commercial varieties that are expensive. However, there are few reliable sources of indigenous vegetable seeds.|Farmers usually get seeds from neighboring farms. Such seeds have unpredictable germination, quality, yield and overall performance. Thus the Indigenous Rainfed Vegetable Development Project produced improved varieties of bottle and bitter gourds, 'patola', squash, and okra that would benefit farmers and seed producers. The new varieties of bitter gourd and squash were pilot tested in selected traditional growing areas in Aklan and Sorsogon. Varieties of other vegetables were evaluated for their acceptability in Laguna, NUeva Ecija, Cagayan, Negros, and Bukidnon. The breeding programs of IPB and LBNCRDC also developed and tested different vegetable varieties. Most of these varieties were approved by the PSB and recommended for nationwide planting.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 25979

Platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding activity of some Malaysian medicinal plants


Mazura, MP; Rasadah, MA; Ibrahim, J
Medicinal Plants Division; Forest Research Institute Malaysia(FRIM); 52109 Kepong, Kuala Lumpur

4th. Asian Science and Technology Congress 2002; 25-27 April 2002; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
A total of 20 methanolic extracts from 12 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were assayed for their inhibitory effects on platelet activating factor (P AF) binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-P AF as a ligand. Of the plants tested, six extracts, namely, Tinospora crispa, Phyllanthus niruri, Momordica charantia, Morinda citrufolia, Phyllagathis rotundifolia & Brucea javanica showed significant infibitory effects of more than 60% at concentration of 18.2/lg/ml.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25998

The potency of Strobilanthes crispus and Momordica charantia as oral hypogylaemic agent


Noor-Azlina, M; Noordin, MM; Mohamed, S
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

7th. National Conference on Medical Sciences; 2002; Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease comprises etiologically and clinically a heterogeneous group of hyperglycemic disorders, characterized by high serum glucose and disturbances of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical profession. This leads to increasing demand for natural products with antidiabetic activity of a lower side-effect. Many herbs and plant product have been show to possess hypoglycaemic action.

Availability :
University Malaysia Sabah




NO. 96551

Yield performance of bitter gourd as affected by the removal of lateral vines


Vigilia, NB; Mempin, PC; Bautista, FC; Santos, SC
Proceedings of the Agency Inhouse Review of Completed and Ongoing R & D Projects. Bulacan National Agricultural State College, San Ildefonso, Bulacan (2003)

Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the yield performance of bitter gourd as affected by the removal of lateral vines. The treatments were T1 (non-removal of lateral vines) and T2 (removal of lateral vines. Results of the study showed insignificant difference between treatments.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Central Luzon Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Central Luzon State University




NO. 96545

Selected agricultural products and wastes as sources of natural products and pulp


Torres, LD; Ortinero, CV; Monserate, JJ
Abstracts of Completed and Ongoing R & D Projects 2000. Research, Extension and Training, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Mu¤oz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines (2000); Compiled by Porciuncula, FL; Dela Cruz, NE; Estera, TB; Pascual, MT; Antalan, RV; Trimor, BP (no pagination)

Abstract:
The project was conducted to determine the potential of selected agricultural products as sources of natural products and pulp. Bitter gourd, beans, eggplant, garlic, onion, tomato, rice, and jute were investigated. Mature and air-dried plant materials were soaked in appropriate solvent to extract the bioactive components. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening. the pharmacological, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated. Handmade papers were produced from agricultural wastes using NaOH as pulping agent. The properties of the papers were determined. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) seeds contain alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. Saponins are present in the leaves, stems, and fruits of eggplant, in the skin of yellow granex onion, and in the leaves, roots, and stems of native and apollo tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Flanonoids and saponins are found in red onion (Allium ascalonicum) and yellow granex onion (Allium ostowskianum Linn). Alkaloids are detected in the leaves, seeds and pods of jute (Corchorus olitorius Linn). The leaves, vines, flowers, and pods of stringbeans (Vigna sesquipedalis Linn) have saponins and flavonoids. The ethanol and chloroform extracts of garlic (allium sativum Linn) cloves, and the ethanol extract of the leaves, roots and stem of native tomato are active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Irradiation of red onions resulted to an increase in bioactivity against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. The ethanol of the red onion bulb has an inhibitory activity against E. coli. The petroleum ether and choloroform extracts of garlic are also active against Aspergillus flavus Link. Hand-made papers were produced from rice straw.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Central Luzon Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Central Luzon State University




NO. 96546

Farming practices adopted by farmerss: its implication to pesticide residue content and quality of key commercial crops in Central Luzon, Philippines


Paragas, DS; Roxas, AC; Penalosa, DP
Abstracts of Completed and Ongoing R & D Projects. Research, Extension and Training, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Mu¤oz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines (2000); Compiled by Porciuncula, FL; Dela Cruz, NE; Estera, TB; Pascual, MT; Antalan, RV; Trimor, BP (no pagination)

Abstract:
The study aimed to monitor the possibility of pesticide accumulation in key commercial crops in Central Luzon, Philippines as affected by the frequency and kind of pesticides applied. Pesticide residue analyses on crops such as rice, onion, garlic, bitter gourd, eggplant and string beans were done using Rapid Field Kit technique for organochlorine (OC), organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid and carbamate. Results revealed that probability of pesticide contamination is higher on agricultural crops where farmers used to apply pesticides three to five days before harvest. This is very true in vegetables where farmers surveyed applied these chemicals few days before harvest. While the type of pesticides used by most of the farmers surveyed were claimed to be less persistent like the Ops and the carbamates, they may still persist on the crops where they applied as well as in the soil for a longer time if misused or carelessly applied. OPs and carbamates have relatively short half-life3 comapred to OCs.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Central Luzon Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Central Luzon State University




NO. 96550

The effect of polyethylene plastic mulch on the yield performance of ampalaya (Ramgo Ampalaya Million Green)


Mempin, PC; Bautista, FC
Proceedings of the Agency In-House Review of Completed and Ongoing R & D Projects. Bulacan National Agricultural State College, San Ildefonso, Bulacan (2003)

Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the effect of polyethylene plastic mulch on the yield performance of ampalaya (Momordica charantia). The treatments used were T1 (no plastic mulch), T2 (with plastic mulch). The experimental plants were given the same cultural practices recommended for ampalaya. Results showed that the use of polyethylene plastic mulch significantly influenced the weight, number and length of fruit of the sample plants. Furthermore, plants with plastic mulch were not severely infested by pests particularly insects.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Central Luzon Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Central Luzon State University




NO. 96581

From natural biodiversity to agrobiodiversity: rainforests and natural systems as models in the design of sustainable species-rich agroecosystems


Boerwinkel, ACJ; Snelder, DJ
The Sierra Madre mountain range: Global relevance, local realities; Papers presented at the 4th Regional Conference on Environment and Development. Proceedings; Isabela State University (ISU), Cabagan, Philippines; May 2002; Tuguegarao, 2003, pp. 185-206; Pleog, JVD; Bernardo, EC; Misipiquena, AB

Abstract:
Agroecosystems that do not deviate greatly in their patterns of resource use and do maintain a substantial part of the diversity of natural systems will sustain over a long period of time, benefiting people and conserving natural resources. Rainforest are complex ecosystems high in biodiversity and sustainable in terms of biomass production, pest control and nutrient recycling. Hence, they serve in tropical humid regions as models on which to base the design of alternative systems of land use. However, how much agrobiodiversity is needed to satisfy long-term ecological and short-term agricultural and economic goals? Agroecosystems are continously changing as farmers respond to new opportunities and constraints. Why there are these changes directed towards simplification and specialization rather than diversification and multi-functionality? This paper addresses the concept of agriculture mimicking nature (the ecosystem mimic hypothesis) and its application in tropical environments. A discussion of the opportunities and constraints of farmers in the Sierra Madre Mountain Region in northeast Luzon clarifies local realities in the development of species-rich, tree- based agroecosystems on former rainforest land. Attention is paid to both the agroecosystems on Imperata grassland and the home garden conglomerations in and around the villages and towns in lowlands and upland hills, along the western side of the Sierra Madre Mountains.

Availability :
Consortia Operations Office, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 26375

Heavy metals in soils and vegetables in Cameron highlands and Johore


Zauyah, S; Hafsah, N; Juliana, B; Noorhafizah, R; Fauziah, C; Rosenani, AB
Department of Land Management; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang 43400 Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of the KUSTEM 3rd. Annual Seminar on Sustainability Science and Management 2004; 4-5 May 2004; Kuala Terengganu; p464-466

Abstract:
A study on the concentration of heavy metals in two major vegetable growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia i;e. Cameron Highland and Johore had been carried out. A total of 99 soil samples (0-20 cm) from vegetable plots were collected. In Cameron Highlands, the saprolite layers were also collected for background levels of heavy metals. The soils were air dried, and analyzed for total heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) by aqua regia extraction and available heavy metals by 0.1 M HCI, EDT A and DTPA. The vegetables were collected from the soil-sampling sites. Heavy metals from dried samples were extracted through dry ashing of the tissues and taker into a solution of 1% nitric acid. The mean total heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in the soils are all within the normal range of other agricultural soils in the country and also of the uncultivated areas Meal concentrations for the heavy metals in vegetables are all below the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC) as gazette under the Malaysia Food Act 1983 and Food Regulation 1985. However, those grown in Cameron Highlands are higher than those in Johore ( Zn (0.047 mg/kg) , Cu (0.021 mg/kg), Pb (0.003mg/kg), Ni (0.00 mg/kg) and Cd (0.0002mg/kg).

Availability :
Azyati




NO. 26552

Nitrate and nitrite content of Malaysian vegetables


Berry, SK; Augustine, MA; Heng, LK
Department of Food Science; University Pertanian Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Proceedings of the Symposium on Vegetables and Ornamentals in the Tropics; UPM; 27-28 October 1982; p223

Abstract:
Nitrates and nitrites widely occur in plants and their toxicity is known to man. Malaysian vegetables, e.g. amaranthus, bitter-gourd, broccoli leaves, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, egg-plant, kangkung, radish and mustard leaves (choy- sam and kai-choy) were analysed and were found to contain, 2,146, 426, 4,550,146, 2,331, 334, 2,031, 1,935, 2, 875, and 2, 729 ppm nitrate, respectively . The nitrite content of these vegetables was insignificant (1 ppm).

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 96979

AZ41 organic foliar fertilizer reduces disease incidence and increases yield of ampalaya (Momordica charantia)


Tangonan, NG; Pecho, JA; Ruano, CP
USM [University of Southern Mindanao] Research & Development Journal 12 (1): 76-79 (2004)

Abstract:
Ampalaya, Makiling variety, yielded the highest number of fruits at 38.67 and heaviest weight of 5.99 kg per five plants with application of AZ41 organic foliar fertilizer at the lowest rate of 30 ml/ 16 L of water compared to the other treatments. Incidence of leaf spot disease was also lowest in AZ41 L-applied plants. Bacterial wilt infection was also highly significant in untreated plants compared to lower percentage in AZ-treated plants. This points to the fungicidal property of AZ41 despite its category as an organic foliar fertilizer. Moreover, insect pests were significantly lower in AZ41-treated ampalaya (30ml) in that it showed pesticidal efficacy to Lannate, a commercial insecticide.

Availability :
Scientific Literature Services; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 15380

The hypoglycemic activity of Momordica charantia Linn. in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.


Tiangda, C; et al
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 16: 24 (1991)

Abstract:
The acidified water-chloroform extract of unripe fruits of Momordica charantia was tested for hypoglycemic activity at several dosage levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The blood glucose was measured at 2 h interval for 10 h period by 0-toluidine method. In diabetic rabbits, a significant decrease in blood glucose level occurred at 10 and 20 mg/kg after intravenous injection whereas no hypoglycemic action was found in normal rabbits even at the high dosage of 20 mg/kg. This pattern of the acidified water-chloroform extract action contrasted with that of tolbutamide which produced the hypoglycemic action only in normal rabbits.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15543

Effect of the extract from Mara chean on the incorporation of 3H-Thymidine (3H-TdR) into DNA of Bacillus subtilis.


Sarikabhuti, B; Visarata, N; Wongchai, V
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 10: 18 (1985)

Abstract:
Mara chean is a plant of genus Momordica. The scientific name is Momordica charantia. Momordica plants are herbaceous climbers with simple and forked tendrils. The unripe fruit is green. Momordica charantia has been studied for medical use. The antimicrobial action of Momordica charantia was supported by many scientists. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of the extract from the big upripe fruit of Momordica charantia on the incorporation of 3H thymidine (3H-TdR) into DNA of Bacillus subtilis. The result showed that the addition of Momordica charantia extract to a final concentration of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/ml inhibited the incorporation of 11.4, 5.9 and 4.6% thymidine, respectively. The extract decreased the incorporation nearly to the same extent as ampicillin and adtinomycin D.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 27127

Zinc, copper, nickel and lead concentration in vegetable grown on organic soil in Johore


Juliana, B; Zauyah, S; Noorhafizah, R; Fauziah, CI
Department of Land Management; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Proc. Soil Sci. Conf. Malaysia 2005; 12-13 April 2005; Sg. Petani; Kedah; p212-214 [Eds: Christopher Teh, Zin Zakaria; Izham, A; Che Fauziah, I; Osamanu Haruna, A; Wan Noordin, WD]

Abstract:
The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the organic soils and the vegetables

Availability :
Azarudin




NO. 14253

Bitter gourd growing at Tha Lo
Mara di thi Tha Lo

Inchan, P
Kasikon [Farmers Journal] 66 (3): 237-240 (1993)

Abstract:
The mild climate of Tha Lo, Kanchanaburi province proved to be suitable for growing bitter gourd. Information on cultivation was given.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15233

The hypoglycemic activity of Momordica charantia Linn. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rabbits


Tiangda, C et al
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology; Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; Bangkok; 16: 24 (1991)

Abstract:
The acidified water-chloroform extract of un-ripped fruits of Momordica charantia Linn. was tested for hypoglycemic activity at several dosage levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The blood glucose was measured at 2 h interval for 10 h period by 0-toluidine method. In diabetic rabbits, a significant decrease in blood glucose level occurred at 10 and 20 mg/kg after intravenous injection whereas no hypoglycemic action was found in normal rabbits even at the high dosage of 20 mg/kg. This pattern of the acidified water-chloroform extract action contrasted with that of tolbutamide which produced the hypoglycemic action only in normal rabbits.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15546

The antibacterial activity of extracts from Momordica charantia L.


Visarata, N; Ungsurungsie, M
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 10: 20-21 (1985)

Abstract:
In the extraction of powders from unripe fruits and whole dried plants of Momordica charantia, the large fruit variety and the small fruit variety, respectively, by the method as described by Rivera the yields of the ether extract, water extract, alkaloids, steroidal glycosides and alcohol extract were obtained. Furthermore, the inactive resin could be extracted from the small fruit variety. All of these extracts except inactive resin seemed to possess the antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria at the specified concentration and was demonstrated to be bactericidal. However, only the water extract and steroidal glycosides from the large fruit variety, and the steroidal glycosides from the small fruit variety showed the broad spectrum in action. The mechanism of antibacterial property of the extracts from both varieties of M. charantia was likely to be due to the alter in cell permeability which caused in cell lysis.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16566

Varietal evaluation and 30 kDa protein studies in local bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)


Ditchaiwong, C.; Kongtawelert, P.; Natakankitkul, S.; Tongjiem, M. and Nikornpun, M.
Horticulture Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok 10900, Thailand;

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 118. (2003)

Abstract:
Twelve local bitter gourds were tested in comparison with a cultivated bitter gourd at Phichit Horticultural Research Center in summer 2000. Botanical and horticultural characteristics of leaf, pistillate flower, staminate flower, fruit and seeds were recorded. Ripe fruit yield of the accessions ranged from 3,227 to 6,912 kg/ha. Yield was not significantly different among the accessions and between the accessions and the cultivated variety. When partial protein powder and specific activity protein were extracted from endosperm of each accessions. They showed high variation in these protein levels. The partial protein powder showed the range of 104.33 to 208.67 mg/5g of endopsperm while the specific activity protein at 30 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) ranged from 104.86 to 265.42 µg/5g of endosperm. One specific accession (No.16) gave the highest level of the specific activity protein at 30 kDa, however, it gave rather high level of the partial protein powder, 168.33 µg/5g. Contradictory, the other accession (No. 11) which had more or less the same level of total protein as the mentioned accession, had rather low level of the specific activity protein at 30 kDa, 149.96 µg/5g of endosperm.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16588

Varietal evaluation and 30 kDa protein studies in local bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)


Ditchaiwong, C.; Kongtawelert, P.; Natakankitkul, S.; Tongjiem, M. and Nikornpun, M.
Horticulture Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok 10900, Thailand;

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare : 310. (2003)

Abstract:
Twelve local bitter gourds were tested in comparison with a cultivated bitter gourd at Phichit Horticultural Research Center in summer 2000. Botanical and horticultural characteristics of leaf, pistillate flower, staminate flower, fruit and seeds were recorded. Ripe fruit yield of the accessions ranged from 3,227 to 6,912 kg/ha. Yield was not significantly different among the accessions and between the accessions and the cultivated variety. When partial protein powder and specific activity protein were extracted from endosperm of each accessions. They showed high variation in these protein levels. The partial protein powder showed the range of 104.33 to 208.67 mg/5 g of endopsperm while the specific activity protein at 30 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) ranged from 104.86 to 265.42 µg/5g of endosperm. One specific accession (No. 16) gave the highest level of the specific activity protein at 30 kDa, however, it gave rather high level of the partial protein powder, 168.33 µg/5g. Contradictory, the other accession (No.11) which had more or less the same level of total protein as the mentioned accession, had rather low level of the specific activity protein at 30 kDa, 149.96 µg/5g of endosperm.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library




NO. 16985

The effects of a combination of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa, Momordica charantia and Zingiber montnum on growth performance in broilers
Phon khong samun phai phasom fat ha lai chon khaminchan marakhinok lae phai to khunnalaksana thang kan charoen toepto nai kai krathong

Narkchamnarn, A; lsariyodom, S; Tirawattanawanich, C; Kongkathip, N; Santisopasri, W
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Samun phai Thai okat lae thang lueak mai khong utsahakam kan phalit sat kung thi 3 (Thai Medicinal plant, opportunity and alternative for animal production III on 11-12 May 2005) : 25-32(2005)

Abstract:
The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Because of the use of antibiotics in livestock species may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microbial pathogens, potentially complicating treatment for both animals and humans. An alternative way to mitigate the effects of increasing resistance is the use of herbal products for antibiotic substances. A completely randomized design was used to conduct these experiments. Nine hundred chicks were divided into 3 groups. All groups consisted of 6 replications with 50 chicks each. The experimental chicks were receiving 3 different treatment diets, Avilamycin 2.5 ppm supplemented diet, a combination of Andrographis paniculata , Curcuma longa and a combination of Momordica charantia and Zingiber montmun 2,00 ppm supplemented diet and a control diet (without Avilamycin and herbal products). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the group fed control and herbal supplemented diets was found significantly improved compared to Avilamycin supplemented diet at the end of the third weeks (P<0.05). No significant differences were detected in feed consumption, average daily weight gain and % livability. The length of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were not significantly different (P>0.05) whereas the length of the colon in Avilamycin supplement diet was significantly shorter than other treatments (P<0.05). The ratio of villus/crypt of Liberkhün and the villus depth of duodenum and jejunum in the group fed herbal supplemented diets were significantly defferent (P<0.05; P<0.01) Results from this study indicate that a combination of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa, Momordica charantia and Zingiber montnum can directly and indirectly enhance growth performance of broilers.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16986

Th effects of a combination of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Momordica charantia on immune response in broilers
Phon khong samun phai phasom fat ha lai chon khaminchan lae marakhinok to kan top sanong khong rabop phumkhumkan rok nai kai kra thong

Narkchamnarn, A; lsariyodom, S; Kongkathip, N; Tirawattanawanich, C; Santisopasri, W
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Samun phai Thai okat lae thang lueak mai khong utsahakam kan phalit sat kung thi 3 (Thai Medicinal plant, opportunity and alternative for animal production III on 11-12 May 2005) : 33-39(2005)

Abstract:
Increasing resistance to antibiotic agents is of growing concern to public health offcials worldwide. The concern includes infections acquired in resistant foodborne disease associated with drug use in food-producing animals. An alternative way to mitigate the effects of increasing resistance is the use of gerbil products as a substitute. A completely randomized design was used to conduct this experiment. One hundred and forty four chicks were divided into 3 groups; each group contains 6 replications with 8 chicks in each replication. Each group was randomly assigned of the 3 treatment diets. Avilamycin 2.5 pm supplemented diet, a combination of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Momordica charantia 1,000 ppm supplemented diet, and a control diet (without Avilamycin and herbal products). No significant differences were found in lymphocyte proliferation and 2-Mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER, lgG) and 2-Mercaptoethanol-sensitive (MES, lgM) antibody titers (P>0.05). Supplementation with the combination of herbals could enhance not only the opsonic phagocytosis activity of peritoneal macrophage (P<0.05), but also enhance the non-opsonic phagocytosis activity of peritoneal macrophage (P<0.01). The increase in macrophage phagocytic activity indicated that a combination of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Momordica charantia contains immune enhancing effect on non-specific immune system.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15735

The treatment of causalgia in the upper limb by acupuncture.


Wiwat, C; Silapa-Archa, W
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 13: 55-56 (1988)

Abstract:
Methanol extracts of 6 plants belonging to the Family Cucurbitaceae, i.e. bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.), Balsam apple (M. cochinchinensis Spreng.), Baub-khom (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.) Khee-ka-dang (T. integrifolia Kurz), Tam-Tueng (Coccinia grandis Voigt), and Nam-tao (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) were tested on a variety of microorganisms. The extracts of Khee-ka-dang fruit, bitter gourd plant and Baub-khom fruit exhibited good antibacterial activity against gram-positive and acid-fast bacterium. The gram-negative bacteria was found to be sensitive only to the Khee-ka-dang fruit extracts. None of the extracts showed antifungal activity. The 3rd column chromatographic fraction of bitter gourd fruit exhibited higher activity against grampositive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacterium than did the 4th and 6th fractions.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 70008

Vitamin A,carotene and oil of sweet gourd (Momordica cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Sprengel) in dermatology
Sinh to A,caroten va dau Gac voi khoa Da lieu (Momordica cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Sprengel)

Dinh Ngoc Lam
Tap chi Duoc hoc [Journal of Pharmacy] (5): 36 (1985)

Abstract:
In Vietnam from 10 kg of fresh fruits of Momordica cochinchinensis 160-200 ml of oil can be obtained from which 1 g of crude carotene can be extracted. Foreign pharmacochemical industry often extracts carotene from carrot (Daucus carota) tuber. From 10 kg of carrot tuber about 0.50 g of crude carotene can be extracted to produce sweet gourd oil at industrial scale. Drugs from this species are used to treat some diseases, including skin diseases.

Availability :
National Information and Documentation Center for Science and Technology




NO. 71309

Planting techniques of banana, ananas, papaya and Momordica
Ky thuat trong chuoi, dua, gac, du du

Dang Xuan Nghiem; Nguyen Van Sieu
Hanoi, Rural Publishing House, 1961; 45 p

Abstract:
The book mentions factors that affect growth and development of 4 plants (ananas, banana, papaya and sweet gourd), such as rainfall, day light, environment, and terrain. Breeding, planting techniques and protection against insect attacks are also mentioned.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73133

Momordica charantia
Muop dang

Vo Van Chi
Nhung cay thuoc thong thuong [Popular medicinal plants]; Dongthap, Dongthap Publishing House, 1988; p 201-203

Abstract:
Momordica charantia is a climbing plant grown everywhere in Vietnam. This plant contains bitter glucosides, vitamins B1 and C. It can be used as medicine or vegetable. It is used as febrifuge, aperient, to treat cough and diabetes.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73540

Momordica charantia
Muop dang

Vu Xuan Quang
Nhung cay thuoc nam Thong thuong chua mot so benh viem nhiem [Common medicinal plants that can be used to treat some infected inflamed diseases]; Hanoi, Medicinal Publishing House, 1993; p 148-150

Abstract:
The antibiological active elements from Momordica charantia can have effect to the following bacteria: Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sutilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus 209 P. The leaves can be used to treat wounds, haemorrhoids, and snake-bites. The seeds can be used as tonic medicine for kidney. The fruit is used to treat cough and fever. One prescription with this medicine to treat inflammation of the throat is suggested.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76180

Momordica cochinchinensis
Gac

Vo Van Chi
Tu dien cay thuoc Vietnam [A dictionary of medicinal plants of Vietnam]; Hanoi, Medicinal Publishing House, 1997; p 513-514

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis is cultivated very commonly in Vietnam. It can be propagated by seed and stem cuttings. The seeds can be used as medicine to treat wounds, burns, inflammation of breast, nerves, high blood pressure, and pain in bones.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76325

Momordica cochinchinensis
Cay gac

Pham Van Nguyen
Nhung cay co dau beo tai Vietnam [Fat and oil plants of Vietnam]; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1981; p 55

Abstract:
Momordica cochinchinensis produces a kind of oil, its membrane contains oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. This oil can be used as a good medicine for children.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78304

Momordica chrantia L
Muop dang

Le Tran Duc
Cay thuoc Viet Nam: Trong, hai, che bien va tri benh ban dau [Medicinal plants of Vietnam: planting, harvesting, processing and treating diseases] Agricultural Pub. House. Hanoi, 1999. p. 955-957

Abstract:
Momordica charantia is cultivated everywhere for vegetable purpose. The fruits are used as vegetable and as medicine treating a thirsty, a hot, inflammation of the throat, sore eyes; The seed preats pimples of children, the flower can treat a stomachache; The leaves treat pimples, erysipelas

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78435

Insecticidal effect of momosertatin preparation isolated from momordica cochinchinensis seeds on vegetable insect larvae.
Tac dung tru sau hai rau cua che pham Momosertatin tach tru hat gac (Momordica cochinchinensis).

Pham Thi Tran Chau; Phan Thi Ha; Mai Ngoc Toan; Trinh Hong Thai
Tap chi khoa hoc [Journal of Natural sciences] 1: 1-11 (2000)

Abstract:
The present work introduces the process for production of Momosertatin preparation (PPIs isolated from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds, belonging to the cucurbitaceae family and the results of its insecticide action (as part of the results of the research project coded KHCN-02-08). The results of the study have enabled to draw some conclusions as follws: 1). A technological process for obtaining Momosertatin from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds was elaborated, with instaleed equipment suitable to Vietnamese condition; 2). The results of experimentation of the prepatation as an insecticide for vegetable insecticide for vegetable insect larvae showed that: + Momosertatin preparation is an efficacious insecticide against second and third instar larvae of spodoptera litura fab and Plutella xylostella, inhibiting their growth, causing a strong deterrence to larvae destroying vegetable. The leaves treated by Momosertatin, motality of larvae was more than 60% for both laboratory and field experimentation. Beside the inhibiting growth and destroying capability on young larvae, Momosertatin exerts a negative action on the pupa phase, the butterfly phase (decreasing the proportion of pupation, pupa weight, the proportion of butterfly formation).

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NO. 75945

Lipid composition of Momordica (Momordica cochinensis Lour.) seeds of Vietnam.
Thanh phan lipid cua hat gac o Vietnam.

Pham Quoc Long; ao
Tap chi Khoa hoc: Khoa hoc Tu nhien[Journal of Sciences: Natural Sciences] 14 (4): 1-7 (1998).

Abstract:
The oil content and the lipid composition of the seeds of Momordica cochinensis Lour. have been investigated. The obtained results indicate that: The content of total lipid is 32.9% of the seed coat, or 52.5% of hard coat free seed weight; the total lipid of Momordica seeds somprises 96.3% of glycerids, 2.5% of polar lipid and 1% of the other lipid classes. The major classes of phospholipid are PC, PE, PG, PA and PS; the main differences between Momordica seed lipids and lipids of the other studied Cucurbiatceae seeds are the predominance of saturated acids (55.8%) and the lower content of unsaturated acids (35%).

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