Myristica fragrans Houtt
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NO. 68562

Insect infestation of nutmeg stored in Indonesia


Wikardi, EW; Siswanto; Munaan, A
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

BIOTROP Special Publication 45: 173-176 (1992)

Abstract:
Insect infestations were monitored in nutmeg stored in Cianjur and Bogor, West Java, and in Manado, North Sulawesi. The major coleoptera pests were Araecerus sp., Oryzaephilus sp., Tribolium sp. and Stegobium sp. This paper outlined the pest control measures currently used and made suggestions for improvements to protect this valuable export commodity.

Availability :
Library; Clearing House of Information; SEAMEO-BIOTROP; Jl. Raya Tajur Km. 6; P.O. Box 116; Bogor 16001; Indonesia; phone: (62) (251) 323 848, 319 422, 384 379; fax: (62) (251) 326 851
Email: info@biotrop.org




NO. 100230

Processing of wine from nutmeg pericarps


Imanuel, E; Savitri, HT; Karmawati, E; Sumangat, D
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops (CRIIC); Bogor; Indonesia

Industrial Crops Research Journal 6 (1): 38-40 (1993)

Abstract:
Processing of wine from nutmeg pericarps as an effort to maximize the utilization of nutmeg pericarps was studied from January until May 1992. The fresh and unfresh pericarps were processed after stored for 7 days and fermented for 10, 15 and 20 days. Data were taken by analyzing the acidity, alcohol and sugar content of nutmeg-wine. The results indicated that fermentation period was significantly affected alcohol content. The highest alcohol content (2.86%) was obtained from 20 days of fermentation. While the acidity and sugar content were not significantly different.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67351

Nutmeg cultivation
Budidaya tanaman pala

Lubis, MY
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Perkembangan Penelitian Tanaman Pala dan Kayumanis [Research Development on Nutmeg and Cinnamon] 8 (1): 8-23 (1992)

Abstract:
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is a plant of Indonesian origin, more precisely of Banda islands, the Moluccas. At present, Indonesia is the main producing country amounting to 70-75% of the world's products, with an export value worth at US $ 32 327 570 in 1987. In Indonesia, about 98.84% of the nutmegs are produced at small holdings in traditional way. The products may be in the forms of seeds, maces and essential oil. Nutmeg cultivation requires stable climatic conditions, especially during its growing periods, which is categorized under A, B and C climatic types of Schmidt and Ferguson. The types are influenced by high rainfall, i.e. 1757 - 4880 mm annually. Nutmeg plants grow well at altitudes between 0 - 540 m asl., on sandy or loamy soils. Nutmeg is usually planted at the begining or end of rainy seasons. Planting distance ranges from 9 m x 9 m, 10 m x 9 m to 12 m x 12 m depending on local conditions. Fertilizers are needed to produce good yields. Furthermore, added values could be obtained through good handling after harvest.

Availability :
Library; Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; Sekip Unit I; Yogyakarta 55281; Indonesia; phone: (62) (274) 902 166; fax: (62) (274) 563 062
Email: jsoilenv@faperta.ugm.ac.id




NO. 67354

Post-harvest handling of nutmeg
Pasca panen pala

Risfaheri; Mulyono, E
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Perkembangan Penelitian Tanaman Pala dan Kayumanis [Research Development on Nutmeg and Cinnamon] 8 (1): 31-42 (1992)

Abstract:
Nutmeg export from Indonesia in majority is in the form of dried nuts and maces, and only in small quantity in the form of essential oil. The dried nuts and maces have good quality if they are harvested at the ripe age and processed on the right condition. To improve nutmeg quality from Indonesia in international markets, nutmeg exported should only be in the form of dried nuts and maces of good quality, whereas less quality products should be distilled for oil production. The majority of nutmeg farmers in Indonesia only utilize the nuts and maces for nut and mace products. The pericarp is seldom utilized although the technology is already available. The pericarp can be processed into food products, i.e. candy, juice, jam and jelly. Optimal utilization of nutmeg fruits and their product diversification would help increase the value and market demand and intensify labour, also improves farmers' sustainability against unpredicted fluctuation of nutmeg price.

Availability :
Library; Faculty of Agriculture; Gadjah Mada University; Sekip Unit I; Yogyakarta 55281; Indonesia; phone: (62) (274) 902 166; fax: (62) (274) 563 062
Email: jsoilenv@faperta.ugm.ac.id




NO. 106746

Physical development, viability and composition of phenolic compound of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seeds
Perkembangan fisik, viabilitas dan komposisi senyawa fenol benih pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Utami, NW; Murningsih, T; Sutarno, H
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia

Laporan Teknik; Proyek Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Pendayagunaan Biota Darat Tahun 1995/1996 [Technical Project Report 1995/1996: Research, Development and Utilization of Terrestrial Biota]; Bogor, Puslitbang Biologi-LIPI, 1996; p 102-109

Abstract:
By the time of fruiting, the ovary develops into fruit and the ovule becomes seed. The seed begins to show up as characterised by soft and white seed coat with white sticky aril, average seed weight was 13.52 g and the moisture content 86.6%. The characteristics of unmature seed was brownish white seed coat, sticky red aril, with average seed weight of 15.59 g; moisture content was 85.5%. The premature seed was characterised by the firm, whitish black seed coat, bright red aril with average seed weight of 17.59 g and moisture content of 31%. Results of a Tetrazolyum Test showed that seed viability of both the preunmature and unmature stages was 0%, while the viability of the premature stage was 60% and the mature seed had viability of 95%. The composition of phenolic compound on each stage of seed developments was discussed.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 106750

Essential oil contents in the developing nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) fruits
Kandungan minyak atsiri pada perkembangan buah pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Siregar, HM; Murningsih, T
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia

Laporan Teknik; Proyek Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Pendayagunaan Biota Darat Tahun 1995/1996 [Technical Project Report 1995/1996: Research, Development and Utilization of Terrestrial Biota]; Bogor, Puslitbang Biologi-LIPI, 1996; p.146-157

Abstract:
Nutmeg fruit development could be devided into four stages, i.e. preyoung, young, premature and mature stages. Essential oil was isolated from the fruit by hydrodestilation system, while its composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. Preyoung fruits with green skin, white seed coat and, sticky aril, had essential oil contents of 6.00% consisting of 12 compounds, 3 compounds of which were of medium levels (13.17-26.25%), while the others of low levels (8.08-13.16%). Young fruits marked by green skin, white seed coat and, sticky red aril, had essential oil contents of 11.50%, consisting of 11 compounds with a great level of variations, i.e. compound q (31.79%), a (13.75%) and others (0.08-13.16%). Premature fruits marked by green fruit skin, blackish hard seed with light red aril, had essential oil contents of 0.49%, consisting of 13 compounds, i.e. 4 compounds of medium levels (16.66-13.68%), while the others of low levels (11.67-0.54%). Mature fruits marked by hard fruit skin with yellow colour, black hard seed, had essential oil contents of 0.75% consisting of 17 compounds, q (39.34%) and the other compounds were of low levels. There were 8 compounds, which always appeared from preyoung until mature stages.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 50288

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 13. Spices


de Guzman, CC (ed); Siemonsma, JS (ed)
Department of Horticulture; College of Agriculture; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; the Philippines

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1999; 400 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with the spices of South-East Asia. Spices are defined as those aromatic plants and their parts, fresh or dried, whole or ground, that are primarily used to impart flavour and fragrance to foods and drinks. The term is used in a wide sense and includes the culinary herbs. The volume complements the PROSEA volume 'Essential-oil plants' that deals with aromatic plants whose main use is for the extraction and use of essential oils. Spices are indispensable in the culinary art, used to create dishes that reflect the history, the culture and the geography of a country. Well-known examples are curry powder, houng-liu (five-spice powder), pizza herbs and 'fines herbes'. Spices, spice oils and spice oleoresins are also indispensable in the food and beverage manufacturing industry, the perfumery and cosmetic industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Some spices and derivatives possess antioxidant and antibiotic properties, which has increased interest in the commercial exploitation of aromatic plants for food preservation and crop protection. With the growing demand for natural and organic products and the increasing clamour to dispense with synthetic flavours and artificial food colouring, the future for spices seems bright. In this volume, 61 important spices are treated in 50 papers, and 65 species of minor importance are described briefly. A further 150 species, not primarily but secondarily used as a spice, are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of spices. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 66379

Comparison of transpiration rate and stomatal density and some leaf features in black pepper, clove, cinnamon and nutmeg


Darwati, I; de Guzman, CC; Hasanah, M; Rachmat, EM
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Journal of Spice and Medicinal Crops 1 (1): 31-36 (1992)

Abstract:
A comparative study on transpiration rate and stomata and leaf features was made on the following spice crops: black pepper (Piper nigrum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum, syn. Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). Black pepper exhibited the highest rate of transpiration, followed in decreasing rate by clove, cinnamon and nutmeg. Values of stomatal density did not parallel the trend observed in transpiration rates, black pepper exhibiting one of lowest and cinnamon the highest stomatal density. This observation was essentially not altered even if stomatal count was determined on per unit leaf basis. Stomatal pore length was shortest in clove and longest in cinnamon, intermediate values were obtained for nutmeg and black pepper. Among the leaf parameters measured, only specific leaf area showed some positive bearing with transpiration rate. Scanning electron micrographs revealed detailed stomata and leaf features which could account for the variation in transpiration rates of the four spice crops.

Availability :
Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Ilmiah - LIPI [Scientific Documentation and Information Centre; Indonesian Institute of Sciences]; Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto 10; Jakarta 12190; Indonesia; phone: (62) (21) 5733 465, 5250 719, 5251 063; fax: (62) (21) 5733 467
Email: info@pdii.lipi.co.id, admin@pdii.lipi.co.id




NO. 50766

Myristica fragrans Houtt.


Flach, M; Tjeenk Willink, M
Selterskampweg 27, 6721 AR Bennekom, the Netherlands

Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 13: Spices; de Guzman, C.C. & Siemonsma, J.S. (eds); Paperback edition; Bogor, PROSEA Foundation, 1999; p 143-148

Abstract:
A comprehensive knowledge on Myristica fragrans (Synonyms: Myristica officinalis, Myristica moschata, Myristica aromatica), reviewed from selected literature sources, is presented.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 71511

Amomum and Cardamom
Sa nhan, Dau khau

Do Tat Loi
Association for Scientific and Technical Diffusion of Vietnam

Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc Viet nam [Medicinal plants and medicaments in Vietnam]. Vol. 6; Hanoi, Sciences Publishing House, 1965; p 290-309

Abstract:
Seven species of medicinal plants of which six are of Zingiberaceae, and one is of Myristicaceae are used as medicaments, tonics, especially to stimulate the digestion. Their botanic description, geographic distribution, properties, harvesting, handling after harvest, medication, and uses are described. These seven galenic medicinal plants are commonly called Amomum - Cardamom.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 14182

Sweetened nutmeg; a home industry of Phangnga Province
Chan-thet phut uttasahakam nai khrua ruan sin kha phun muang chak Phangnga

Kaeosong, K; Mukkham, K
Kheha Kan Kaset [House Agricultural Magazine] 16 (4): 139-145 (1992)

Abstract:
Preparation and processing of nutmeg fruits for sweetened product was described along with brief medicinal properties.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 108577

Diversity and potential of aromatic plants used as traditional medicines in West Java
Keanekaragaman dan potensi tanaman aromatik yang digunakan sebagai bahan obat tradisional di Jawa Barat

Ramlan, A
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjajaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Nasional I; Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik [Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants]; Bogor, 10-12 Oktober 1995; D. Gandawidjaja et al (eds), Bogor, Simpul Nasional APINMAP Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI & UNESCO; 1996; p 544-550

Abstract:
The potential and diversity of aromatic plants in Java have been studied. Some aromatic plants are also used in traditional medicine. It was noted that 13 species are cultivated in plantations, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), lengkuas (Alpinia galanga), turmeric (Curcuma longa), galangale (Kaempferia galanga), pepper (Piper nigrum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni), cardamon (Amomum cardamomum), patchouly (Pogostemon cablin), vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), citronella grass (Andropogon nardus), and cananga (Canangium odoratum). Other planted species are green "gandapura" (Gaultheria leucocarpa), cemara kipas/pinus (Thuja orientalis), cempaka (Michelia champaka), sedap malam flower (Polianthes tuberosa), melati/jasmine (Jasminum sambac), lokat mala (Artemisia vulgaris), coriander (Coriandrum sativum).

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 53630

Analysis of volatile active compounds of essential oils of some aromatical plants possessing inhibitory properties on mice locomotor activity


Muchtaridi; Apriyantono, A; Subarnas, A; Budijanto, S
Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings International Symposium on Biomedicines, Bogor, 18-19 September 2003; Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, 2004; p 270-287

Abstract:
An effect of essential oils of kemangi (Ocimum americanum) leaves, cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) leaves, nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds and ki lemo (Litsea cubeba) barks on locomotor activity of mice has been studied by means of a Wheel Cage method. Active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were given by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 ml. The result showed that the four essential oils gave an inhibitory effect on locomotor activity. Inhalation of essential oils of kemangi leaves, cajuput leaves, nutmeg seeds and ki lemo barks decreased locomotor activity with the percent inhibition up to 57.64, 63.05, 68.62, and 60.75 %, respectively.|Identification and quantification of active compounds in blood plasma were carried out with GC/MS analysis after half an hour, one hour, and two hours inhalation. The blood plasma of three mice were collected in heparin tube, isolated and concentrated by the C-18 column (100 mg-Sep-Pak) eluted with methanol and bi-distilled water (60:40).|The major volatile compounds identified from blood plasma of the mice after inhalation of the essential oils were terpenic alcohol groups; linalool and a-terpineol were dominant in the essential oil of kemangi leaves, cajuput leaves, and ki lemo barks; 4-terpineol was dominant in the essential oils of kemangi leaves, cajuput leaves, and nutmeg seeds; citronellol, nerol, geraniol, isopulegol and neo-isopulegol were dominant only in the blood plasma of mice inhaling the essential oil of ki lemo barks. Benzaldehyde, citronellal, citral, geranial, terpenic aldehyde were detected in the blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the essential oils of cajuput leaves and ki lemo barks. Ether or methoxi compounds identified were 1,8-cineol found in the blood plasma of mice inhaling essential oils of cajuput leaves and ki lemo barks, whereas safrol and myristicin were detected in the blood plasma of mice inhaling essential oil of nutmeg seeds. Linalyl acetate was detected in the blood plasma after inhalation of the essential oils of kemangi leaves, cajuput leaves and ki lemo barks. Other esters, methyl palmitate, methyl myristate, methyl oleate, and methyl stearate were found in the blood plasma of mice after inhalation of essential oil of nutmeg seeds. All these volatile compounds were accumulated after one hour inhalation and decreased after two hours inhalation. Concentrations of the target compounds in the blood plasma were relatively at low level (µg/ml or ppm).|In conclusion, the volatile compounds identified in the blood plasma have correlation with depressive properties of essential oils given by inhalation. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 66878

'Pusaka' and literature on traditional medicinal plants in Java
Pusaka dan pustaka tumbuhan jamu tradisional Jawa

Sutarno, H; Danimihardja, S
PROSEA Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 45-54

Abstract:
As medicinally potential heritages, 77 species of raw material for 33 kinds of medicinal herbs were studied. Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon aristatus, Citrus aurantifolia and Lepiniopsis ternatensis were among other popular medicinal herbs. At least each species had been used as a herb for the remedy of 5 illness. There were species with their commodity status as spices, but also popular as herbs, e.g. Myristica fragrans, Foeniculum vulgare and Curcuma domestica. Plant processing as raw material for "jamu" did not correlated with the usage level as "jamu", but were more influenced by their status. The number of literature reference per species of the non-medicinal plants but with medicinal potential was on the average 24.6, compared to only 2.3 of the medicinal plants used as "jamu" herbs. Subjects of study commonly discussed in literature were vernacular names, usage, maintenance, and ecology, while the aspects of production, origin and distribution, property, growth and development, propagation, breeding, and post-harvest handling were still rarely mentioned. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67547

Utilization of spice crops in the life of Indonesian communities
Pemanfaatan tanaman rempah dalam kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia

Hadipoentyanti, E; Rostiana, O
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani [Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Cisarua-Bogor, 19-20 February 1992; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Perpustakaan Nasional R.I., 1992; p 375-380

Abstract:
Indonesia has been known as the center of genetic diversity of spice crops for centuries. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmani) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) are very important in the world market for a long time. The existing variation in the utilization of spices throughout the country should be recorded and preserved and the crops as well.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67663

Comparison of transpiration rate, stomatal density and some leaf features in black pepper, clove, cinnamon and nutmeg
Perbandingan laju transpirasi, kepadatan stomata dan beberapa kenampakan daun pada lada, cengkeh, kayu manis dan pala

Darwati, I; de Guzman, CC; Hasanah, M; Rachmat, EM
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor, Indonesia

Journal of Spices and Medicinal Crops 1 (1): 31-36 (1992)

Abstract:
A comparative study on the transpiration rate, stomata and leaf features was made on the following spice crops: black pepper (Piper nigrum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). Black pepper exhibited the highest rate of transpiration, followed in decreasing rate by clove, cinnamon and nutmeg. Values of stomatal density did not parallel to the trend observed in transpiration rates. Black pepper exhibited on of the lowest and cinnamon the highest stomatal density. This observation was essentially not altered even if stomatal count was determined per unit leaf basis. Stomatal pore length was shortest in clove and longest in cinnamon, intermediate values were obtained for nutmeg and black pepper. Among the leaf parameters measured, only specific leaf area showed some positive bearing with transpiration rate. Scanning electron micrographs revealed detailed stomata and leaf features which could account for the variation in transpiration rates of the four spice crops. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 67353

Pests and diseases of nutmeg in Indonesia
Hama dan penyakit pala di Indonesia

Tombe, M; Wiratno
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Perkembangan Penelitian Tanaman Pala dan Kayumanis [Development of Research on Nutmeg and Cinnamon] 8 (1): 24-30 (1992)

Abstract:
The main products of nutmeg are seed, mace and nutmeg oil which are strategic means of income for the country. Pests and diseases are serious problems in nutmeg cultivation. Pests which have been reported are Oryzaephilus mercator, Araecerus fasticulatus and Batocera hercules. While some diseases which have been reported attacking the plant in Indonesia are dry rot (Coryneum myristicae), wet rot (Coletotrichum gloeosporioides), wilt disease (not yet identified), white thread (Corticium stevensii) and anthracnosa (Colletotrichum sp.). Integrated control through action of sanitation, chemical and cultural techniques can be applied. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University
Email: admin@lib.ugm.ac.id




NO. 67352

Preparing nutmeg planting materials
Pengadaan bahan tanaman pala

Hadat, EAM; Syakir, M
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Perkembangan Penelitian Tanaman Pala dan Kayumanis [Development of Research on Nutmeg and Cinnamon] 8 (1): 1-7 (1992)

Abstract:
Some factors responsible for the decline of nutmeg price are product quality of uncertain varieties, unproper cultivation, damage caused by pests and diseases, and careless post harvest processing. The superior quality Banda cultivar, originated from Banda island of Maluku, has already been cultivated in several places in Indonesia, Malaysia, Granada and India. Other cultivars, such as Patani, Bacan, Ambon are also widely cultivated in Maluku, Sulawesi and Java, but unfortunately the materials were not properly selected. Consequently, the products are graded as low quality. It is still a problem to identity male and female plants at young stage when the propagation is done by seeds. Therefore, the understanding of good mother plants would lead to better alternatives, input efficiency and better product quality. The technology of vegetative propagation seems promising in solving the above problems. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University
Email: admin@lib.ugm.ac.id




NO. 67360

Nutmeg
Pala

Hadad, EAM
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Perkembangan Penelitian Plasma Nuftah Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Advances in Research on Spice and Medicinal Plant Germplasms] 8 (2): 26-38 (1992)

Abstract:
Nutmeg germplasm with its genetic variability is available only in Indonesia; it is an invaluable asset for the country. Nutmeg has an important economic value. Nutmeg is one of the potential export commodities and a main source of income for farmers in the Moluccan islands and Irian Jaya. Nutmeg is indigenous to Indonesia; it has a wide genetic variation in the Moluccan islands (Ternate and Tidore) and Irian Jaya. For those reasons the germplasm of nutmeg varieties and related species are important to be collected and conserved. The distribution of different types of nutmeg has been made since the Dutch colonialism to different regions within the country and to foreign countries. The Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops in Bogor has collected 39 types (450 trees) in Cicurug, Sukabumi. However, The materials have not been utilized for varieties improvement. The outstanding trees in the Moluccan islands have been identified. Those trees could be used and recommended by DGE for source of seed. There are different types of nutmeg for nutmeg development, such as those in Banda, Siau, Patani, Ternate and Tidore. Strategies for conservation and utilization of nutmeg germplasms have been carried out in an integrated programme. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University
Email: admin@lib.ugm.ac.id




NO. 101991

Knowledge on traditional medicinal treatment in Ambon and the Moluccas
Pengetahuan tentang pengobatan tradisional di daerah Ambon dan Maluku

Roemantyo, HS
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al. (eds); Buku 1; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; p 77-88

Abstract:
Traditional medication is part of the daily life of the Ambonese, and in Ambon several traditional medicine recipes are still used up to now. In the area seven methods of therapy can be distinguished. In the 17th century, Rumphius published a series of book entitled "Herbarium Amboinense", introducing plant species found in Ambon and the surrounding areas. Besides, medicinal plants used by the local people for traditional curing of diseases were also discussed in the book. Recent observation and inventory of medicinal plants in that area showed that about 67 species of plant were used for traditional therapy. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological analyses of plants used for traditional medicines and the occurrence of plants in nature, their habitat and habitus are discussed in the related paper. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 101990

Role of "sasi" on the utilization and conservation of spices and medicinal plants in the Moluccas
Peran sasi dalam pemanfaatan dan pelestarian beberapa tanaman rempah dan obat di Maluku

Hadad, EAM; Iskandar, T; Lukman, W
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al. (eds); Buku 1; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; p 71-76

Abstract:
The dependency of human beings on their environment has been known since our ancestors era. The social awareness in this case can still be seen e.g. in the form of "sasi" in several areas in the Moluccas. A case study was conducted in Mamala village, Ambon and Makian, Bacan. "Sasi" is a custom to preserve natural environment. By agreement of the village society, fruit harvesting time is decided, including its sanctions for the members of the society who do not obey, beside other rules. For example, the farmers are only allowed to harvest nutmeg fruits after there is an announcement that on average nutmeg fruits are already mature and can be picked up. Because of the charisma of the custom chief and the obedience of the society, the environment and maintenance of spices and medicinal crops look well developed. Spices and medicinal crops in this area are the main crops and become one of the main source of income. Therefore, its sustainability and wise use can be secured. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 107800

Research on oleoresin extraction of nutmeg seeds by using some solvents
Penelitian ekstraksi oleoresin biji pala dengan beberapa pelarut

Widardo, SH; Kaseke, HFG; Mandei, Y; Tambuwun, TR; Hartanto, D; Mewengkang, F; Tora, L; Wangka, F
Manado Industrial Institute, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah BIMN (Balai Industri Manado) [Scientific Journal of the Manado Industrial Institute] (8): 18-23 (1995/1996)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of solvents and extraction time on the oleoresin content of nutmeg. The experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments consisted of A1, A2 and A3, respectively as benzene, hexane and petroleum ether, and the extraction consisted of B1, B2 and B3, respectively during 2, 4 and 6 hours. The result showed that hexane with the extraction time of 6 hours gave the highest output of oleoresin, namely 16.51%. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry, Library




NO. 108145

Price analysis of Indonesian nutmeg on the international market
Analisis harga pala Indonesia di pasar Internasional

Wahyudi, A; Indrawanto, C
Research Institute for Tobacco and Fibre Crops (RITFC); Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Industrial Crops Research Journal] 1 (1): 25-29 (1995)

Abstract:
Before 1987 the Indonesian nutmeg price had a negative trend, however, in the period from 1987 to 1993 the price trend was positive. This positive trend was due to better export management of nutmeg by the Indonesian Nutmeg Association (ASPIN, Asosiasi Pala Indonesia). The export management was successful in controlling the price, because Indonesia had a high market share (around 70%) for nutmeg on the international market. This research analysed the behaviour of the Indonesian nutmeg price on the international market and its determinants. Multiple regression analysis of simultaneous equation system was used to analyze the behaviour. The results indicated that Indonesian nutmeg price on the international market was determined by the amount of Indonesia's export of nutmeg, Indonesian nutmeg stock on the international market, Grenada's export of nutmeg and export management by ASPIN. However, the export management of ASPIN could not control the price effectively any longer because of the surplus in the Indonesian nutmeg production for export which made the Indonesia's bargaining position on the international market weak. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 106924

Research on the utilization of nutmeg fruit flesh for syrup production
Penelitian pemanfaatan daging buah pala untuk pembuatan sirup

Salmon, AM; Simanjuntak, HMT; Harmain, E
Manado Industrial Institute; Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah BIMN (Balai Industri Manado) [Scientific Journal of the Manado Industrial Institute] (4): 35-39 (1991/92)

Abstract:
An experiment has been carried out to utilize nutmeg fruit flesh for syrup production. It was conducted by using simple analysis with varieties, total concentration of sugar (55, 65 and 70%), concentration of preservatives (0, 100, 150, 200 mg/l), storage time (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months) and organoleptic test. The organoleptic test on the taste, odour and colour indicated that the most likely best result achieved after 4 months storage was the treatment with total concentration of sugar 70% (A3) and without preservative (B0). (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry, Documentation and Information Unit Library
Email: abenie@indo.net.id




NO. 107091

Effect of deterpenation process on the medicinal quality of nutmeg oil
Pengaruh proses deterpensi terhadap mutu obat minyak biji pala

Sait, S; Satyaputra, I
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor, Indonesia

Warta IHP (Industri Hasil Pertanian) [Agro-based Industry Newsletter] 12 (1-2): 41-43 (1995)

Abstract:
To study the effect of deterpenation process on the medicinal quality of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) oil, alcoholic extraction as well as chromatographic separation technique of deterpenation were employed on some crude nutmeg oil. Result of the experiment concluded that either the alcoholic extraction or the chromatographic separation technique of deterpenation caused a downgrade of the medicinal quality of nutmeg oil due to an increase in myristicin concentration. The former technique gave a complete removal of monoterpene hydrocarbon and the latter technique gave only partial removal. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: ariebud@indo.net.id




NO. 107088

Effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) ripe fruit flesh treatment on the quality of syrup produced
Pengaruh perlakuan daging buah pala tua (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) terhadap mutu sirup yang dihasilkannya

Djubaedah, E; Tiara; Astuti, P
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor, Indonesia

Warta IHP (Industri Hasil Pertanian) [Agro-based Industry Newsletter] 12 (1-2): 25-29 (1995)

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to find out the optimum condition for soaking nutmeg fruit flesh in salt solution before being processed into syrup. The nutmeg flesh used was of fully ripe and 3/4 ripe, while the salt solution was 0, 5 and 10%. The soaking was conducted for 0, 3 and 6 days. The nutmeg syrup produced was stored for 0, 3 and 6 weeks and the analysis was done for its sugar content, acidity, mould, yeast and for organoleptic test. The analysis done on nutmeg flesh consisted of moisture, ash, fat, protein and crude fiber contents. The result showed that syrup made of nutmeg soaked in plain water or 5% salt solution did not show mould or yeast growth. During 6 weeks of storage the acidity increased and the sugar content decreased. The organoleptic test showed that the highest score was obtained from syrup made of fully ripe or 3/4 ripe nutmeg flesh soaked in 5% salt solution. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: ariebud@indo.net.id




NO. 108590

Nutmeg germplasm and efforts for its conservation
Plasma nutfah pala dan usaha pelestariannya

Hadad, MEA; Bermawie, N; Iskandar, T; Lukman, W
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Nasional I Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik [Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants], Bogor, 10-12 Oktober 1995; Gandawidjaja, D et al. (eds); Bogor, Simpul Nasional APINMAP Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI & Unesco, 1996; p 7329-748

Abstract:
Nutmeg is one of the economically important commodities. Nutmeg is native to Indonesia with Maluku and Irian Jaya as the centres of origin. There are 8 types of nutmeg used for spices, essential oils, astrigent, cosmetics and medicines; another 30 types are used for other purposes. Nutmeg cultivation is widely spread all over Indonesia with Maluku, North Sulawesi and Irian Jaya as the centres of production. Cultivation of nutmeg in these areas is predominantly done by smallholders and fishermen, without proper cultural practices, spacing patterns, and using seeds of unknown origin. Although economically less profitable, nutmeg germplasm is conserved indirectly. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 108530

Morphology of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed maturity as indicator for essential oil harvest
Morfologi ketuaan biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) sebagai dasar pemanenan hasil minyak atsiri

Sutarno, H; Utami, NW; Hartutiningsih
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Nasional I Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik [Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants], Bogor, 10-12 Oktober 1995; Gandawidjaja, D et al. (eds); Bogor, Simpul Nasional APINMAP Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI & Unesco, 1996; p 144-155

Abstract:
At the pre-young phase nutmeg seed appeared soft with white and sticky mace, with higher essential oil contents, i.e.: s (RT=45.77) = 35.89% and c (RT=12.56) = 27.89%, medium contents: b (RT=10.45) = 15.85%. The other 14 essential oil contents were < 10%. At the young phase, the seed coat was rather hard and white with sticky mace. The higher essential oil contents, i.e.: s (RT=45.77) = 23.07% and c (RT=12.56) = 38.64%, the medium essential oil contents, i.e.: b (RT=10.43) = 16.97%, and the other 14 essential oil contents were low (< 10%). Pre-manure seeds were black and white and hard with higher essential oil contents, i.e. c (RT=12.56) = 27.29% and s (RT=45.77) = 46.85%. The other 19 essential oil contents were < 10%. The higher essential oil contents of mace were b (RT=12.98) = 29.65%, with medium contents 1 (RT=25.39) = 12.07%, 1 (RT=46.15) = 14.33% and a (RT=10.99) = 18.95%, while the other 8 contents were <10%. At mature phase, seed is hard with blackish red mace easy to separate. The higher essential oil contents, i.e.: c (RT=12.56) = 32.83% and s (RT=45.77) = 36.19%, the medium contents, i.e.: b (RT=10.43) = 10.59%, while the other 14 essential oil contents were < 10%. The higher mace essential oil contents, i.e.: a (RT=10.99) = 25.28% and b (RT=12.98) = 38.31%, the medium one: 1 (RT=46.18) = 11.20%, while the other 7 essential oil contents were low. By hydrodestilation for 7 hours of pre-young, young, pre-mature and mature seeds, the essential oil contents obtained were 9.00, 10.00, 10.70 and 5.00 ml/ 100 g dry weight, respectively, while from pre-mature and mature mace, i.e.: 12.20 and 13.75 ml/100 g dry weight, respectively. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 108533

The effect of fruit development of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) on the essential oil content
Pengaruh perkembangan buah pala (Myristica fragans Houtt.) terhadap kandungan minyak atsiri

Siregar, HM; Murningsih, T
Treub Laboratory, Research and Development Institute for Botany; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Nasional I Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik [Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants], Bogor, 10-12 Oktober 1995; Gandawidjaja, D et al. (eds); Bogor, Simpul Nasional APINMAP Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI & Unesco, 1996; p 164-173

Abstract:
In this study the maturity level of nutmeg was divided into four stages, i.e. pre-young, young, pre-mature and mature. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation method, while the composition was analysed by gas chromatography. The pre-young fruits with green peel, white seed coat and sticky mace, have essential oil contents of 6.00%, consisting of 12 compounds, of which 3 compounds had medium level contents (13.17-25.25%), while the other had low level contents (0.08-13.16%). The young fruits were marked by green skin, white seed coat, sticky mace, with essential oil contents of 11.50% and consisting of 11 compounds with varying contents of q (31.79%), a (13.75%) and others (0.08-15.16%). Pre-mature fruits were marked by green fruit skin, blackish hard seed with light red mace; the essential oil contents was 1.49%, consisting of 13 compounds, of which 4 compounds had medium essential oil content levels (16.66-13.68%); while the other compoiunds had low level contents (11.67-0.54%). Mature fruits were marked by hard skin of yellow colour and black seed, the essential oil content was 0.75%, consisting of 17 compounds: q (39.34%). The other compounds had low level contents. There were compounds which always appeared since pre-young until mature stage. (Rewritten authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 25220

Methods of sowing nutmeg seeds
Kaedah penyemaian biji pala

Shukor, N; Abd Rahman Azmil, I
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Pelbagai Tanaman [Miscellaneous Crop Technology] 6: 31-34 (1990)

Abstract:
Percentage and germination time of nutmeg seeds in the nursery can be improved by sowing the seeds as soon as possible after harvesting, removing the seed coat and using a sand bed. One-day-old seeds, sown without the seed coat, gave a high germination rate of about 80%. This germination rate decreased to 60% and subsequently to 1% when the seeds were sown 7 and 14 days after harvesting.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 108574

Viability and composition of phenolic compound during physical development of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seeds
Viabilitas dan komposisi senyawa fenol selama perkembangan benih pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Utami, NW; Murningsih, T; Sutarno, H
Research and Development Institute for Botany, Research and Development Centre for Biology, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Nasional I Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik [Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants], Bogor, 10-12 Oktober 1995; Gandawidjaja, D et al. (eds); Bogor, Simpul Nasional APINMAP Puslitbang Biologi - LIPI & Unesco, 1996; p 486-494

Abstract:
Fruiting of nutmeg occurs since the process of fertilization. The seed development is divided into 4 stages as follows: pre-immature, which is recognized by the white seed, soft and sticky aril, seed weight about 13.52 g and moisture content 86.6%; immature, indicated by brownish white seed, white aril, seed weight 15.59 g and moisture content 85.5%; mature, marked by hard, whitish black seed, slightly red aril, seed weight 16.58 g and moisture content 72%; overmature is marked by hard, black seed, and dark red aril, seed weight 17.59 g and moisture content 31%. The viability of the pre-immature and immature seeds composition of the according to tetrazolium test is zero. However, the viability of mature seeds is 60% and over mature seeds is 95%. The composition of the phenolic compound of seeds due to the stage of maturity is discussed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 25221

Potential of wedge grafting for nutmeg
Potensi cantuman baji untuk pokok pala

Shukor, N; Yau, PY; Abd Rahman Azmil, I
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Pelbagai Tanaman [Miscellaneous Crop Technology] 6: 35-38 (1990)

Abstract:
The wedge grafting technique is the most suitable vegetative propagation technique for nutmeg as it can be easily and quickly done besides giving a satisfactory success rate. Details of the technique are discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 2628

Effect of spices on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen IFO-0224
Pengaruh rempah-rempah terhadap pertumbuhan Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen IFO-0224

Suwardin, D; Ferdian, S
Food Technology and Nutrition Department; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia

Bulletin Penelitian Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan [Food Science and Technology Research Bulletin] 3(3): 80-89(1984)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 8233

Microbiological examinations of candied fruits of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) and sugar palm (Arenga pinnata Merr.) fruits at the Elementary Schools in Pasarminggu subdistrict
Uji mikrobilogi terhadap manisan buah pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) dan buah aren (Arenga pinnata Merr.) pada Sekolah Dasar di Kecamatan Pasarminggu

Barimbing, RE
Thesis; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; Jakarta; 1989; 40p

Availability :
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Indonesia; Jakarta




NO. 12115

Toxic from medicinal plants
Phit chak samunphrai

Udomchok, M
Agricultural Toxicology Division; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

[Toxic Substances News and Report] 12(2)68-70(1985)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 13122

Spices
Phut khruang thet

Sadudi, S
Faculty of Natural Resources; Prince of Songkhla University: Thailand

Phutsat San [Plant Science Newsletter] 2(4): 1-5(1980)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 20070

Notes on extension work - October to November 1955


The Malayan Agricultural Journal 39(1): 73-86(1955)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 63719

Nutmeg sweets
Manisan pala

Anonymous
Padang Agricultural Information Service (05); 1987-1988

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural Information Service; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 64214

Improving essential oils and spices


Anonymous
Making Progress in Agro-based Industry; Introducing the Work of IRDABI; p20-22

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 67950

Disease survey on industrial crops in Indonesia


Kobayashi, T; Oniki, M; Matsumoto, K; Djiwanti, S.R; Rachmat, A; Manohara, D; Tombe, M; Wahyuno, D; Nurawan, A
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia|Jica Short-term Expert|Jica Long-term Expert

Proceedings of final seminar of the joint-study programme ATA-380 (Srengthening research and disease of industrial crops in Indonesia); Sitepu, D. (ed); Manohara, D. (ed); Oniki, M. (ed); Japan International Cooperation Agency; Agency for Agricultural Research and Development; 1992; p73-89

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 10989

Spices
Phuet khruangthet

Sadudee, S
Department of Plant Science; Prince of Songkhla University; Thailand

Phuetsartsarn [Plant Science Newsletter] 2 (4): 9-12 (1980)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 2663

Research and development of essential oils in Indonesia
Penelitian dan pengembangan minyak atsiri Indonesia

Rusli, S; Nurdjanah, N; Sudiarto; Sitepu, D; Ardi, S; Sitorus, D.T
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Special Edition on Spice and Medicinal Crops Research] (2): 10-35 (1985)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2675

Conservation and utilization of spice and medicinal crops genetic resources
Upaya pelestarian dan pemanfaatan plasma nutfah tanaman rempah dan obat

Wahid, P
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Special Edition on Spice and Medicinal Crops Research] 3 (1): 1-5 (1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3343

Exports of spices and fishery products
Ekspor rempah-rempah dan hasil perikanan

Gultom, C; Soewardji, R.I
National Export Development Board; Ministry of Commerce; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Pengawetan Makanan Dengan Iradiasi [Proceedings of Seminar on Food Preservation by Irradiation]; Soegiarto, C et al (eds.); Jakarta; 1983; p113-118

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 11966

Spices in the 6th National Soc. Econ. Devel. Plan
Phut khruang thet Samunphrai tam phaen phattana setthakit lae sangkhom haeng chat chabap thi 6 (2530-2534)

Khanaphuset, K; Raktham, S
Horticulture Research Institute; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

Journal of the Horticulture Research Institute 11 (7): 100-108 (1988)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 40282

Crops: spices


Twohig, A (ed.)
Appropriate Technology Development Institute; Lae; Papua New Guinea

Liklik buk; a sourcebook for development workers in Papua New Guinea; Lae; Liklik Buk Information Centre; PNG University of Technology; 1986; p114-121

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 3058

Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation on samples of medicinal plants and spices, I. Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare
Studi pengaruh sinar gamma pada simplisia tanaman obat dan rempah-rempah, I. Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum dan Foeniculum vulgare

Hilmy, N; Chosdu, R; Sudiro, S; Syuib, F
Centre for the Application of Isotope and Radiation-BATAN; Jakarta; Indonesia

Majalah BATAN [Journal of the National Atomic Energy Agency] 3 (6): 37-56 (1981)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 100711

Mycoflora on pepper, coriander and nutmeg seeds sold from several markets in Malang
Mikroflora pada biji pala, ketumbar dan pala dari beberapa pasar di Malang

Hastuti, U.S
Department of Biology; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Malang Institute of Teachers' Training and Educational Science; Malang; East Java; Indonesia

Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan: Peranan Mikrobiologi Dalam Industri Pangan [Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting; Roles of Microbiology in Food Industry], 10 Desember 1994; p147-152

Abstract:
Pepper, coriander and nutmeg are some kinds of spices liked by people, because it can be used as spices as well as in cosmetics industries and traditional medicines. Some kinds of molds can grow on those spice seeds and cause damage. The objective of the research was done to know the kinds of contaminant molds on the examined seeds; pepper, coriander, and nutmeg. The sample used for this research were: 100 g bought from several markets: Blimbing, Dinoyo, Oro-Oro Dowo and Pasar Besar in Malang. This research was done during the month July until September 1994. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The inoculation technique used for this research is surface-method on Czapek Agar medium and MEA medium. Molds which grow are described and identified. The result of this research showed that the kinds of contaminant molds found on pepper, coriander, and nutmeg seeds are: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. candidus, A. tamarii, A. penicilloides, A. ochraceus, Penicillium citrinum, P. variable, P. sclerotium, P. verrucosum, Rhizopus sp., Fusarium sp., and Cladosporium sp. This showed that some spesies of mold can grow on pepper, coriander, and nutmeg seeds.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 65921

Development of the study of secondary essential oils (clove, nutmeg, ginger, cubeba, cardamom, pepper)
Perkembangan penelitian minyak atsiri sekunder (cengkeh, katu, jahe, kemukus, kapolaga, lada)

Nurdjannah, N; Wahyudi, A; Risfaheri
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah & Obat [Special Edition of Spices and Medicinal Crops Research] 6 (1): 54-65 (1990)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 63638

Post-harvest handling of nutmeg
Pasca panen pala

Anonymous
Ambon Agricultural Information Service (04); 1988-1989

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural Information Service; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 62998

Current work on the essential oils and spices in Indonesia


Hamid, A; Jisbar, A
Industrial Crops Research Journal 2 (1): 16-21 (1989)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB)-LIPI; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3684

Cultivation of nutmeg
Bercocok tanam pala

Anonymous
Lampung Agricultural Information Service; Sumatera; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian, Lampung [Agricultural Information Bulletin, Lampung] (05): 3-5 (1982-1983)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 5169

Effects of blanching and addition of benzoic acid on the quality of candied nutmeg fruits (Myristica fragrans H.)
Pengaruh 'blanching' dan penambahan natrium benzoat terhadap mutu manisan pala (Myristica fragrans H.)

Laksmi, S
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agricultural Mechanization and Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1973; 108p

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 6179

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Hout.)
Pala (Myristica fragrans Hout.)

Anonymous
Bogor Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Circular LPTI [Circular of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] (33): 1-10 (no year)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 6237

Development of the utilization of nutmeg pulps in North Sulawesi
Pengembangan pendayagunaan daging buah pala di Sulawesi Utara

Salmon, A.M; Lumempouw, L; Karinda, C; Mailangkai, M; Wangka, F
Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Komunikasi Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri Manado [Communication of Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry] (68): 1-25 (1984)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 6239

Study on the improvement of nutmeg quality
Penelitian terhadap perbaikan mutu pala

Dasibu, M; Upa, B.B; Pangkerego, D; Mambo, J; Mailangkai, M; Agustina, P
Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Komunikasi Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri Manado [Communication of Manado Research and Development Institute for Industry] (59): 1-30 (1983)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 9904

Study on nutmeg wastes in North Sulawesi
Penelitian limbah pala di Sulawesi Utara

Azad, M; Sembel, D.T; Suharmadi, M; Roeroe, H.J.M; Kembuan, H.T; Lohoo, F.R; Mailangkay, M.M
Komunikasi Balai Penelitian Kimia Manado [Communication of the Manado Chemical Research Institute] (1): 1-30 (1975)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 11786

Diseases of nutmeg
Rok khong chanthet

Silayoi, I
Kasetsart Extension Journal 33 (1): 20-23 (1988)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 60513

Cultivating nutmeg (Myristica spp.)
Budidaya tanaman pala (Myristica spp.)

Martono
Thesis; Magelang; Faculty of Agriculture; Tidar University; 1990; 26p

Availability :
Tidar University; Magelang; Central Java; Indonesia




NO. 63163

Effects of harvesting stages and distillation periods of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Hout) seeds on its oil content
Pengaruh tingkat pemetikan dan lama penyulingan biji pala (Myristica fragrans Hout) terhadap kadar minyak pala

Yulida, E
S1 thesis; Padang; Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; 1979; p1-47

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; Padang; West Sumatera; Indonesia




NO. 65464

Analysis of the specific chemical components of pepper (Piper nigrum) and the effects upon the sperm motility
Analisa komponen kimia spesifik lada (Piper nigrum) dan pengaruhnya terhadap motilitas spermatozoa

Thenawidjaja; Situmorang, P.Z; Purba, S
Forum Pasca Sarjana [Postgraduate Forum] (2): 24-35 (1987)

Availability :
Manggala Wanabakti Library; Jakarta; Indonesia




NO. 65752

Introduction to various nutmeg germplasms in North Maluku
Mengenal berbagai plasma nutfah pala di daerah Maluku Utara

Hadad, M; Hamid, A
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium I Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri Buku VII [Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on the Result of Research and Development of Industrial Crops; Book VII]; Tanaman Minyak Atsiri Caringin Bogor 25-27 Juli 1989; Puslitbang Tanaman Industri; Seri Pengembangan (14): 1213-1222 (1990)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65971

The analisys of specific chemical components of pepper (Piper nigrum) and the effects upon sperm motility


Thenawidjaja, M; Situmorang, P.Z; Purba, S
Department of Food Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia|Research Institute for Animal Production (RIAP); Ciawi; Bogor; Indonesia

Indonesian Journal of Tropical Agriculture 1 (1): 32-26 (1989)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 370

A review on problems of the quality of essential oils from several areas
Tinjauan masalah mutu minyak atsiri dari beberapa daerah

Muchlis, NA; Rusli, S
Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] (28): 51-58 (1978)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 839

Identification of Indonesian essential oils by isothermal gas chromatography
Penentuan identifikasi minyak-minyak atsiri Indonesia dengan cara khromatografi gas isothermal

Salja
Komunikasi Balai Penelitian Kimia Bogor [Communication of Bogor Research Institute for Chemistry] (202): 1-20 (1976)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1077

Research on processing development of nutmeg and mace
Penelitian pengembangan pengolahan pala dan fuli

Somaatmadja, D
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia

Komunikasi [Communication] (215): 1-18 (1984)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1080

Technological development of nutmeg oil distillation: part I: potential and quality in the northern part of Sumatra
Pengembangan teknologi penyulingan minyak pala; bagian I: potensi dan mutu di Sumatera Bagian Utara

Edison, DB; Putra, M; Alhamra
Medan; Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri [Research and Development Institute for Industry]; 1982; IIp; 22p; DP/BPPI/BI.Md/34/82

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1506

Effect of the structure of distillation layer and duration of distillation on the yield and characteristics of nutmeg leaf oil
Pengaruh bentuk alas dan lama penyulingan terhadap rendemen dan sifat minyak daun pala

Rusli, S; Nurdjanah, N
Proceedings Seminar Minyak Atsiri II [Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Essential Oils]; 20-22 April 1976; Bogor; Balai Penelitian Kimia; p120-134

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1623

The effects of drying, method and duration of distillation on production and quality of nutmeg oil
Pengaruh pengeringan, cara dan lama penyulingan terhadap produksi rendemen dan mutu minyak pala

Rusli, S; Hernani
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian [Proceedings of the Seminar on Agricultural Postharvest Research]; Buku I; Heruwati, ES et al. (ed); Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian; Bogor; 1988; p231-234

Availability :
Sutarno, H; PROSEA; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2007

Floral biology of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), the nutmeg of commerce


Armstrong, J.E; Drummond III, B.A
Department of Biological Sciences; Illinois State University; Normal; USA

Biotropica 18 (1): 32-38 (1986)

Availability :
UPSEA; Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2268

Effect of the duration of distillation of young nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) on the yield and physico-chemical properties of essential oils produced
Pengaruh lama penyulingan biji pala muda (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) terhadap hasil dan sifat fisiko-kimia minyak atsiri yang dihasilkan

Djubaedah, E; Suriadi, E; Moestafa, A; Enie, AB
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia

Warta IHP (Industri Hasil Pertanian) [Journal of Agro-based Industry] 3 (2): 43-46 (1986)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2364

The effect of grid and distillation time on the yield and properties of nutmeg leaf oil
Pengaruh alas dan lama penyulingan terhadap rendemen dan sifat minyak daun pala

Rusli, S; Nurdjanah, N
Bogor Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] 3 (24): 11-20 (1977)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2367

Review on several problems of essential oil quality originated from some areas
Tinjauan masalah mutu minyak atsiri dari beberapa daerah

Mucholis, NA; Rusli, S
Bogor Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] 4 (28): 51-58 (1978)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2375

Viability of black pepper seeds
Daya kecambah benih lada

Nuryani, Y
Bogor Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] 5 (31): 33-40 (1978)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2460

The influence of pollen grains on the splitting of nutmeg immature fruits
Pengaruh serbuk sari terhadap pecah buah pala muda

Hengky, NA
Manado Research Institute for Industrial Crops; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] 8 (44): 11-15 (1982)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2626

Effect of spices on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link
Pengaruh rempah-rempah terhadap pertumbuhan Aspergillus flavus Link

Thomas, P.R; Jenie, B.S.L; Ferdian, S
Faculty of Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Media Tekonologi Pangan [Food Technology Media] 3 (1-2): 52-61 (1987)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2657

Soft rot disease of nutmeg fruits at Cimanggu Experimental Garden
Penyakit busuk basah buah pala di KP. Cimanggu

Mesak, T; Alan, R; Karden, M
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Bulletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Bulletin] 2 (1): 13-16 (1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2670

The efficacy of some fungicides against soft rot in nutmeg
Efikasi beberapa fungisida terhadap penyakit busuk basah buah pala

Tombe, M; Rachmat, A
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Special Edition on Spice and Medicinal Crops Research] 2 (2): 60-62 (1986)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2676

Conservation concept of plant genetic resources by in-vitro culture
Konsepsi pelestarian plasma nutfah dengan biakan in-vitro

Mariska, I
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Special Edition on Spice and Medicinal Crops Research] 3 (1): 22-27 (1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2820

The effect of preservatives and containers on the quality of nutmeg fruits (Myristica fragrans)
Pengaruh bahan pengawet dan jenis wadah terhadap mutu dari buah pala (Myristica fragrans)

Surono, I.S; Jenie, B.S.L; Winarno, F.G
Faculty of Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pangan [Food Technology Research and Development Bulletin] 2 (8): 29-34 (1980)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2827

The effect of blanching and sodium benzoate addition on the quality of nutmeg fruit candies
Pengaruh blanching dan penambahan natrium benzoat terhadap mutu manisan pala

Laksmi, S; Winarno, F.G
Faculty of Mechanization and Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Teknologi Hasil Pertanian [Agricultural Products Technology Research Bulletin] (4): 1-8 (1972)

Availability :
Research and Development Institute for Microbiology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2838

The effects of fruit maturity, destillation methods and duration on the yield and quality of nutmeg oil
Pengaruh derajat kematangan buah, cara dan lama penyulingan biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) terhadap rendemen dan mutu minyak pala yang dihasilkan

Hayanis; Goutara; Ketaren, S
Faculty of Mechanization and Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Teknologi Hasil Pertanian [Agricultural Products Technology Research Bulletin] (14): 1-8 (1975)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3217

The analysis of specific chemical components of pepper (Piper nigrum) and the effects upon sperm motility


Thenawidjaja, M; Situmorang, P.Z; Purba, S
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Indonesian Journal of Tropical Agriculture (1): 32-36 (1989)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3344

Quality changes of irradiated spices stored in various packaging materials


Saputra, T.S; Maha, M; Purwanto, Z.I
Centre for the Application of Isotope and Radiation-BATAN; Jakarta; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Pengawetan Makanan Dengan Iradiasi [Proceedings of Seminar on Food Preservation by Irradiation]; Soegiarto, C et al (eds.); Jakarta; 1983; p161-167

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3687

Essential oils
Minyak atsiri

Anonymous
Lampung Agricultural Information Service; Sumatera; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian, Lampung [Agricultural Information Bulletin, Lampung] (06): 17-18 (1983-1984)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3725

Quality improvement of the Indonesian nutmeg oil
Perbaikan mutu minyak pala Indonesia

Herman, A.S
Bogor Chemical Research Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Proceedings Seminar Minyak Atsiri I [Proceedings of the 1st Seminar on Essential Oils]; Bogor; 1973; p103-114

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3765

The effect of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices 2.Piper cubeba, Piper nigrum, Piper retrofractum, Amomum cardamomum and Myristica fragrans
Pengaruh sinar gamma pada simplisia tanaman obat dan rempah-rempah 2.Piper cubeba, Piper nigrum, Piper retrofractum, Amomum cardamomum dan Myristica fragrans (maces)

Chosdu, R; Hilmy, N; Bagiawati, S; Sudiro, S
National Atomic Energy Agency; Jakarta; Indonesia

Majalah BATAN [Journal of the National Atomic Energy Agency] 16 (4): 15-30 (1983)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4336

Testing the seed viability of some tree species for regreening
Pengujian viabilitas benih berbagai pohon untuk penghijauan

Juanda, I
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1976; 76p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 4722

Comparative study on the properties of nutmeg oil from seeds, leaves and maces of the same plant
Studi perbandingan sifat-sifat minyak pala yang berasal dari biji, daun, fuli dari tanaman yang sama

Sutedja, A.M
Thesis; Bogor; Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry; 1980; 46p

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 4731

Effects of drying and duration of distillation on the amount and quality of oil produced from young nutmeg seeds
Pengaruh pengeringan dan lama penyulingan terhadap jumlah dan mutu minyak yang dihasilkan biji pala muda

Suriadi, E
Thesis; Bogor; Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry; 1980; 77p

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 5189

Cultivation of nutmeg is not difficult
Pembudidayaan pala tidak sulit

Ayu, U
Pikiran Rakyat, 8 July 1989

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 5519

Marmalade and fruit juice, new alternatives of nutmeg fruit flesh preparation
Selai dan sari buah alternatif baru pengolahan daging buah pala

Syamsixman
Suara Karya, 5 April 1988

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 6367

Observation of splited fruit disease on nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) in Sukamanah Village, Cisaat Subdistrict, Sukabumi District, West Java
Pengamatan penyakit pecah buah pada tanaman pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) di Desa Sukamanah, Kecamatan Cisaat, Kabupaten Sukabumi, Jawa Barat

Moningka, FD
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agricultural Polytechnic; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 12p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 6368

Observation of serious diseases of nutmeg in people's gardens of Kotabatu, Ciomas Subdistrict, Bogor District, West Java Province
Pengamatan penyakit penting tanaman pala di kebun rakyat Kotabatu, Kecamatan Ciomas, Kabupaten Bogor, Propinsi Jawa Barat

Alinudin
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agricultural Polytechnic; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 33p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 6373

Observation of serious pests of nutmeg in Sukabumi
Pengamatan hama penting pada tanaman pala di Sukabumi

Lelemboto, P
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agricultural Polytechnic; Bogor Agricultural University; 1986; 25p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 6385

Inventory of insect pests and diseases of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) in Cibeber Subdistrict, Cianjur District, West Java Province
Inventarisasi serangga pengganggu dan penyakit tanaman pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) di Kecamatan Cibeber, Kabupaten Cianjur, Propinsi Jawa Barat

Luter, M
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Plant Pests and Diseases; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1987; 39p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 6438

Separation of essential oil and fat from oleoresin of nutmeg seeds
Pemisahan minyak atsiri dan lemak dari oleoresin biji pala

Soetji, W.T.H
Thesis; Bogor; Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry; 1980; 59p

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 6666

Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated species


Saputra, T.S; Farkas, J.S; Maha, M; Purwanto, Z.I
Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation; National Atomic Energy Agency; Jakarta; Indonesia

Majalah BATAN [Journal of the Indonesian Atomic Energy Agency] 17 (3): 8-22 (1984)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 6668

Effect of packaging materials on the quality of irradiated powdered spices
Pengaruh bahan pengemas pada kualitas rempah bubuk iradiasi

Saputra, T.S; Munsiah, M; Purwanto, Z.I
Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation; National Atomic Energy Agency; Jakarta; Indonesia

Majalah BATAN [Journal of the National Atomic Energy Agency] 18 (4): 59-70 (1985)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 7514

Effect of addition of citrus pectin on the jam quality of a mixture of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans H.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)
Pengaruh penambahan 'citrus pektin' terhadap mutu selai campuran pala (Myristica fragrans H.) dan waluh (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Santoso, N.T
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Food Technology and Nutrition; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1984; 94p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 7753

Study on the preservation of spices by irradiation at the PAIR-BATAN, Jakarta
Mempelajari pengawetan rempah-rempah dengan iradiasi di PAIR-BATAN, Jakarta

Purnomo, S.H
Thesis; Bogor; Department of Food Technology and Nutrition; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1984; 59p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 7781

Study on the effect of fruit maturity stage and storage temperature on the quality of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans H.) sweets
Mempelajari pengaruh derajat kematangan buah dan suhu penyimpanan terhadap mutu manisan pala (Myristica fragrans H.)

Martini, L
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Mechanization and Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1974; 86p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 7790

Effect of preservatives and containers on the quality of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) fruit juice
Pengaruh bahan pengawet dan jenis wadah terhadap mutu sari buah pala (Myristica fragrans)

Surono, IS
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Mechanization and Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1979; 71p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 8043

Propagation of nutmeg by marcotting
Memperbanyak tanaman pala dengan mencangkok

Anonymous
Aceh Agricultural Information Service; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian Aceh [Aceh Agicultural Information Bulletin] 3 (4): 5 (1983/1984)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9290

Effects of GA3 and KNO3 on seed germination and seedling growth of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) on sphagnum media
Pengaruh GA3 dan KNO3 terhadap perkecambahan dan pertumbuhan bibit pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) pada media sphagnum

Prasetyo, A
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); 1990; 59p

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 9294

The use of some stump materials and chemicals to stimulate root formation in nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)
Penggunaan beberapa jenis bahan turus dan bahan kimia untuk stimulasi pembuatan akar pada pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Ngatidjo, A
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); 1982; 23p

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 9328

Effects of some chemicals on the uniformity and increment of seed germination percentage of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans H.)
Pengaruh beberapa jenis bahan kimia untuk menyeragamkan dan menaikkan persentase perkecambahan benih pala (Myristica fragrans H.)

Baharudin, B
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); 1990; 66p

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural College (STIPER); Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 9626

Methods of fruit preservation
Cara pengawetan buah-buahan

Anonymous
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Lembang [Lembang Agricultural Information Bulletin] (01): 28-29 (1981/1982)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9761

A guide to nutmeg cultivation
Pedoman bercocok tanam pala

Anonymous
Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Service; 1980; 33p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9840

Effects of blanching and addition of Na-benzoic acid on the quality of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans H.) sweets
Pengaruh 'blanching' dan penambahan Natrium benzoat terhadap mutu manisan pala (Myristica fragrans H.)

Laksmi, S
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Mechanization and Agricultural Products Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1972; 108p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 11064

Nutmeg
Chanthet

Sawatdi, D
Kheha karn kaset [House Agricultural Magazine] 12 (134): 86-88 (1988)

Availability :
Horticulture Research Institute; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 11197

Spices growing
Karnpluk khruangthet

Uisungnoen, C
Bangkok; Ruangsaeng Publishing; 1988; 71p

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 11376

Nutmeg and mace
Luk chan-thet lae dok chan-thet

Tantiwat, P; Jirawong, W
TISTR Bibliographical Series No.6; 1980; p72; Medicinal plants in Thailand No.1; Abstract No.239

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 12168

Study on clove, nutmeg and cashew nut as intercrops of mature coconut
Kan pluk kanphlu chanthet lae mamuang himmaphan pen phut saem nai suan maphrao

Klotpheng, K; Phayakphong, C; Rattanapruk, M; Ngankaranathikan, P; Raktham, S; Thirakun, A
Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre; Thailand

Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre Annual Research Report 1988; p84-86

Availability :
Horticultural Research Center; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 13378

Nutmeg and its products
Chan-thet lae phalitphan chak phon chan-thet

Watthanayothin, K
Horticulture Research Institute; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

Kasikon [Farmers Journal] 64 (2): 138-141 (1991)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 21219

Prospects in the reproductive biology of Myristica fragrans Houtt.


Anthony, T
University of the West Indies; Trinidad

MSc thesis; Trinidad; University of the West Indies; 1971; 159p

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 22707

Malay manuscripts as sources of information on local plants
Manuskrip melayu sebagai sumber maklumat tumbuh-tumbuhan tempatan

Wan Ali, W.M
National Library of Malaysia; Kuala Lumpur

Prosiding Seminar Kebangsaan Etnobotani Pertama [Proceedings of the First National Seminar on Ethnobotany], 16-18 September 1991, Agricultural University of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor; 11p

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23313


Anti-inflammatory activity of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) in acute inflammation

Saadiah, M.H; Iekhsan, O
University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia

Focus on Biochemistry in Malaysia in the 1990's: Proceedings of the fifteenth Malaysian; Malaysian; ?year; p14-17

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 36878

Comparison of transpiration rate and stomatal and leaf features in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.),clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.)Merr. & Perry,cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)


De Guzman, C.C; Darwati, I; Hasanah, M; Rachmat, E.M
University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna

The Philippine Agriculturist 75 (1-2): 101-105 (1992)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 40524

Natural product evaluation in Papua New Guinea


Price, M.J
Harvest 1 (4): 141-144 (1971)

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 60221

Oil content of husks, maces and seeds of nutmeg in different maturity stages
Kadar minjak pada daging buah/husk, kulit bidji/mace/fuli dan bidji pala pada tingkat kemasakan jang berbeda

Indrawati
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Gadjah Mada University; 1971; 49p

Availability :
Faculty of Agricultural Technology Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 60270

Biology of the cause of fruitrot disease of nutmeg, especially of the dry rot disease
Biologi penyebab penyakit busuk buah pala, khususnya busuk kering

Mondang-Sumarow, S
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Postgraduate Studies; Gadjah Mada University; 1985; 172p

Availability :
Faculty of Postgraduate Studies; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 60516

Vegetative propagation of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) through cuttings
Perbanyakan vegetatif pada tanaman pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) dengan cara setek

Putrantini, M.I
Thesis; Magelang; Faculty of Agriculture; Tidar University; 1988; 15p

Availability :
Tidar University; Magelang; Central Java; Indonesia




NO. 61187

Essential and fatty oils of nutmeg seeds
Minyak atsiri dan minyak lemak dari biji pala

Durachman, A.H
S1 Thesis; Bandung; Department of Pharmacy; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bandung Institute of Technology; 1974; 54p

Availability :
Department of Pharmacy; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bandung Institute of Technology; Bandung; West Java; Indonesia




NO. 61201

The nutmeg sweets
Manisan pala

Anonymous
Agricultural Information Bulletin; Padang (05): (1987-1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61216

Propagating the nutmeg
Memperbanyak tanaman pala

Anonymous
Agricultural Information Bulletin; Padang (07A): (1990-1991)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 61514

Determination of chemical structure of essential oil components of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seeds
Penentuan struktur kimia komponen minyak atsiri biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Prayitna, S
S1 Thesis; Bandung; Department of Chemistry; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bandung Institute of Technology; 1991; 92p

Availability :
Department of Chemistry; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bandung Institute of Technology; Bandung; West Java; Indonesia




NO. 62297

Soft-rot disease of nutmeg at the Cimanggu Experimental Garden
Penyakit busuk basah buah pala di KP.Cimanggu

Mesak, T; Alan, R; Karden, M
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Bulletin] 2 (1): 13-16 (1987)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 62321

Isolation and identification of methyl myristrate from nutmeg seed oil
Isolasi dan identifikasi metil miristrat dari minyak biji pala

Kusrini, D
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Gadjah Mada University; 1985; 48p

Availability :
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 62576

Problems of pests of nutmeg
Masalah hama pada pala

Siswanto
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Bulletin] 2 (2): 25-31 (1987)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 62852

Determination of chemical structure of essential oil components of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seeds
Penentuan struktur kimia komponen minyak atsiri biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Prayitno, S
Thesis; Bandung; Faculty of Medicine; Bandung Institute of Technology; 1991; 92p

Availability :
Faculty of Medicine; Bandung Institute of Technology; Bandung; Indonesia




NO. 63138

Prospect of nutmeg stands in West Sumatra
Masa depan pertanaman pala di Sumatera Barat

Syam, E
S1 thesis; Padang; Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; 1977; p1-87

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture; Andalas University; Padang; West Sumatera; Indonesia




NO. 63336

Study on the quality of nutmeg oil as an export commodity
Penelitian mutu minyak pala sebagai komoditi ekspor

Sandy, Z
Ambon Industrial Institute News 2 (7): 9-14 (1985)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication (CALREC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 63836

Fermentation of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Hout.) fruit fleshes
Fermentasi daging buah pala (Myristica fragrans Hout.)

Poli, B.N
S2 thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Postgraduate; Gadjah Mada University; 1987; 87p

Availability :
Faculty of Postgraduate; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 63855

Effects of fruit maturity level and blanching time on the colour and flavour of nutmeg sweets
Pengaruh tingkat kemasakan buah dan kapan dilakukannya blanching terhadap warna dan flavor manisan pala

Pudjiati
S1 thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Gadjah Mada University; 1978; 26p

Availability :
Faculty of Agricultural Technology Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 63889

Effect of disintegration on the yield of nutmeg seed oil
Pengaruh desintegrasi terhadap rendemen minyak biji pala

Utami, D.S
S1 thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Gadjah Mada University; 1978; 29p

Availability :
Faculty of Agricultural Technology Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 64020

Sedative effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn) seed steepings on mice (a preliminary study)
Efek sedatif seduhan biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn) pada mencit (penelitian pendahuluan)

Rini, U.S; Aznani, N
S1 thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Pharmacy; Gadjah Mada University; 1980; 52p

Availability :
Faculty of Pharmacy; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 64215

By-products from waste materials


Anonymous
Making Progress in Agro-based Industry; Introducing the Work of IRDABI; p23-25

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 64305

Utilization of colour agent in nutmeg juice
Pemanfaatan warna sari buah pala

Syamsirman
Banda Aceh Research and Development Institute for Industry; Banda Aceh; Indonesia

Buletin Hasil Penelitian Industri Banda Aceh [Bulletin of the Research Result of Banda Aceh Industry] 2 (02); 35-39 (1987)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65426

Cultivation and trading of nutmeg
Budidaya dan tataniaga pala

Rismunandar
Penerbit PT.Penebar Swadaya (Seri Pertanian LXXXIII/273/1988) [Penebar Swadaya Co. Publishing (Agricultural Series LXXXIII/273/1988)] Jakarta; 1988; 130p

Availability :
Semarang College of Farming; Semarang; Central Java; Indonesia




NO. 65753

Study on young fruit-drop disease of nutmeg in PTP. XVIII
Penelitian penyakit gugur buah muda pada tanaman pala di PTP. XVIII

Tarigan, D.D; Tombe, M
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium I Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri Buku VII [Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on the Result of Research and Development of Industrial Crops; Book VII]; Tanaman Minyak Atsiri Caringin Bogor 25-27 Juli 1989; Puslitbang Tanaman Industri; Seri Pengembangan (14): 1223-1230 (1990)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65777

Cultivation and prospect of development of nutmeg and vanilla
Budidaya dan prospek pengembangan pala dan panili

Tarigan, D.D; Emmyzar, R.R
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Temu Tugas Perkebunan/Tanaman Industri [Proceedings of the Duty Meeting of Estate/Industrial Crops] Lingkup Propinsi Sumatra Barat; Riau dan Jambi; Balittro; Puslitbangtri; Kanwil Deptan. dan Disbun Sumbar Riau dan Jambi; Bukit Tinggi; 15-17 January 1990; ?p

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65901

Improvement of nutmeg oil processing
Perbaikan pengolahan minyak pala

Tjiptadi, Gh.B; Yasnida
Laporan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri Hasil Pertanian [Report of the Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry]; Bogor; 1985/1986; 11p

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65918

Development of 'akar wangi' oil in Garut and 'kenanga' oil in Cirebon
Pengembangan minyak akar wangi di Garut dan minyak kenanga di Cirebon

Moestafa, A; Badiges, F; Soebandi, A
Laporan Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kimia Bogor [Report of the Bogor Research and Development Institute for Chemistry]: December 1983; p18-31

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65961

Effect of combination of packaging and irradiation on the nutmeg quality


Purwanto, Z.I; Langerak, D.I; Durin, van M.D.A
Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation; National Atomic Energy Agency; Jakarta; Indonesia

Majalah Batan [Journal of the Indonesian Atomic Energy Agency] 18 (2): 61-80 (1985)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 66076

Propagation of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Perbanyakan tanaman pala

Anonymous
North Sulawesi Agricultural Information Service 56: ?p (1988-1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66103

Post-harvest handling of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Pasca panen pala

Anonymous
Ambon Agricultural Information Service 4: ?p (1988-1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 67455

Physico-chemical characteristics of several essential oils from Indonesia and the gas-chromatographic finger prints in liquid phase of ov. Silikone 101
Sifat-sifat fisiko kimia beberapa jenis minyak atsiri Indonesia dan sidik jari khromatografi gas pada fasa cair ov. Silikone 101

Nurlydia, D; Dharma, G; Moestafa, A
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia

Warta Industri Hasil Pertanian [Journal of Agro-based Industry] 9 (1-2): 37-44 (1992)

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68312

Marketing analysis of nutmeg in Indonesia (A case study in North Sulawesi)
Analisis tata niaga pala di Indonesia (Studi kasus Sulawesi Utara)

Indrawanto, C, ; Wahyudi, A
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Industrial Crops Research Bulletin] (4): 27-32 (1992)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68324

Effect of maturity level and pilling methods of nutmeg fruits in the processing of nutmeg 'sambal'
Pengaruh tingkat kematangan dan pengupasan buah pala pada pembuatan sambal pala

Savitri, T.H; Sukirman, S; Laksmanahardja, M.P; Sumangat, D
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Industrial Crops Research Bulletin (5): 34-37 (1993)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68332

Preliminary study on the processing of nutmeg 'dodol' (sweets)
Studi pendahuluan pembuatan dodol pala

Imanuel, E; Savitri, T.H; Sukirman, S
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Industrial Crops Research Bulletin] (6): 14-18 (1993)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68334

Consumer preferences on the storage nutmeg fruit juice
Preferensi konsumsi terhadap sari buah pala yang disimpan

Ermiati; Laksmanahardja, M.P; Sumangat, D
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Industrial Crops Research Bulletin (6): 22-26 (1993)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68344

Utilization of isozyme as a genetic marker of the industrial crops
Pemanfaatan isozim sebagai ciri genetik dalam tanaman industri

Anonymous
Research Institute for Coconut; Mapanget; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri [Communication Media of Research and Development of Industrial Crops] (9): 18-20 (1992)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68386

Preliminary study on the processing improvement of nutmeg juice and jam
Studi pendahuluan perbaikan pengolahan sari buah dan selai pala

Ermiati; Laksmanahardja, M.P; Sumangat, D
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri [Communication Media of Research and Development of Industrial Crops] (11): 80-83 (1993)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 68637

Development of biotechnological research on tissue culture of industrial crops
Perkembangan penelitian bioteknologi kultur jaringan pada tanaman industri

Mariska, I
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Penelitian Aplikasi Bioteknologi Kultur Jaringan pada Tanaman Industri [Proceedings of the Scientific Communication Forum on Biotechnology Applied Research of Tissue Culture in Industrial Crops]; Bogor, 29 Februari 1992; Mariska, I (ed.); Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri; Bogor; Seri Pengembangan (18): 33-39 (1992)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 100163

Processing and storage of jam from waste of nutmeg fruit extract
Pengolahan dan penyimpanan selai dari limbah sari buah pala

Ermiati; Laksmanahardja, M.P; Sumangat, Dj; Marwati, T
Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri [Communication Media of the Industrial Crops Research and Development] (13): 52-57 (1994)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 100897

Natural resources of Maluku, with special emphasise on the plant resources of the tropical forest
Sumberdaya alam di Maluku dengan tekanan khusus pada sumberdaya hayati hutan tropikanya

Sujito, H; Suyanto, A; Sulaeman, E
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia

Sari Laporan Penelitian Bidang Lingkungan Hidup [Research Report Serie on Living Environment]; Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Ilmiah; Lembaga Pengetahuan Indonesia; 1994; p68-69

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 102469

Analysis of chemical component of essential oil 'Fuli' on nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Hout) with GC-MS
Analisis komponen kimia minyak atsiri Fuli pala (Myristica fragrans Hout) dengan GC-MS

Aryetti
Buletin Kimia [Chemistry Bulletin] (7): 1-19 (1992)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 103886

Study on the effect of storage temperature and packaging technique on quality of wet candied fruits of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)
Mempelajari pengaruh suhu penyimpanan dan teknik pengemasan terhadap mutu manisan pala basah (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Liana
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1993; 134p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 103941

Study on processing and characteristic of powder of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) flesh in variation of soaking periods and concentration of NaCl solution
Kajian proses pembuatan dan karakteristik tepung daging buah pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) dengan variasi lama perendaman dan konsentrasi larutan garam dapur

Indradewi
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; 1992; 96p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 103990

Phenology of selected plant species in Cisadane watershed area
Fenologi jenis-jenis tanaman terpilih di Das Cisadane

Uji, T
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi XI [Proceedings of the 11th National Seminar on Biology] Ujung Pandang, 20-21 Juli 1993; Penyunting (Hassan, M; A.Mattimu; J.G.Nelwan; M.Litsay); Vol. 1: 417-424 (1995)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 106456

Effect of phosphin fumigation on the microbiological quality of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Hout)
Pengaruh fumigasi fosfin terhadap mutu mikrobiologi pala (Myristica fragrans Hout)

Handarini, K
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1993; 95p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 106487

Extraction and characterization of essential oil and oleoresin of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) fruit flesh
Ekstraksi dan karakterisasi minyak atsiri serta oleoresin daging buah pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

Hustiani, R
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1994; 108p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 106922

Effect of insecticide application on the quality of nutmeg seeds
Pengaruh pemberian insektisida terhadap mutu biji pala

Nasibu, M; Harmain, E
Manado Industrial Institute; North Sulawesi; Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah BIMN (Balai Industri Manado) [Science Journal of the Manado Industrial Institute] (4): 1-4 (1991/92)

Abstract:
Research on the effect of insecticide on the quality of nutmeg has been done. Several insecticides (methyl bromide, propoxur, and phostoxin); packaging materials (plastic bag and gunny sack) and storage time (1, 2, 3 and 4 months) were employed as treatments, whilst the broken nuts and molds was visually observed. The best result shown by the nutmeg which was fumigated by phostoxin, because there was no effect in the nutmeg quality until 4 months.

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 107298

Effects of NaCl solution concentration and soaking method in sugar solution on tannins content in nutmeg candy production
Pengaruh konsentrasi larutan garam (NaCl) dan cara perendaman dalam larutan gula terhadap kandungan tanin pada pembuatan manisan pala

Assagaf, T
Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; 1992; 116p

Availability :
Library of Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 107560

Nutmeg as multipurpose tree with some aspects of its cultivation technology
Pala sebagai pohon serbaguna dengan beberapa aspek teknologi budidayanya

M.Hadad, E.A
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian & Pengembangan Jenis-jenis Pohon Serbaguna [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Research and Development of Multipurpose Tree Species]; Cisarua, Bogor 16-17 Juni 1992; p32-55

Abstract:
Nutmeg is one of crops native to Maluku. Its cultivation was spread throughout North and South Sulawesi, West Java, North Sumatera and Aceh, India and Grenada as a multipurpose crop. It may be used as skad tree, support, soil conservation, building material and the nut for export. Its fruits, seed mice and leaves can be used a spices, traditional medicine (drug), cosmetic and seasonings in food and drinks. The crop grow well in light soil, rich in organic matter at the altitude of 0-700 m above sea level with the rainfall of 2000-3000 mm/year. The plant can be propagated either vegetatively or generatively. Culture practices will consisted of fertilizing/manuring and just with regular control. Some problems need to be anticipated in nutmeg culture are sex ratio, yield and quality improvement, and the fluctuation of price. Cultural techniques, the used of high yielding cultivar quality improvement and produced diversification should be studied intensively to increase the price of the production.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre (FRDC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 107578

Prospect on developing of smallholders nutmeg in Indonesia
Prospek pengembangan pala rakyat di Indonesia

Vidyatmoko, D; Henanto, H
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian & Pengembangan Jenis-jenis Pohon Serbaguna [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Research and Development of Multipurpose Tree Species]; Cisarua, Bogor 16-17 Juni 1992; p187-191

Abstract:
This paper appraises smallholders 'nutmeg' conditions in Indonesia from agronomy, utilization and marketing point of view. Although Indonesia is a main nutmeg producer in the world, nutmeg is generally not treated properly and its utilization is still traditional with simple technology. From marketing point of view indicate that its marketing channel is unefficient. The development of the nutmeg can be done through improving traditional processing, diversification product and its marketing structure in order to grasp optimal prospect.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre (FRDC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 107888

Study on drying characteristic of mace and seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt)
Studi karakteristik pengeringan fuli dan biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt)

Setiawan, M.K
S1 thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Bogor Agricultural University; 1996; 68p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 108071

Analysis of chemical components on leaves, flesh, fruits and seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt)
Analisis komponen kimia pada daun, daging, buah, biji, fuli dari tanaman pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt)

Chairul; Octaviana, F; Harapini, M
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium Penelitian Bahan Obat Alami VIII [Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Research of natural Medicine]; Bogor, 24-25 Nopember 1994; Perhiba & Balittro; 1996; p557-564

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 108289

Quantitative changes of polyphenol compound and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activities of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) fruits and their relationship with browning rate
Perubahan kuantitatif senyawa polifenol dan aktifitas enzim polifenol oksidase pada buah pala (Myristica fragrans) dan hubungannya dengan derajat pencoklatan

Tuasikal, I.R
Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

S1 thesis; Faculty of Agricultural Technology; Gadjah Mada University; 1995; 78p

Availability :
Faculty of Agricultural Technology Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 25324

Utilization of local Malaysian fruits - the nutmeg fruit


RAGAB, MHH; SEDKY, A; BACHAU, PC
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Food Tech. Res. Dev. Cen, Rep. No. 87 (1972)

Abstract:
The nutmeg tree seems to thrive under certain ecological conditions which are prevalent in Penang and Province Wellesley, where nutmeg is intercropped with coconut and rubber. The re vival of nutmeg production in Malaysia would allow the country to regain its previous market position in the export of nutmeg and mace. The fruit has a great potential for processing; it is fully utilizable, including flesh (pericarp), the nut (seed), and the mace. Some nutmeg products are already available in the market, but more products of higher quality could be produced from the fruit. The studies carried out by FTRDC have led to a standard procedure by which most of the present problems facing processing of this product can be solved. A uniform product of good quality and longer shelf-life can be produced without diffi culty. Experiments in canning the fruit in heavy syrup showed promise and resulted in a product of good flavour and texture. The nutmeg syrup can be used as a beverage base for the produc tion of carbonated beverages.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 26898

Anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform extract of mesocarp of Myristica fragrans in acute inflammation


Mohd Hidir, S; Kaman, KA; Othman, I
Department of Physiology; Faculty of Medicine; University Malaya; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Proceedings of the 17th Malaysian Biochemical Society Conference; 23-24 September 1992; Bangi; Selangor; p147-155

Abstract:
The chloroform extract of the mesocarp of Myristica fragrans was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation. The extract showed strong anti-inflammatory activity on the carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema when given intraperitoneally at doses of 60, 125 and 250 mg/kg. The extract at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg, given intraperitoneally, alsi inhibited the serotenin- and histamine-induced oedema. The chloroform extract also has irritant property so its anti-inflammatory effect could be due to 'counter-irritant' mechanism but it could also has other mechanisms of action.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26919

Fungi Associated With Foliar Diseases of Selected Domesticated Medicinal Plants in Malaysia


Mazidah, M; Tosiah, S; Mansor, P; Zalilah, MA
MARDI Headquaters; P.O Box 12301; KualaLumpur

26th. Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology; Langkawi; Kedah; 25-28 November 2004; p81

Abstract:
Several genera of fungi were found in association with foliar diseases of selected medicinal plants in Malaysia. Among them, Colletotrichum, Curuularia and Pestalotiopsis were commonly found. The genus Colletotrichum was associated with leaf spot diseases of Cassia a ngustifo lia, Gendarnssa SF, Kaempferia galanga, Goniothalamus sp and Murraya koenigii. The genus Curuularia was found associated with leaf spots of Eurycoma longifolia and Pandanus odorns and leaf blight of Cymbopogon SF. Pestalotiopsis was associated with leaf spot of Morinda SF, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Myristica fragrans.

Availability :
Patahayah




NO. 14982

Effects of Thai plant extracts on oriental fruit fly. II. Repellency test


Areekul, S; Sinchaisri, P; Tigvatananon, S
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasart [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Sciences] 22 (1): 56-61 (1988)

Abstract:
The repellent potency of plant extracts to oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) was determined on the basis of the rate of oviposition on cups containing 20% citrus juice and coated outside with a mist spray of one gram equivalent of each plant extract per cup. One hundred and thirty extracts from 110 plants, including 13 unidentified species were tested. Fifteen day-old female flies which were known to lay high number of eggs were used in this experiment. Plant extracts which exhibited high repellency to the oviposition of the female flies were obtained from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, Bixa orellana, Citrus hystrix, Citrus melo, Citrus citratus, H. coccineum var. angustifolium, Heliotropium indicum, Homalomena sp., Ocimum gratissimum, Ricinus communis, and T. japonica. The unidentified species were 'enluang' and 'phrataba'. Moderate effect was recorded from the extracts of Allium sativum, M. fruticosum, and 'mehakamlang'. Mild effect was exhibited by plant part extracts of Manilkara zapota, Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, Andrographis paniculata, Annona squamosa, A. nobilis, B. spectabilis, C. siamense, C. zeylanicum, C. comosa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zedoaria, E. blanda, E. adenophorum, Jatropha.curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Litsea cubeba, M. cordifolia, Momordica charantia, Myristica fragrans, P. sarmentosum, P. pilosa, Q. indica, S. tuberosa, and T. crispa. The unidentified species included 'kaikhan', 'kanthamala', 'laima', 'mahao', and 'morakot'.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 16555

Indigenous Thai plants with anti-gastric ulcer potential


Kanjanapothi, D.; Amornlerdpison, D. and Rujjanawate, C.
Laboratory of Natural Products, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Research Center at Chiangmai University, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand,

The 3rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare: 38 (2003)

Abstract:
Ten plants mentioned in Thai traditional medicine as agents for gastric ulcer healing. were screened for their anti-gastric ulcer activity. The selected plants were Aegle marmelos Corr., Acorus calamus Linn., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Piper ribersiodes, Piper sarmentosum, Piper sylvaticum, Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia spp., Tinospora crispa and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Screening for anti-gastric ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of these plants was done in rats using water immersion-induced stress ulcers model. It was found that Piper ribersiodes, Piper sarmentosum and Piper sylvaticum exhibited marked activity. Further investigation for the activity of these three extracts was done in rats with ethanol-induced ulcers, indomethacin-induced ulcers and pylorus-ligation. Effect of the extracts on gastric mucous content was also assayed. The three extracts could inhibit gastric ulcer formation in all the test models but failed to inhibit gastric secretion in the pylorus ligated-rats. Gastric mucus content in the extract treated groups was higher than that in the non-treated group. These results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of Piper ribersiodes, Piper sarmentosum and Piper sylvaticum exert their anti-gastric ulcer effect via cytoprotective action.

Availability :
Chiang Mai University Library